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Our brothers across the ocean? : Unionist diplomacy, the Lansdown Foreign Office, and the Anglo-American 'special relationship', 1900-1905

By Iestyn Michael Adams

Abstract

This study is intended as a detailed exploration of British diplomacy with the United States in the first five years of the twentieth century, that is, the period during\ud which the Marquis of Lansdowne presided at the Foreign Office. Without doubt, this was a critical time in the readjustment (both in substance and style) of Anglo-American\ud diplomatic relations, initiating the amicable 'special relationship' which, broadly speaking, has endured to the present day. The efforts made by Lansdowne and the\ud Unionist Administration to 'clear the slate' of nagging Anglo-American disputes, and to encourage a closer diplomatic bond, helped to bring to an end decades of mutual\ud suspicion and antagonism, whilst representing a significant change of course for British foreign policy. In this light, the study here presented aims to provide a close analysis of\ud the Unionist Government's American diplomacy, their motives and diplomatic ambitions, in the appropriate imperial and strategic contexts.\ud \ud An examination of this topic prompts the conclusion that, although Lansdowne fully appreciated the importance of Anglo-American friendship, he approached each dispute with a separate agenda, always gauging the strength of\ud American feeling before committing himself to a set policy. Lansdowne was perfectly prepared to concede non-vital interests to the United States in the Western Hemisphere\ud when serious tension arose, and this was particularly evident during the Isthmian canal and Alaskan boundary negotiations. With these two issues successfully concluded, the rapprochement was effectively ensured. Thus, Lansdowne's determination to uphold British interests (and those of her Western Hemispheric colonies), while occasionally placing a strain on Anglo-American relations, threatened no lasting danger. Above all, Britain relied upon vocal protestations of friendship, both for the United States and the Monroe Doctrine, to extinguish the risks of serious diplomatic tension and to cement a permanent friendship. \ud \ud The major successes of Anglo-American relations, however, came to an abrupt end after the Alaskan verdict of late 1903, and a barren period followed. The\ud relationship had been set upon an entirely new course, but hopes for an Anglo- American partnership, sadly, remained hazy, naive, and frequently ill-conceived. In the Far East, where British and American interests broadly coincided, no joint policy emerged; instead, the two nations became separated over their responses to the Russo-Japanese conflict. Equally, the outstanding issues in North America proved incapable of settlement. \ud \ud Although these final stages of Lansdowne's American diplomacy were marred by diplomatic inactivity and occasional friction, the Unionists' contribution to the Anglo-American 'special relationship' left an impressive and lasting legacy. By 1905, Britain and the United States, while not formally allied, had at least become mutually sympathetic. This was an essential factor in the readjustment of British global strategy, allowing Britain to abandon her defences in the Western Hemisphere and despatch her forces to more pressing areas of the globe

Publisher: School of History (Leeds)
Year: 2002
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:473

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Citations

  1. (ed.),
  2. (ed.), The International
  3. 0. Brox, Newfoundland Fishermen
  4. 0. Sarkissian (ed.), Studies in Diplomatic
  5. 1,
  6. 1° Monson to Lansdowne, 12 Jan. 1904. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/125.
  7. 10
  8. 10 Aug. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  9. 10 Pauncefote to Lansdowne, 21 Dec. 1900. ibid.
  10. 10 See, for example, R. A. Rempel,
  11. 103
  12. 108'See, for example, R. F. Mackay, "The Admiralty,
  13. 109 memorandum
  14. 11
  15. 11 Haggard to
  16. (1898). 11 Hawaiian reply, 10
  17. 11 Lansdowne to
  18. 11 Part of
  19. 11 Roosevelt to
  20. 11 Second
  21. 110CHAPTER SIX The Last of the Great Disputes: the Alaska Boundary, 1901 -February 1903.
  22. 111 France and Russia became allies in 1894, concluding the Dual Alliance. The Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy - dated back to 1882, and was renewed in 1891.
  23. 111 Lansdowne to Balfour, 9 Feb. 1904. and
  24. 115 Lansdowne to Durand, 4 Feb. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  25. 12
  26. 12 31st Meeting of the C.I.D., 8 Feb.
  27. 12 Cox to F.O., 11 Nov. 1903. F.O.
  28. 12 Memorandum by Lansdowne, 17 May. 1905., in Z. S. Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (London, 1977), p. 33. 13 Dekasse
  29. (1031). 12 Nov. 1904., in E. E. Morison (ed.), The
  30. 128CHAPTER SEVEN Alaskan Settlement, February - October 1903.
  31. 13 British and German warships looked on as Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay. A myth quickly arose that Captain Chichester prevented the Germans from unwarranted intervention. In fact, neither Britain nor Germany intended
  32. 13 Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (4th
  33. 13 Herbert
  34. (1903). 13 Herbert to Lansdowne, 'very confidential',
  35. 13 Lansdowne to Hicks Beach, 7 Apr. 1901. Lansdowne MSS BL 'Private Letters', vol. 6.
  36. 13 Oct. 1905., in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States 1905 (Washington, 1906), p. 489.
  37. (1253). 13 Quoted in Hansard
  38. 13 See G. E. Mowry, The Era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912 (London, 1958), pp. 278-279.
  39. 14
  40. 14 Durand
  41. 14 Hay to Tower, Oct. 1899, quoted in Hay to Pauncefote, 4 Jan. 1900. F.O. 5/2426.
  42. 14 Lansdowne to Hamilton, 9 Sep. 1901. Lansdowne MSS BL L(5)28.
  43. 14 Lansdowne to Herbert,
  44. 148CHAPTER EIGHT Alaskan Epilogue: Imperial Relations and the Future of Pelagic Sealing in the Behring Sea, 1903-1905.
  45. 15
  46. 15 Choate to Hay 25 Nov. 1903., quoted in Tansill, Canadian-American Relations, p. 365.
  47. 15 Esher, "National Strategy", 27 Mar., in Esher to Sanders, 29 Mar. 1904. Balfour MSS Add. 49718.
  48. 15 Hay to Pauncefote, 4 Jan. 1900. ibid.
  49. 15 Lansdowne to
  50. 15 Lansdowne to Satow, 16 Jan. 1901. On December 13 1900, Salisbury wrote: 'I think
  51. 15 Pauncefote to Hay, 14 Aug.
  52. (1902). 157;
  53. 158Part Three The Limits of Rapprochement: Unresolved DisputesCHAPTER NINE Reciprocity and the Fisheries Question in Newfoundland, 1901-1905.
  54. (1902). 16
  55. 16 Memorandum by Villiers, 10 Jan. 1904. F.O. 414/180.
  56. 16 One claimant, G. Carson Kenyon, asked the Foreign Office whether any progress has been made in obtaining compensation. Villiers responded that
  57. 16 William
  58. 17
  59. 17 Lansdowne to Ito, 18 Mar. 1904. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/134.
  60. (1900). 17 Note by Larcom on Pauncefote to Salisbury, 15
  61. 17 Salisbury to Victoria,
  62. 17 There had been a greater presidential interest in fur seal preservation before the Joint High Commission of 1898. On July 271897, William McKinley wrote to Hay, then at the American Embassy in London, that 'I
  63. 172-3.
  64. 177I See C. B. Fawcett, A Political Geography of the British Empire
  65. 179-180.
  66. 18 Balfour to White, 12 Dec.
  67. 18 Memorandum by Arnold-Forster, 12 Feb. 1902. Arnold-Forster MSS Add. 50294.
  68. 18 Salisbury to
  69. 180CHAPTER TEN Claims against the Government of Hawaii: an Appeal for Anglo-American Arbitration, 1895-1905.
  70. 1850, in Foreign Relations of the United
  71. 1896, paraphrased in
  72. 1899),
  73. 19
  74. 19 "Extract of the Report of
  75. 19 E. McCaul, Under
  76. 19 Lansdowne wrote to Herbert on December 22 that Britain 'would greatly regret the President's inability
  77. 19 See Tansill, Canadian-American Relations, p. 365 and Lansdowne to Raikes, 7 Oct. 1903. F.O. 414/176.
  78. 19 Villiers to C.O., 19 Sep. 1901. F.O.
  79. 1900,
  80. 1901.
  81. 1901. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/119.
  82. 1901.,
  83. 1902. F.O. 414/171.
  84. 1902. F.O. 5/2485.
  85. 1903, p. 7.
  86. 1903.
  87. 1903. and Lansdowne's note on the same. F.O. 5/2542.
  88. 1903. Balfour MSS Add. 49742.
  89. 1903. Bertie MSS Add. 63015.
  90. 1903. F.O. 414/177.
  91. 1903. F.O. 420/219. 31 See Perkins,
  92. 1903. in Foreign Relations of the United States 1903, p. 24.
  93. 1903. Privy Council Committee of
  94. 1904.
  95. 1904. Underlining by Balfour. Lansdowne MSS BL 'Private Letters' vol. 5. 61- See Neary, "French and American Shore Questions", pp. 113-4.
  96. 1905.
  97. 1905. ibid.
  98. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.). 65 Roosevelt to White, 23 Aug. 1905. Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol. 4., p. 1313.
  99. 1905.,
  100. 1926-38).
  101. 1943),
  102. 195Part Four Side by Side in the Far EastCHAPTER ELEVEN Great Britain, the United States and the Balance of Power in the Far East, 1901-February 1904. Lansdowne's American diplomacy gained added dimensions in the Far East.
  103. 1964),
  104. 2
  105. 2 Apr. 1901. ibid.
  106. (1899). 2 Balfour to Mahan, 20
  107. 2 Dole, "Proclamation", 7 Jan. in C.
  108. 2 Pauncefote
  109. 2 Recent historians have rejected the traditional view that, under Salisbury, Britain pursued a policy of 'splendid isolation'; Lansdowne's willingness to embrace foreign allies, it is
  110. 2 See
  111. 2 See,
  112. 2 Selborne, writing to Sir Walter Kerr, remarked that 'We all on the C.I.D. must be impressed with
  113. 2. (Vancouver, 1985), pp. 114-115.
  114. 2.,
  115. 20
  116. (1900). 20 Hay to Adee,
  117. (1902). 20 The Treaty of Vereeniging„ signed on May
  118. 21
  119. 21 A young Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote to his parents in 1901 that 'I cannot help feeling convinced that the Boers have the side of right ... [but] it will be best from the humanitarian standpoint for the British to win
  120. (1901). 21 Chamberlain to Lansdowne, 24
  121. 21 Choate to Lansdowne, 4 Jan. and a note by Lansdowne, 6 Jan. 1901. F.O. 5/2471.
  122. (1905). 21 Durand to Lansdowne, tel., 5 Jun.
  123. 21 Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (4th ser.) OW( col. 1098, 18 Mar. 1903.
  124. 21 Lansdowne to Spring Rice, 4 May. 1904., in G. P. Gooch and H. Temperley (eds.), British Documents on the
  125. 21 MacGregor to Cranborne, 11 Feb. 1902. F.O. 58/339.
  126. (1900). 21 Pauncefote to Lansdowne, tel.,
  127. 21 Sep. in C.O. to F.O.,
  128. 22
  129. (1903). 22 Durand to Lansdowne,
  130. 22 Roosevelt to Lodge, 24 May. and 5 Jun. 1905. Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol. 4., pp. 1191 & 1204. Roosevelt and Lodge pushed for Spring Rice as early as December 1903.
  131. 22 Satow to
  132. 22 The Kaiser sent a
  133. 222CHAPTER TWELVE This Wretched War: Conflicts in British and American Diplomacy during the Russo-Japanese War, February 1904-April 1905.
  134. 23 Admiral Tirpitz initiated his program of naval expansion that same
  135. (1903). 23 Lansdowne to Herbert, 13
  136. 23 See J. A. S. Grenville,
  137. 24
  138. 24 Jan., in Admiralty to
  139. 24 Lansdowne to Bax-Ironside,
  140. 24 Lansdowne to Durand, 5 Jun. 1905. British Documents, vol. 4., p. 82.
  141. 24 Pauncefote to Hay, 9 Apr. 1901.
  142. 24 Roosevelt to
  143. 24 Satow to
  144. 245CHAPTER THIRTEEN Russo-Japanese Peace: The Treaty of Portsmouth and the Renewal
  145. 25 Admiralty to F.O., 5 Jan. 1900. F.O. 420/200.
  146. 25 Bax-Ironside to
  147. 25 Durand to Lansdowne, 17 May. 1904. Lansdowne MSS
  148. 25 Durand to Lansdowne, 17 May. 1904. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  149. 25 Mar., in Pauncefote to
  150. 25 See P. H. Clyde,
  151. 25 Selbome to Balfour, 'confidential', 4 Apr. 1902. Balfour MSS Add. 49707. Balfour replied that 'I shall be very glad to discuss your naval subjects with you whenever you choose to fix a time. I find it extremely difficult to believe that we have, as
  152. 26
  153. 26 Bax-Ironside
  154. 26 Extract of Fielding to Chamberlain, in Chamberlain to Lansdowne, 30 Mar. 1903. Lansdowne MSS BL 'Private Letters', vol. 1.
  155. 26 Pauncefote argued that, should the notification of rejection come before the end of the session, the Senate would pass a
  156. 26 Roosevelt
  157. 27
  158. 27 Amongst the recommendations of the Report on War Office Reconstitution, delivered in the Spring of 1904, was the establishment of an Army
  159. 27 Dec 1902 and 2 Jan.
  160. 27 Lansdowne to Bax-Ironside, 3 Nov. 1903. ibid.
  161. 27 Memorandum by Hill,
  162. (1904). 27 Roosevelt to Hay,
  163. 27 See Tansill, Canadian-American
  164. 273I 'For the last century', Harold Nicolson wrote in July 1920, 'the policy of His Majesty's Government has been inductive, intuitive and quite deliberately opportunistic, but through it all has run the dominant impulse of the
  165. 28 Lansdowne to his mother, 18
  166. 28 Oct. 1904. Balfour MSS Add. 49729.
  167. 28 See D. Judd, Balfour
  168. 280R. J. Jensen, The Alaska Purchase and Russian-American Relations
  169. (1951). 284I. T. Naamani, "The 'Anglo-Saxon' Idea and British Public
  170. (1901). 29
  171. 29 Herbert to Loomis, 13 Mar. and
  172. 29 Larcom to Lansdowne,
  173. 3
  174. 3 Apr. 1902. F.O. 5/2486.
  175. 3 Article I of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 19 Apr. 1850, printed
  176. 3 Comment in the Ottawa Citizen, 24 Oct. 1903., in Angus,
  177. 3 Herbert to Lansdowne, tel., 19 Feb. and Herbert to Lansdowne, 24 Feb. 1903. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  178. 3 Lansdowne
  179. 3 These figures come from D. Walder, The Short Victorious War: The Russo-Japanese Conflict, 1904-5 (London, 1973), P. 78. An Anglo-Russian agreement was not dismissed.
  180. 3.
  181. 30
  182. 30 Sep. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144. Spring Rice forwarded the letter's contents to Mrs. Roosevelt on October 10. See Gwynn, Spring Rice, pp. 498-501.
  183. 31
  184. 31 Lansdowne to
  185. 31 Lansdowne to Pauncefote, 14 Jan. 1901. F.O. 420/200. 32 ibid. 33 ibid.
  186. 31 The pelagic sealing dispute was finally settled by a joint treaty signed at Washington on July 7 1911 to which Great Britain, the United States, Russia and Japan all adhered. Britain was to be given fifteen percent of the
  187. (1902). 32
  188. 32 Lansdowne
  189. 32 Lansdowne to Herbert,
  190. 32 Lansdowne to Hicks
  191. (1888). 32 Lansdowne to his mother, 8
  192. 32 Lansdowne to Minto, 15 Jun. 1902.
  193. (1901). 32 Villiers to Hoare,
  194. 32. 84 ibid., pp. 28-29.
  195. 321
  196. 327-8. See also S.
  197. (1902). 33
  198. 33 Bax-Ironside to
  199. 33 Chamberlain to Halsbury, 18
  200. (1901). 33 Lansdowne to Bertie, 27 Aug.
  201. 33 Lansdowne to Durand, 10 Jul. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  202. (1903). 33 Roosevelt to Hay,
  203. 34
  204. (1903). 34 Choate to Hay,
  205. 34 Lansdowne to Balfour, 12 Jul. 1905. and Balfour's note on the same. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.). Lansdowne saw Reid on July 12 and stressed
  206. (1904). 35
  207. 35 On January 16, the German warship "Vineta" fired a single shell into Fort Salano, on the spurious pretext that Venezuelan soldiers were illegally camped inside. Three days
  208. (1900). 35 Pauncefote to Lansdowne, 18 Dec.
  209. 35 Raikes to Villiers, 8 Feb. 1903. F.O. 5/2488.
  210. 35 See
  211. 36 Lowther to Lansdowne,
  212. 36 Note by Balfour, Jun. 1903. Balfour MSS. Add. 49855. Dugdale cites this letter
  213. 36 Raikes to
  214. 36 Raikes to Larcom, 10 Jan. 1903. F.O. 5/2531.
  215. 36 Satow to Lansdowne, 23 Oct and Lansdowne to Satow, 10 Dec. 1901. ibid.
  216. 37
  217. (1903). 37 "Venezuelan Claims" The Manchester Guardian, 26
  218. 37 Griscom
  219. 37 Herbert to Lansdowne, 23 Dec. 1902. F.O. 5/2488. This was the response to Lansdowne's inquiry of
  220. 37 Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol 4., p. 1017n.
  221. 37 See J. Ewell,
  222. 38
  223. 38 "The Peace Negotiations: Meeting Place of the Delegates" The Times, 11 Jul. 1905, p.
  224. 38 "The Presidential Election: Mr. Roosevelt's Victory"
  225. 38 Herbert to Lansdowne, 18 Feb., enclosing Hay to Herbert, 17 Feb. 1903. F.O. 5/2522.
  226. 38 Herbert to Lansdowne, secret tel., 26 Jan. 1903.
  227. 38 Roosevelt to Hay, 22 May. 1903., in G. E. Mowry,
  228. 38 White
  229. (1901). 39
  230. 39 Hoare to Herbert,
  231. 39 Satow to Lansdowne, 29 Jan. and 27 Feb. 1902. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/119.
  232. 39 See, for example, E. W.
  233. 4 Choate to Salisbury, 22 Jan. 1900. F.O. 414/165.
  234. 4 Lansdowne to Pauncefote, 31 Dec. 1901. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  235. 4 Report by G. C. Potters, 22 Mar. 1895., p. 3. F.O. 331/62.
  236. (1902). 4° Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (4th ser.) Cifi col. 1287. 12 Feb.
  237. 41 'Conversation with Laurier', 30 Jun. 1903. Lord Minto's Canadian Papers, vol. 2., p.
  238. 41 Bax-Ironside to
  239. 41 Lansdowne
  240. 41 Lansdowne to Satow, 25 Aug. 1901. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/119.
  241. 41 Roosevelt to Root, 3 Oct. 1903. Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol. 3., p. 613 42 Herbert to Lansdowne, 10 Sep. 1903. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  242. 41 Spring Rice to Ferguson, 10 Nov. 1904. ibid, pp. 432-433.
  243. 412 16 A. Gorren, Anglo-Saxons and Others
  244. (1904). 414/180.
  245. 42
  246. (1901). 42 "Lord Lansdowne at Darlington" The
  247. 42 70th Meeting of the CID., 12
  248. 42 Lansdowne to
  249. 42 Lansdowne to Satow, 25 Aug. 1901. ibid. Hicks Beach wrote that the gains from the
  250. 42 Roosevelt had a high opinion of Spring Rice. In a letter to George Meyer, leaving for Russia as American Ambassador, Roosevelt explained that 'There is at St. Petersburg, in the English Embassy, an Englishman ... whom I shall ask to
  251. 43
  252. 43 Balfour to Lansdowne, 11 Feb. 1904. Balfour MSS Add. 49728 " Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, however, remembered that Lansdowne 'who doubted the wisdom of Preference or
  253. 43 Chamberlain to Alverstone, 7 Oct 1903. Alverstone MSS Add. 61738.
  254. 43 Lansdowne to
  255. 43 Lansdowne to Herbert, 14 Sep. 1903. ibid.
  256. 43 Roosevelt to Spring Rice, 17 Dec. 1904. ibid., pp. 441446. 44 However, hearing from White on January 13 that Spring Rice was coming, Roosevelt's reaction was somewhat light-hearted.
  257. 44 Herbert to Lansdowne, 12 Dec. 1902. ibid.
  258. (1903). 44 Herbert to Lansdowne, 30
  259. 44 Lansdowne to Pauncefote,
  260. 44 Notes by Larcom, Villiers and Lansdowne on Herbert to Lansdowne, 21 Apr. 1903. F.O. 5/2522.
  261. 44 When Lodge arrived in London at the end of July, he was approached by several prominent British officials, determined to bring about an Alaskan settlement. Lodge
  262. (1900). 45 Lansdowne to Lascelles, 11
  263. 45 Lansdowne to Pauncefote,
  264. 45 Ommanney to Lansdowne, 6 Jan. 1903. Lansdowne MSS BL
  265. 45 Selborne to Lansdowne, 26 Apr. According to Barrington, Hardinge hoped that the Russians would be asked to adhere to the agreement. 'I think
  266. 45 Willison to Minto, 18 Jul.
  267. (1900). 46
  268. 46 "Another Defeat for Morgan", 2 Mar. 1901, p. 3,
  269. 46 Foreign Office note on Hay to Herbert, 20 Apr. 1903. ibid. 47 Note by Larcom, 18 May., on the above. ibid.
  270. 46 Sandars to Balfour, 14 Oct. 1903. Balfour MSS Add. 49761.
  271. (1902). 47
  272. 47 Bax-Ironside
  273. 47 Herbert to Lansdowne, 27 Feb.,
  274. 47 Lansdowne to Pauncefote, 11 Nov. 1900. Lansdowne soon asked the Ambassador to 'remain at
  275. 47 Raikes
  276. 48 Balfour to Lansdowne, 17 Jan. 1905.
  277. (1903). 48 Lansdowne to Herbert, tel., 8 Jan. and Herbert to Lansdowne, tel., 9 Jan.
  278. 48 Raikes
  279. 48th Meeting, 8 Jul. and 58th Meeting, 22 Nov. 1904. ibid.
  280. 49
  281. 49 "Venezuela" The Times, 21 Nov. 1902,
  282. 49 Durand to
  283. 49 Herbert to Lansdowne, secret, 18 Jun. 1903., and
  284. 4th
  285. 5
  286. 5 "The Prime Minister
  287. 5 Durand to Lansdowne, 29 Nov., and Lansdowne to Durand, 11 Dec. 1904. ibid.
  288. 5 F.O. to C.O., 27 Jan. 1900. F.O.
  289. 5 Memorandum by Chamberlain, undated,
  290. 5 V. V. Ashford to Hawes, 2 May. 1895. Volney's brother, Clarence, suffered similar treatment and complained that 'despite our innocence of any complicity ... we were by order of the Government, and without warrant from any court
  291. 5 White to Hay, 17 Dec. 1902.,
  292. 5, and "Anglo-American Arbitration" The Times, 13 Dec.
  293. (1903). 5° Conger to
  294. 50085. 17 See, for example,
  295. (1902). 51 "Venezuela" The Times, 26 Nov.
  296. 51 Durand to Lansdowne, tel., 12 Aug. and
  297. 51 Herbert to Lansdowne, tel., 18 Jan. 1903. F.O. 414/177.
  298. 51 Lansdowne to
  299. 51 Lansdowne to Balfour, 4 Feb. 1903. Balfour MSS Add.
  300. 51 MacDonald to Lansdowne, 27 Apr. 1903. ibid., p. 174.
  301. 51 Quoted
  302. 52
  303. 52 'Conversation with Laurie'', 19 Jan. 1903. Lord Minto's Canadian Papers, vol. 2., p. 248.
  304. 52 Lodge
  305. 53
  306. 53 Hansard CXXI
  307. 53 On April 10 1899, Roosevelt had asserted that '[w]e cannot avoid the responsibilities that confront us in Hawaii, Cuba, Porto Rico [sic], and the Philippines. All we can decide is whether
  308. 53 On January 22, Minto wrote that, as 'for the composition of the Tribunal my Ministers are of [the] opinion that it is premature to adopt any final arrangement. They regard
  309. (1903). 54
  310. 54 Extract from the Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 7 Apr. and "British Claims", Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 14 Apr. 1905. F.O. 331/62.
  311. 54 Lansdowne to Bax-Ironside,
  312. (1901). 54 Patuicefote to Lansdowne, 24
  313. 55 A small amount of correspondence continued until 1920. On several occasions, it seemed that the United States would consider the claims. In 1913, Barclay at the British Embassy wrote to Consul John B.
  314. 55 Herbert to Lansdowne, 1
  315. 56 Alverstone to Balfour, 20 Oct 1903.
  316. 56 Durand
  317. 56 Lansdowne to Monson, 5 Jan. 1904. Lansdowne MSS F.O.
  318. (1494). 57 24th Meeting of the C.I.D., 25 Nov.
  319. 57 48th Meeting of
  320. (1902). 57 Hansard, CXVI, cols. 1105 and
  321. 57 Notes by Villiers and Lansdowne
  322. 58
  323. 58 Roosevelt to Reid, 3 Aug. 1905. ibid., vol. 4., p. 1298.
  324. (1903). 59
  325. 59 "Russia and Manchuria: American Expressions
  326. 59 "The
  327. (1902). 59 Hansard, CXVL cols. 1105 and
  328. 59 Lansdowne to Durand, tel., 25 Jan. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  329. 59 Selborne to
  330. 6
  331. 6 Durand to Lansdowne, 26 Jan. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.). 7 Mowatt to Lansdowne, 10 Jun. 'Many
  332. 6 Hawes
  333. 6 Pauncefote to Salisbury, 9 Jun. 1900.
  334. 6 Villiers to C.O., 18
  335. 6° Article in
  336. 6° Herbert to Lansdowne, tel., 12 Feb. and Lansdowe's note on the same, 13 Feb. 1903. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/144.
  337. (1904). 60
  338. (1904). 60 Bax-fronside to
  339. 62
  340. 62 Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (4th ser.)
  341. 62 Lansdowne to Durand, tel., 28 Jan. 1905. ibid., (S.F.). On January 25, MacDonald stressed 'that the war party is still in the ascendent and likely to remain
  342. 62 Morgan to Barrington, 24 Mar. 1904. Lansdowne MSS BL L(5)32 and Neary, "French and
  343. 62 Roosevelt Corollary, in A. S. Link and
  344. 63
  345. 63 In April 1902, the Kaiser sounded out Roosevelt 'as to whether, in case of annexation of Holland by Germany, U.S. would object to acquisition
  346. 63 Pauncefote to Lansdowne,
  347. 63 Villiers to
  348. 64
  349. 64 Durand to Lansdowne, tel., 31 Jan. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.). 65 Memorandum by Spring
  350. (1901). 64 Lansdowne to Lodge, 12
  351. (1903). 64 Sanderson to Herbert, 5
  352. 65 Hay
  353. 65 Satow to Lansdowne, 24
  354. 66
  355. (1902). 66 Lansdowne to Herbert., 4
  356. 66 Metternich to Balfour, 17 Dec. 1902. Balfour MSS Add. 49747.
  357. (1901). 66 Salisbury to Lansdowne, 7 Oct
  358. 66 See ibid., pp 1306-1323.
  359. 67 "Newfoundland
  360. 67 "Russia and the Far East The Re-Occupation of Mukden" ibid., 3 Nov. 1903, p. 3. 68 ibid.
  361. 67 "Venezuelan
  362. 67 Durand to Lansdowne, 5 Feb. and 6 Feb. 1905. Lansdowne
  363. 67 Lansdowne to Balfour, 3 Sep. 1905. Balfour MSS Add. 49729. After peace had been effected, Hayashi explained to Lansdowne
  364. 67 Minto to Lansdowne, 8 Mar. 1903. Lansdowne MSS BL 'Private Letters', vol. 6.
  365. 68 ibid., co1.1044, 2
  366. 68 See Esthus, Double Eagle and Rising Sun, pp. 90-163 69
  367. 68, 17 Feb. 1903.
  368. 69 Arnold-Forster to Cranborne, 12 Dec. 1902. Arnold-Forster
  369. 69 i in
  370. (1901). 69 White to Balfour, 5
  371. 7 "Memorandum by the Marquess of Lansdowne respecting the Russian Black Sea Fleet", 11 Jan.
  372. (1900). 7 Coward to Lansdowne, 7
  373. 7 Herbert to
  374. 7 Roosevelt published his Alaskan nominations on February 18 and the ratifications of the Alaska treaty were exchanged on March 3. The Tribunal did not begin
  375. 7 See H. A. limes, The Cod Fisheries: The
  376. 7° See J. A. White, The Diplomacy of the Russo-Japanese War (Princeton, 1964), pp. 195-196.
  377. 7° Smalley's comments were made
  378. 71 Durand to Lansdowne, 6 Feb. Spring Rice had told Lansdowne four days earlier that the 'President has great personal prestige but the professional politicians and especially the Senate are opposed to him. A conflict with the Senate is probable and
  379. 71 Herbert to Lansdowne, 19
  380. 71 Report from Tokyo, 25 Nov,.in "The Situation in the Far East Russian Military Strength" The Times, 26 Nov.
  381. 71 Roosevelt to Spring Rice, 1 Sep., in Spring Rice to Lansdowne, 27
  382. 72 Lansdowne to Durand, tel., 16 Oct. 1905. F.O. 414/187.
  383. 73
  384. (1903). 73 Durand to Lansdowne,
  385. 73 Durand to Lansdowne, secret tel., 22 Oct 1905., and comments by Mallet, an unknown
  386. 74
  387. 74 Reid to Lansdowne, 16 Oct and Lansdowne to Reid, 19 Oct 1905. F.O. 414/187.
  388. 75
  389. 75 ibid., cols. 20 & 6,
  390. 75 Roosevelt to Spring Rice, 1 Nov., in Spring Rice to Lansdowne, 23 Nov. 1905.
  391. (1903). 76
  392. (1903). 77
  393. (1902). 77 Pauncefote to Dilke, 30
  394. 78
  395. (1901). 78 Lansdowne to Pauncefote, 31
  396. 79 29th
  397. 79 Pauncefote
  398. 8
  399. 8 "Anglo-American Relations" The Times, 9 Dec. 1904., p. 5.
  400. 8 Balfour to Carnegie, 18 Dec. 1902. Balfour MSS Add. 49742.
  401. (1903). 8 Herbert to Lansdowne, confidential, 26
  402. (1903). 8 Lansdowne to Minto, 21 Feb.
  403. 8 Oct., in Herbert to
  404. 8 Quoted in R. B. Mowat, The
  405. (1901). 80 "The Nicaragua Canal" The Times, 13
  406. 81 Note by Lansdowne for the Cabinet, 27 Dec. 1903. Lansdowne MSS BL Lab 4/34.
  407. 81 Roosevelt to Hay, 30 Mar. 1905. Letters
  408. (1903). 82
  409. (1558). 82 Hansard
  410. 82 Lansdowne to Balfour, 25 Dec. and Lansdowne's Cabinet Note, 27 Dec. 1903. ibid.
  411. 82 see J.
  412. (1905). 83
  413. 83 'We are endeavouring to negotiate with Russia, but as
  414. 83 Lansdowne
  415. 83 Pauncefote to
  416. 83 White
  417. 84 Lyttleton to MacGregor, tel., 23 Oct 1905. F.O. 414/188.
  418. 85 Arnold-Forster
  419. 85 Durand to Lansdowne, 30 Mar. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116
  420. 86 Pauncefote to
  421. 86-7. 19 See Kneer, Great Britain and the
  422. 88
  423. 88 Lansdowne
  424. 89 Lansdowne to Durand,
  425. 89 Lansdowne to Lowther, 'confidential', 16 Jul. 1901.
  426. 89 MacGregor, "Report of the Foreign Trade and Commerce of Newfoundland" 1905, p. 472.
  427. 891
  428. (1903). 9
  429. 9 'The British abandoned their efforts in Venezuela at the murmur of American disapproval
  430. 9 Apr., in Pauncefote to
  431. 9 Aug. and Admiralty to
  432. 9 Balfour wrote that there 'is I believe no British Government that would not gladly make a permanent arrangement with Russia in Central Asia and the Far East, and Russian Statesmen and diplomatists have from time to time expressed a
  433. 9 In January 1904, Durand reported that 'enthusiastic meetings have been held, and I am informed that the feeling in Congress is decidedly in favour of an Arbitration Treaty. ... I have been told by several
  434. 9 Memorandum
  435. (1900). 9 Pauncefote to Lansdowne, 23
  436. 91 Balfour to Selbome, 23 Dec. 1903. Balfour MSS
  437. 91Part Two The United
  438. 95 Balfour to Selborne, 23 Dec. 1903. Balfour MSS Add. 49707.
  439. 97 Balfour to Lansdowne, 31 Dec. 1903. Balfour MSS Add. 49728.
  440. A
  441. A Biography (London, 1927), vol. 2., p. 283.
  442. A Diary of the Unionist Parliament, 1895-1900 (London, 1901), p. 172.
  443. A general arbitration treaty was successfully negotiated by Pauncefote and Olney in 1897, although it failed to pass the Senate. Then, in the spring of 1898, the United States went to war with Spain.
  444. A Ward and G. P. Gooch (eds.), The
  445. A.
  446. A. Fitzroy, Memoirs, 2
  447. A. Gorren, Anglo-Saxons and Others (Boston, 1900).
  448. A. J. Marder,
  449. A. J. Ward, Ireland
  450. A. L. P.
  451. A. S. Grenville, Lord
  452. A. S. T. Griffith-Boscawen, Fourteen Years in Parliament (London, 1907).
  453. (1903). a3 Lansdowne to Herbert, 13
  454. Abortive
  455. above. ibid., Villiers to Herbert, 2 Apr. 1903. F.O. 331/62.
  456. Admiral Sir John Fisher is said to have shown Lansdowne the exact location where Japanese forces would meet a crushing defeat. See Lord Newton, Lord Lansdowne: A Biography (London, 1929), P. 307.
  457. Admirals, Generals, and American
  458. Although Lansdowne had acquired an extensive
  459. Ambassadors at
  460. America and Anglo-German Co-operation" The Times, 4 Mar. 1903,
  461. American
  462. and
  463. and Lansdowne to Herbert, secret teL, 7
  464. and Villiers to Admiralty, 'very confidential'. 8 Aug. 1902. F.O. 420/206.
  465. Anglo-American diplomacy during the war is
  466. Anglo-French
  467. Anglo-Russian
  468. Angus,
  469. Apr.
  470. Apr. and tel., 24 Apr. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.).
  471. Apr.,
  472. Apr., p. 7. and "Newfoundland" The Times, 19 Apr.
  473. (1905). Asakawa, The Russo-Japanese Conflict: Its Causes and Issues (Shannon, 1972,
  474. Aspects
  475. at Manchester, 15 Jan. 1896, quoted
  476. at Massey Hall, Toronto, 20 May. 1902., in H. L. Keenleyside,
  477. Aug.
  478. Aug. 1904. in Letters of Theodore
  479. Autobiography,
  480. B.
  481. B. J. C. McKercher, "Diplomatic Equipoise: The Lansdowne
  482. B. Perkins, The
  483. (1903). Balfour
  484. Balfour and Foreign Policy: The International Thought of a Conservative Statesman
  485. Balfour to Lansdowne, 30 Mar. 1901. Lansdowne MSS F.O.
  486. Balfour,
  487. Balfour, 29 Jan. 1903. Lansdowne MSS BL 'Private Letters', vol. 5. The same letter,
  488. Balfour, 7 Jan. 1904. Lansdowne
  489. Balfour, Feb. 1904. Balfour MSS
  490. Balfour: Intellectual Statesman (London, 1985).
  491. Barclay tells me it
  492. Baron Von Eckardstein, Ten Years
  493. Bax-Ironside, 21 Oct. in C.O.
  494. Beresford,
  495. Bingham, The Monroe Doctrine: An Obsolete
  496. Biography,
  497. BL Lab 4/34.
  498. Boa
  499. Boundary Award: Canadian and American Opinion" The Times, 21 Oct
  500. Boundary Dispute: A Critical Reappraisal (Toronto, 1972).
  501. Boyce (ed.), The Crisis of British Power: the Imperial and Naval Papers of
  502. Britain became angry
  503. Britain is to-day our only real friend,
  504. British
  505. British Isolation and
  506. Bryce,
  507. Busetto,
  508. by
  509. by Lansdowne, 8 Jul. 1901. Lansdowne
  510. by Ommanney in Villiers to Lansdowne, 13 Nov. 1903. ibid.
  511. C.
  512. C. Brinton,
  513. C. C. Tansill, Canadian-American Relations, 1875-1911 (New Haven,
  514. C. S. Campbell, Anglo-American Understanding, 1898-1903
  515. (1914). C. Tupper, Recollections of Sixty Years
  516. C.I.D.
  517. C.O.
  518. (1902). C.O. to F.O., 23 Apr.
  519. (1901). Cabinet Memorandum by Lansdowne, 16
  520. Campbell-Bannerman at Stirling" The Manchester Guardian, 9 Jan. 1903, p. 7.
  521. Campbell,
  522. Campbell, Anglo-American Understanding, 1898-1903 (Baltimore, 1957), p. 270, W. G. Kneer,
  523. Campbell, Anglo-Anzerican Understanding, 1898-1903 (Baltimore, 1957), pp. 80-94, and Tansill, Canadian-American Relations, pp. 267-371.
  524. (1965). Canada and Imperialism,
  525. Caribbean, 1901-1913: A Study in Anglo-American Relations (Michigan, 1975), pp.
  526. Carlos
  527. Catastrophe
  528. Chair's report in Herbert to Lansdowne, 6
  529. Chamberlain to Lansdowne, 'confidential', 25 Dec.
  530. Chamberlain,
  531. Chamberlain, 14 Apr. 1901, in C.O.
  532. Chamberlain, 6 Nov. 1899,
  533. Clifford Sifton, 2 vols. (Vancouver, 1985).
  534. Clyde
  535. col. 97, 17 Feb. 1903.
  536. (1903). cols
  537. Comments on Mr. Balfour's Memorandum on the Crisis between Japan and Russia", 25
  538. Commission" The Times, 21 Feb. 1903, p. 8.
  539. Conflict 1904-5 (London, 1973), pp. 27-29. Also Nish, Russo-Japanese War, pp.
  540. Conflict,
  541. Conn.,
  542. Contradictions and Conflicts Among the Imperialist
  543. Cranborne,
  544. D.
  545. D. Hunt and R. G. Haycock,
  546. D. Perkins, The Monroe Doctrine, 1867-1907 (Baltimore, 1937).
  547. Dec. 1902. Foreign Relations of
  548. Dec. 1902. ibid.
  549. Denison,
  550. described
  551. Devonshire,
  552. Devonshire, 23 Dec. 1902. Lansdowne MSS
  553. Diary (Washington, 1908 [printed but not published]), vol. 3., p. 176.
  554. (1903). discussion
  555. Documents, vol. 4., p. 85.
  556. Door Note, 3 Jul. 1900., in A. S. Link and W. M. Leary (eds.), The Diplomacy of World Power: The United States 1889-1920 (London, 1970), pp. 95-96.
  557. Door,
  558. Durand
  559. Durand to Lansdowne, 16 Jun. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.). 31 Lansdowne to Durand, 16 Jun. 1905. British Documents, vol. 4., p.
  560. Durand,
  561. During the message, Roosevelt announced that 'It is not true that the United States feels any land hunger or entertains any projects as regards the other nations of the western hemisphere save such as are for their welfare.
  562. E.
  563. E. Brandenburg, From Bismarck to the Great War: A History of German
  564. E. C. Dugdale, Arthur James Balfour: First Earl of Balfour, K.G., 0.M., F.R.S., Etc., 2 vols. (London, 1936).
  565. E. Campbell, Great Britain and the United
  566. E. H. Zabriskie, Anglo-Russian Rivalry in the Far
  567. E. Knee, "Anglo-American Understanding and the Boer War" Australian Journal of
  568. E. McCauL
  569. E. R. May, Imperial
  570. E. T.
  571. East Japan and the Russian Reply" The Times, 22 Dec.
  572. Edward
  573. Edward, 9 Jun. 1905., in K. M. Wilson, "The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of August 1905 and the Defending of India: A Case of the Worst Scenario" Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21 (1993), p. 336.
  574. Elastic Doctrine: The Search for AngloAmerican Concord in Latin America, 1903-1904.
  575. entries,
  576. Entry in Minto's
  577. Essays
  578. F.
  579. F. Gribble,
  580. F. R. Dulles,
  581. F.O.
  582. F.O. 414/171. 38 See Tansill,
  583. F.O. 420/206.
  584. F.O. 58/335.
  585. F.O. 800/119 and Lansdowne to Pauncefote, 25 Feb.
  586. (1903). F.O. 800/144.
  587. F.O.,
  588. F.O., 12 Dec. and Lansdowne to Bax-Ironside, 29 Dec. 1903. ibid.
  589. F.O., 4 Jan. 1902. F.O.
  590. F.Oppenheimer,
  591. Far Eastern affairs were similarly disquieting. In China, the Germans seized the port of Kiao-Chow on November 14 1897 and began an undignified race for international concessions; by the Spring of 1898, the Chinese Government had been compelled to give
  592. Feb.
  593. Feb. 1901. Lansdowne MSS F.O. 800/134.
  594. Feb. 1903. ibid.
  595. for
  596. for the Year of Agitation, 1903-1904 (London, 1904), p. 39.
  597. Foreign
  598. Foreign Secretaries and Japan, 1892-1905" in B. J. C. McKercher
  599. Fourth
  600. Franke,
  601. Free
  602. French
  603. From the busy correspondence that followed, it appears that
  604. G.
  605. (1900). G. F. Kennan,
  606. G. Kneer, Great Britain and the Caribbean, 1901-1913: A Study
  607. G. Lynch, The War of
  608. G. W. Monger, The
  609. Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge: A
  610. Geiss,
  611. German
  612. German Policy" The New York
  613. Germany and Great Britain, 1892-1904"
  614. Germany's Vision of Empire in Venezuela,
  615. Great
  616. Great Britain and the Caribbean, p. 6. 43 ibid., p. 5.
  617. Great Britain and the United States, 1895-1903
  618. Great Britain; Empire and Commonwealth, 1886-1935 (London, no date), p. 91.
  619. Great Britain: Empire and Commonwealth, 1886-1935 (London, n.d.).
  620. H.
  621. H. C. Allen, Great Britain and the
  622. H. C. Hill, Roosevelt and
  623. H. G.
  624. H. George, Protection or Free
  625. H. K Beale, Theodore
  626. H. Weinroth,
  627. Halevy,
  628. Hansard CXXD( cols. 2, 23
  629. Hansard's
  630. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, (4th ser.) COM, col. 126, 23 Jul.
  631. Harcourt to Morley, 26
  632. Hay to Choate, 10 Feb. 1905. Quoted in Tansill, Canadian-American Relations, p. 95.
  633. Hay-Herbert Convention, 24 Jan. 1903. printed in Papers Relating to the
  634. Hay-Pauncefote
  635. (1900). Hay-Pauncefote Treaty" The New York Times,
  636. Height of the German Challenge: The Venezuela Blockade, 1902-3" Diplomatic
  637. (1903). Herbert to Lansdowne, 29
  638. Herbert to Lansdowne, secret tel., 14 Feb. 1903.
  639. (1903). Herbert to Lansdowne, tel., 15
  640. Herbert,
  641. Historical
  642. However, if the terms of the treaty uniformly favoured the United States, the Foreign Office had not surrendered any
  643. I. H. Nish, The Anglo-Japanese Alliance: The Diplomacy
  644. ibid.
  645. ibid. Railces telegraphed the news the same
  646. If the United States was unprepared to punish Castro, however, it was not blind to his motives, and therefore it is hardly surprising that Roosevelt did
  647. II
  648. Impact
  649. Imperialism:
  650. in
  651. in Campbell, AngloAmerican Understanding, p. 47. 2o See ibid., pp. 88-137.
  652. in Lodge to Lansdowne, 9 Sep.
  653. (1905). in Sir P. Sykes, The Right Honourable Sir Mortimer Durand: A
  654. in White to Balfour, 12
  655. in Zabriskie, American-Russian Rivalry, p.
  656. Inquiry", Chamberlain at Birmingham, 15 May. 1903. in C. W. Boyd (ed.), Mr. Chamberlain's Speeches (London, 1914), vol.
  657. International
  658. It was widely known that Cipriano Castro was considered by the United States to be even more troublesome than most
  659. J.
  660. J. A. S. Grenville and G. B. Young, Politics, Strategy and American
  661. J. A. Spender, The Public
  662. J. C. Levenson,
  663. J. Fiske, American Political Ideas, Viewed from the Standpoint of Universal History (London, 1885).
  664. J. P. Mackintosh, "The Role of
  665. J. V.
  666. J. W. Dafoe, Laurier: A
  667. J.A. White, The Diplomacy of the
  668. J.M. Blum,
  669. Jan.
  670. Jan. 1901., in Grenville, Lord
  671. Jan. and 8 Feb., Lansdowne to Satow, 9 Apr. 1901.
  672. Jan.,
  673. John
  674. Journals
  675. Jul.
  676. Jun. and Herbert to Lansdowne,
  677. K L. Clymer, John Hay, The
  678. K. M. Wilson, "The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of August 1905 and the Defending of India: A Case of the Worst Scenario" Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21 (1993). 285
  679. (1815). K.Bourne,
  680. K.M. Wilson (ed.), British Foreign Secretaries and
  681. Kneer,
  682. L.
  683. L. Creswicke, The Lift
  684. L. M.
  685. (1938). L. M. Gelber, The Rise of Anglo-American Friendship (London,
  686. L. Mosley, Curzon: The End
  687. L[ansdowne] now sends a memorandum which in part defends the action of the Govt and in the main is argumentative'. Sandars to Balfour, 14 Apr. 1903. Balfour MSS Add, 49761.
  688. Labour (London, 1951), pp. 416-417.
  689. LaFeber, The
  690. (1905). Lansdowne
  691. LANSDOWNE MSS. General correspondence of the above, transferred from Bowood House in 1995. British Library. LASCELLES MSS. The papers of Sir Frank Cavendish Lascelles. Public Record Office.
  692. (1903). Lansdowne on the above, 19 Feb.
  693. Lansdowne spent the preceding days at Bowood, and it was Sir Thomas Sanderson, not 179Lansdowne, who received the American Ambassador. Impressed with the gravity of the situation, Sanderson promised to lay the fishery question
  694. Lansdowne to Balfour, 27 Apr. 1905. Balfour MSS Add. 49729.
  695. Lansdowne to Durand, tel., 5 Apr. And Lansdowne to Durand, 14 Sep. 1905. F.O. 414/185.
  696. Lansdowne to Herbert, 20 Feb. 1903. Lansdowne MSS F. 0. 800/144.
  697. Lansdowne to Pauncefote, 'secret', 19 Feb. 1901. Lansdowne MSS
  698. Lansdowne,
  699. Lansdowne, 13 Sep. 1904. F.O. 5/2550.
  700. Lansdowne, 17 Mar. 1901. Lansdowne
  701. Lansdowne, 17 Oct. 1901. Lansdowne
  702. Lansdowne, 23 Oct., and Lansdowne to Hardinge, 24 Oct. 1904. British Documents, vol. 4.,
  703. Lansdowne, 5 Jun. 1903. Lansdowne
  704. Lansdowne, 6 Sep. 1901. Lansdowne MSS BL
  705. Lansdowne, clearly optimistic, wrote that the 'selection of Washington
  706. Letters
  707. (1988). Letters of Henry Adams (Cambridge,
  708. Letters of Henry Adams (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), vol. 5., p. 452.
  709. Letters of Reginald, Viscount Esher (London, 1934),
  710. Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, Mass., 1951), vol. 3., pp.
  711. Life and Letters of Sir Wilfrid
  712. London,
  713. Lord
  714. Lord Brooks, An Eye-Witness in
  715. Lord Lansdowne at Darlington" The
  716. Lord Newton, Retrospection (London, 1941).
  717. los Balfour to Lansdowne, 11 Feb. 1904. ibid.
  718. Lyttleton,
  719. M. Beloff, "Is
  720. M. Callahan, American Foreign Policy in
  721. M. Frewen, Melton
  722. MacDonald
  723. Mahajan, "The
  724. Mar.
  725. May. and Lansdowne to Monson,
  726. Meanwhile, in a move that clearly surprised the Foreign Office, Castro attempted once more to appeal to the Americans, by
  727. Meanwhile, the question of maintaining
  728. Memo by Mr. Larcom on existing causes of complaint
  729. Memorandum by Lansdowne, 13 Dec. 1900, in J. A. S. Grenville, Lord
  730. Memorandum by Lansdowne, dated Sep. 1912.
  731. Memorandum by Lansdowne, dated Sep. 1912. Lansdowne MSS BL Lab 4/10.
  732. Memorandum by Lansdowne, printed 24 Nov. 1902. Lansdowne MSS BL L(5)77.
  733. Memorandum by the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 29 Dec.
  734. Memorandum by the State Department,
  735. mind is not disturbed by the new Anglo-Japanese Agreement', Lansdowne told
  736. Minto
  737. Minto to Roberts, 2 Jul.
  738. Minto,
  739. Monson to Lansdowne, 15 Jan. 1904. ibid.
  740. Monson to Lansdowne, 15 Jan. 1904., and the
  741. more detailed account of Sir
  742. Mowry,
  743. Mowry, The Era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912
  744. Mr. Roosevelt's Victory" The Times, 10 Nov. 1904, p. 6.
  745. MSS
  746. MSS F.O. 800/116 (S.F.). 61 Lansdowne to Durand, 4 Feb. 1905. ibid. Documents removed to the separate file [F.O. 800/1161 are labelled (S.F.) in these endnoies.
  747. (1901). MSS F.O. 800/144 and Pauncefote to Lansdowne,
  748. Munroe
  749. N. M. Blake, "The Olney-Pauncefote Treaty of 1897" American Historical Review 50(1944-5).
  750. N. Rich &
  751. N. Roosevelt, America and England? (London, 1930).
  752. N. Tilchin,
  753. Naval
  754. Nevins, Henry White: Thirty Years of American Diplomacy (New
  755. New
  756. Note
  757. Nov.
  758. Oct 1900., in Newton, Lord
  759. Oct 1904. Foreign Relations of
  760. Oct.
  761. Oct. 1904. in Lee, Edward VII,
  762. Oct.,
  763. of
  764. of the C.I.D., 4 Apr. 1905. ibid.
  765. of the Second Earl of Selborne, 1895-1910 (London, 1990), pp. 105-106.
  766. of the United States" The Times, 17 Dec. 1902 p. 5.
  767. of World Power: The United States, 1889-1920 (London,
  768. Office.
  769. on
  770. on April 8 1902. Niuchuang should have been
  771. On December 29 1902 Martin Garcia Merou, the Argentine Minister in Washington, relayed a message to the State Department from Louis Drago, Minister of Foreign Relations, concerning the alarming Anglo-German blockade of Venezuela.
  772. on Foreign Politics" The Manchester Guardian,
  773. on Hawaii can be seen in "The Uprising in
  774. One Honolulu newspaper had listed the requested compensation in dollars, rather than pounds. "Foreigner's Claims" Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 6 Mar., Hoare to Dole, 9 Mar. and "Pounds, Not
  775. Origins
  776. Orinoco Blockade" The New York
  777. Over the following years, Grey's actions regarding North Atlantic fisheries
  778. P.
  779. (1903). p. 3.
  780. P. A. Varg„
  781. P. Isenbery (who succeeded Sandford Dole), stated that there had
  782. P. J. Treat, Diplomatic Relations between the United States
  783. P. Kennedy (ed.), The Rise and Fall of British
  784. P. Sykes, Sir Mortimer Durand:
  785. P.O., 29 Apr. 1901. ibid. 16
  786. Pacific
  787. (1903). Papers, vol. 2., p. 314.
  788. paraphrase
  789. Pauncefote
  790. Pauncefote to
  791. Pauncefote to Lansdowne, confidential, 28 Mar.
  792. Perspectives
  793. Plenipotentiaries Appointed" The Times, 2 JuL 1905, p. 5.
  794. Politics,
  795. pp. 248-261.
  796. Pratt,
  797. Presidential
  798. Prime Minister's Letters to the Monarch, Reporting on Meetings of
  799. private,
  800. R.
  801. R. A. Esthus, Double Eagle and
  802. R. A. Rempel, Unionists Divided: Arthur Balfour, Joseph Chamberlain
  803. R. B. Mowat, The
  804. R. B. Way, "William Rufus Day" in
  805. R. Price, An Imperial War
  806. R. Thayer, The Life and Letters of John
  807. R. W. Van
  808. (1969). R.V. Kubicek, The Administration of Imperialism: Joseph Chamberlain at the Colonial Office
  809. Raikes to Lansdowne, 18 Jul., enclosing Hay to Raikes, 16 Jul. 1903. ibid. 52 Note by Larcom on the above. ibid.
  810. (1902). Raikes to Lansdowne, 23 May.
  811. Raikes,
  812. Rapprochement: England and the United States,
  813. Reactions
  814. Relations
  815. Rise
  816. Roosevelt
  817. Roosevelt to Hay,
  818. Roosevelt to Lodge, 15 May. 1905.,
  819. Roosevelt to Reid, 5 Jun. 1905. ibid., p. 1206.
  820. Rough Rider to President
  821. (1903). Russia and the Far East The Re-Occupation of Mukden" The
  822. Russia", 22 Dec. 1903, in Dugdale, Balfour, vol. 1., p. 377.
  823. Russo-Japanese
  824. S.
  825. S. Clarke, "Note on
  826. S. H. Zebel, Balfour: A Political
  827. S. W. Livemore, "Theodore Roosevelt, the
  828. S.Anderson,
  829. S.Mahajan, "The Defence of India and the
  830. (1900). Salisbury to Victoria, 14 Dec.
  831. same.
  832. (1902). Sanderson
  833. secret tel., 20 Nov., in C.O.
  834. See
  835. Selborne to Lansdowne, 14 Jan., "Memorandum by Mr. Balfour respecting the Russian Black Sea Fleet and the Passage of the Dardanelles", 18 Jan., and Balfour to Lansdowne, 19 Jan. 1904. ibid.
  836. sent
  837. Sep.
  838. Sep.,
  839. ser.) OMIT cols. 6, 15, 74 & 63, 17 Feb. 1903.
  840. Sir
  841. Sir Edward Grey: A
  842. States
  843. Steiner, "Great Britain and the Creation of the
  844. Stevens
  845. Stirling" The Manchester Guardian, 9
  846. Strout, The
  847. Study
  848. Sun: The Russians and Japanese at Portsmouth
  849. T. A. Bailey, "Was the Presidental Election of
  850. (1966). T. Pakenham, The
  851. tel.,
  852. tel., 27 Jul. and Bax-Ironside to
  853. That Disreputable Little Republic: Great Britain and Venezuela, 1901- December 1902.
  854. The
  855. the above. F.O. 5/1510.
  856. The Anglo-Saxon Special Relationship Since 1783 (London, 1959).
  857. The boundary dispute
  858. The British Chargé d'Affairs, together with Pauncefote,
  859. the conversation
  860. The Great Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1895-1914
  861. The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty" The Manchester
  862. The Last Years of the Old Foreign
  863. The Lift of
  864. The nineteenth century belonged to the United States, the twentieth century belongs to Canada.'4 So
  865. The possibility of a closer understanding with Japan had first been discussed by Lansdowne and Viscount Hayashi, Japan's Ambassador in London, in the summer of 1901,
  866. The Prime Minister and
  867. The Short Victorious War: The Russo-Japanese Conflict 1904-5 (London, 1973), pp. 277-288.
  868. The Siege of Peking (London,
  869. The Strenuous
  870. Thirty-Five Years, 1874-1909 (London, 1933). 278SECONDARY SOURCES A. Books.
  871. Thomas, G.
  872. Times,
  873. Times, 8 Oct 1902, p. 3. 17841 F.O. to C.O., 13 Oct. 1902. F.O. 414/171.
  874. to
  875. to Balfour, 12 Jan. in White to Balfour, 12 Jan. 1901. Balfour MSS Add. 49742 14 Report by
  876. to Balfour, 16 Oct 1903.
  877. to Balfour, 18 Jan. 1904. Balfour MSS Add. 49747.
  878. to Bowen, 16 Apr. and Bowen to Hay, 22 Jul.
  879. to C.O., 30 Nov. and Villiers to C.O., 28 Dec. 1901. ibid. The ownership of Patos was hardly clear-cut; Britain hoisted the Union Jack over the island only in the summer of 1902. As one historian puts it, 'the British were staking a territorial
  880. to Congress" The New York
  881. to Durand, 13 Nov. 1905. Lansdowne MSS F.O.
  882. to Durand, tel., 13 Jun. 1905. ibid.,
  883. to Edward VII, 18 Dec. 1902.
  884. to Herbert, 13 Jan. 1903. Lansdowne
  885. to Herbert, 20 Feb. 1903.
  886. to Lansdowne, 'confidential', 2 Oct. 1903. F.O. 5/2524.
  887. to Lansdowne, 11 Feb. 1904. Balfour MSS Add. 49728. 107 Balfoues draft letter to Lansdowne, not dated. ibid.
  888. to Lansdowne, 22 Jan. 1903. F.O. 420/212.
  889. to Lansdowne, confidential, 18 Jun.,
  890. to Lansdowne, tel., 23 Jan. 1903. F.O. 5/2542.
  891. to Lyttleton, 13 Dec. in C.O. to
  892. to Lyttleton, paraphrased tel., 25 Oct 1903. C.O. 42/893.
  893. to Pauncefote, 15 Apr. 1901. ibid.
  894. Tomes, Balfour
  895. Trade:
  896. Treaty Dead" The New York Times, 6 Mar. 1901, p. 5.
  897. Trent,
  898. Undated notes by Lansdowne, Lansdowne MSS BL 'Canadian Notes', pp. 72-3.
  899. underlining by Lansdowne. Balfour MSS Add. 49728.
  900. unknown official and Villiers on Raikes to
  901. v Selborne to Lansdowne, 2 May. 1902. Lansdowne MSS BL 'Private Letters', vol. 1.
  902. V. Corbett, Reminiscences, Autobiographical and Diplomatic (London, 1927).
  903. V. Cowles, Edward VII and his Circle
  904. Vagts, "Hopes and Fears
  905. Venezuela:
  906. Villiers to
  907. ViMers,
  908. Viscount
  909. Viscount Cecil,
  910. vols.
  911. Von Billow, Imperial Germany (London, 1914).
  912. W.
  913. W. A. Dunning,
  914. W. Edwards, British Diplomacy and Finance in China, 1895-1914 (Oxford, 1987).
  915. W. Karp, The Politics of
  916. W. Lord, The Good Years: From 1900
  917. W. M. Morgan, "The Anti-Japanese Origins of
  918. W. MacGregor,
  919. W. S. Churchill, Great Contemporaries
  920. was then an Assistant Under-Secretary in charge of the
  921. Waters" ibid., 11 Dec. 1903, p. 8. 76 Salisbury to Lansdowne, 10 Sep. Lansdowne MSS BL L(5)34 and Balfour to Broderick, 28 Oct Balfour MSS Add. 49720. Sanderson, however, saw no immediate threat of war.
  922. What the Russian game is I cannot make out', Sir Charles Hardinge wrote to Sir Francis Bertie. 'I am very suspicious that it is only a game of bluff.' Nonetheless, according to Hardinge,
  923. When Baron Komura saw Sir Claude MacDonald, he stressed the importance of American intervention. MacDonald agreed. 'Mt would be important if the American Government
  924. Works on Anglo-American relations in this
  925. Worried that the 1902 alliance with Japan might pledge Britain to support her ally, the Committee became preoccupied in late 1903 - and throughout the following year - by the Russian threat and the
  926. Z. S. Steiner, Great Britain and the Origins of the First

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