Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The revitalisation of the Hebden Bridge district: greentrified Pennine rurality

By Darren Paul Smith


This thesis provides an integrated theoretical account of gentrification in a context which evokes significant socio-cultural meanings of rurality. With this purpose in mind, three key conceptual standpoints are established to frame the research. First, gentrification is viewed as a\ud dynamic process of change involving distinct and differing phases of transformation. Second, representations of rurality are seen as socio-cultural constructions, which are specific to particular social groups and individuals. Finally, the creation of both rural geographies and\ud geographies of gentrification are the product of interactions between structural conditions and\ud the agency of consumers and producers; a reciprocal relationship of maintenance and/or reproduction in a constant flux in time and space.\ud \ud Following this conceptual framework, the thesis documents the processes of change which both the rural and urban environs of the Hebden Bridge district, West Yorkshire, have undergone since the late 1960s. These processes are termed g[re]entrification (rural gentrification) and\ud involve social, cultural, physical and economic parallels with inner city gentrification. More specifically, two stages of g[re]entrification have predominated. The first stage (DIY greentrification) was initiated by in-migrant households, drawn to the moor tops, moor edges\ud and urban location by idyllic representations of Pennine rurality. Undertaking self-renovation activities, redefined landscapes were produced and consumed by the in-migrant households. As the scale of DIY greentrification gained momentum during the early 1970s, commercial actors\ud gained control of the production activities, renovating and developing ready-made "rural" and "rurban" commodities. As these were consumed by "client greentrifiers", property prices in the Hebden Bridge district escalated in the mid to late 1980s. Subsequently, the local indigenous\ud population have been increasingly marginalised, excluded and displaced from the local housing market. The outcome of the greentrification process has been the production and maintenance of a number of territories associated with a distinct range of greentrifier types, culminating in an\ud internal geography of greentrification within the Hebden Bridge district. Without doubt, the diversity of the Hebden Bridge district offers different qualities to a range of\ud households searching for differing types of location to fulfil specific cultural and economic criteria. It is\ud the capacity of the Hebden Bridge district (i.e. the geography of geentrification) to meet these cultural\ud and economic needs that is central to the dramatic physical, social, economic and culturaltransformations which it has experienced since the late 1960s. The uniqueness of the Hebden Bridge district is tied up with the make-up of its internal geography and its many faces of greentrification.\u

Publisher: School of Geography (Leeds)
Year: 1998
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1991) Counter-urbanisation - The Local Dimension, Geoforum, Vol 26, No.2, pp153-173.
  2. (1991) People doi
  3. (1993) The Making of The Central Pennines, Ash Grove Books, Wiltshire.
  4. (1994) Champion, A.G (1987) Champion, A.G (1989) 'Gentrification' and desire, Canadian Review of Sociology and
  5. 1990-91, Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol 11, No.1, pp5-12. Gentrification and the Avante-Garde in New York's
  6. A Study of Local Civic Trust and Core
  7. and Bondi, L (1995) De-gentrification doi
  8. (1981). and Dudleston, A. (1998, in press) Harper, S (1989) Harvey, D (1989) Haughton, G and Whitney, D (1994) Hauer, J and Hoekveld, G (1993) Hill, E.W (1994) Hitters, E (1993) Heritage, J (1983) Heelas, P (1995) Hoggart, K (1988) Hoggart,
  9. and the Industrial Revolution, Macmillan. London. doi
  10. and Williams, P (eds), Gentrification of the City, doi
  11. Benner, P doi
  12. Berry,B.J.L (1976) The Counter-urbanisation Process: Urban America Since 1970, in Berry, B.J.L (ed)
  13. Boyle,
  14. Building Upon The Foundations of Gentrification: Inner-City Housing Development in Australia in the 1990s, Urban Geography, doi
  15. Buller,
  16. Butler, doi
  17. Butler, T (1996) in Butler, T and Ruskin, M (eds) Rising
  18. Carpenter, J and Lees, doi
  19. Countryside: doi
  20. Critique, Vol 5, pp49-68.
  21. D
  22. Determination of Social Action
  23. Dunce, M (1994) Burgess,
  24. Eagleton, T (1983) Everitt, J.0 and McGill, A.M
  25. Economic Restructuring, Culture and Gentrification: A Case Study of Battersea, London, doi
  26. Fagence, M (1977) Citizen Participation In Planning, Pergamon, Oxford.Falter, J.W (1978) Filion, P (1991) Filion, P (1995) Famkenberg, R (1966) Gale, D.E (1980) Falk, W and Pinhey,
  27. Game, A (1991) Garreau, J (1988)
  28. Geography, Progress in Human Geography, doi
  29. Glaser, B and Strauss. H 1967 doi
  30. Glass, R (1963) Introduction to London: Aspects of Change, Centre for
  31. Gregson, N (1986) On Duality and Dualism: The Case of Structuration and TimeGeography, Progress in Human
  32. Had To Be Easy: Postgraduate Field Research in
  33. Halfacree, K.H (1993) Locality and Social doi
  34. Halfacree, K.H (1994) doi
  35. Harper and doi
  36. Human Territoriality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. doi
  37. (1998). in Neglected Gender Dimensions of Rural Restructuring, in Boyle, P press) and Halfacree, K (eds) Migration Into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues,
  38. Inside Looking Out; Outside Looking In, Different Experiences of Cultural Competence in rural lifestyles, in Boyle,
  39. (1992). Inventing Places,
  40. (1987). J (1989) London, B (1980)
  41. J (1990) Urry, J (1995a) Urry,
  42. J.A and Faux, S.A (1991) Deben L, Musterd S and Van Weesep J (1993) Dempsey, K (1990) Denzin, N
  43. J.R (1991) Short J.R, Benton L.M, Luce doi
  44. Knox, P (1991) Kratke, S (1992) The Restless Urban Landscape: Economic and Sociocultural
  45. L (1994) Rethinking Gentrification: Beyond The doi
  46. Lash, S and Urry, J (1994) Economies Of Sign And Space, Sage, London. doi
  47. Legates, R.T and Hartman, C The Anatomy of Displacement in the
  48. Les Mutations
  49. M (1995) Pahl, R (1966) Pahl, R (1970) The doi
  50. Meaning, in Cox, K.R and Golledge, R.G. (eds) Behavioural Problems In Geography Revisited, Metheun, London.
  51. (1998). Migration into Rural Communities Questioning The Language of
  52. (1977). Morter,
  53. Newby,
  54. Newby, H (1979) The Green and Pleasant Land, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
  55. No.2,
  56. of
  57. of Property: A Comparative History of Housing Tenure In Montreal doi
  58. of Regions: A Theoretical Framework For Understanding
  59. of the Central City, Oxford University Press, London. Structuration Theory and the
  60. Openshaw, S., Blake, M and Using
  61. Pennine
  62. Pergammon, Oxford.
  63. Perkins, H (1989) Phillips, m (1993) Phillips, doi
  64. (1998). Planning By Numbers: Migration and Statistical Evidence, in Boyle, P and Halfacree, K (eds) Migration Into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues, Wiley, Chichester. Ethnicity And The Rural Environment,
  65. Poulter, W.A (1973) doi
  66. pp279-297. ibx344 Pudup, M.B (1988) Ratcliffe, J (1981)
  67. Questions of doi
  68. R (1986) doi
  69. Regional doi
  70. (1992). Regions As Social Organisms: The Lamarkian Characteristics of Vidal de la Blache's Regional Geography, doi
  71. Robins, K (1991) Prisoners
  72. Robinson, G.M (1990) Conflict and doi
  73. Rowley, T (1987) Villages In
  74. Sack, R.D (1988) The Consumer's World: Place As Context, Annals of the Association doi
  75. Sarre P, Phillips D and Ethnic Minority Housing: Explanations And Policies, Avebury, Skellington R (1989) Aldershot.
  76. Savage, M et al (1992) Sayer, A (1983)
  77. Since doi
  78. Social Science Research Council, London.Eyles, J and Smith, D.M (1988) Eysberg, C and de Pater, B (1993) Cohen, A.P
  79. Society and Space, Vol 6, pp117-126.
  80. Squire, S.J (1994) Accounting for Cultural Meanings; The Interface Between Geography doi
  81. Symbolism and the Cultural Landscape, Annals of the (1980) Association of American Geographers, Vol 70, No.4, pp459-474. doi
  82. Temple Smith Ltd, London.
  83. Textile Mills 1770-1930, Royal Commission
  84. The County Strategy: County Development Plan, Second (1969) Review, West Riding County Council, Wakefield. doi
  85. The Folk Society, American Journal of Sociolhy, Vol
  86. The Middle Classes In doi
  87. The Production doi
  88. The Rent Gap and Transformation doi
  89. Towards A Copenhagen Interpretation Of
  90. W Beyond Decentralisation: The Evolution Of Population (1983) Distribution In England and Wales, 1961-81, Geoforum, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.