Location of Repository

The colonial factor and social transformation on the Gold Coast to 1930\ud

By Raymond Carey Bush


This thesis traces indigenous social and economic developments among the Akan and the incorporation of the territory known as the Gold Coast into the international world economy up to 1930. The focus for the thesis is threefold: developments and conflicts within the Akan social formation itself, pressures and demands by social classes in Europe calling for greater and new forms of contact with the Gold Coast and also, perhaps more importantly, processes which were the outcome of struggles and conflicts between the European colonisers and the indigenous residents on the Gold Coast.\ud \ud To assess the full nature of the political, social and economic pressures linked to the incorporation of the Gold Coast into the economies of Europe, we begin the thesis by sketching in an, account of the early contact indigenous Akan social formations. We then trace and try to characterise the differentstages of colonisation and the different demands by Europe for gold, slaves and indigenous cash crop production, and how the outcome of these European demands were largely determined by the nature of\ud indigenous class struggles, and not simply by the wishes of actors in the so-called 'centre'. The extent and nature of indigenous slavery is explored with specific focus both upon Akan state formation, and how the Atlantic slave trade represented a change in the demands of Europe from\ud gold to labour to work in the Caribbean, and that at that stage of history to acquire sufficient labourers the Europeans were dependent upon indigenous forms of capture and reproduction of slave labour. We examine why, at the\ud turn of the nineteenth century, Europe returned to demand gold and cash crop production from the Akan and how this led to the formation of formal colonialism, which in its early stages was dependent upon indigenous relations of production and reproduction. We then trace the development\ud of a colonial capitalist political economy on the Gold Coast; the 'policy' of indirect rule and the two processes of commercialisation and commoditisation of Akan land and labour

Publisher: School of Politics & International Studies (POLIS) (Leeds)
Year: 1984
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:940

Suggested articles



  1. (1971). (D :: r fu --4 CL - ý. C: j- CD =5 -1 dc cn 0-02 -0 cr C+ V) ý> 0- -5 OC C) ý co cr
  2. A Description of the Coasts of North and doi
  3. (1969). A FamilX Study. Oxford:
  4. (1966). A History of Ghana. London: George Allen and unwin, doi
  5. (1981). A Metatheoretical Critique of Immanuel Wallerstein's 'The Modern World System', Theory and Society, doi
  6. (1705). A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. doi
  7. (1974). A Note on the Relative Importance of Slaves and Gold in West African Exports', doi
  8. A visit to the gold fields of Wassaw,
  9. (1971). Accumulation on a World Scale. doi
  10. (1968). Affairs of West Africa. London: Second Edition, Frank Cass and Company,
  11. (1977). Africa: Historical and Anthroeological Perspectives.
  12. (1961). Africa: The Years of Trial. doi
  13. (1971). African Merchants of the Nineteenth Century Gold Coast', doi
  14. African Politics and British Policy in the Gold Coast 1868-190 in the forms and force of protest. doi
  15. (1966). African Slavery and Other Forms of Social Oppression on the Upper Guinea Coast in the Context of the Atlantic Slave Trade', doi
  16. (1976). African Studies Since 1945: A tribute to Basil Davi2son, 2roceedings of a seminar
  17. African' Slavery' as an Institution of Marginality',
  18. (1963). Ai-Political History of Ghana: The Rise of Gold Coast Nationalism, ISOU-1928. Oxfo-r, -J: Clarendon PFess,
  19. (1982). Akan and Portuguese in the ýifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, I The Matter of Bitul,
  20. (1980). Akan Weights and the Gold Trade. London: doi
  21. (1944). Akokoaso: A Survey of a Gold Coast Villaýe. (flonographs on, doi
  22. (1977). An Eco - doi
  23. (1979). and 'The Object of African History: A DEPELCHIN, doi
  24. (1977). and 'The State in Peripheral Societies',
  25. (1977). and 'Towards-a Structural Perspective on RUBINSON, R. the World System', doi
  26. (1962). and Markets doi
  27. (1979). and Peasants and Proletarians: The Struggle of Third
  28. (1976). and The Political Economy of Contemporary WALLERSTEIN, doi
  29. (1975). Anthropology and Government in Ghana',
  30. (1978). Approaches to the Analysis of Pre-Capitalist Formations in the Maghreb',
  31. Asante and Its Neighbours,
  32. (1875). Asante Before the? British: The Prempean Years, doi
  33. (1975). Asante in the Nineteenth Centuv. The Structure and Evolution of PoliticaT Order. Cambridge: Cambridge UniveFs-ity 17-ress,
  34. (1964). Ashanti Government in the Nineteenth Century', doi
  35. Ashanti under the Premeehs 1888-1935. London:
  36. (1966). Aspects of Bureacratisation in Ashanti in the Nineteenth Century'. doi
  37. (1972). Aspects of Colonial District Administration: The Case of the Northwestern District of Ashanti,
  38. (1962). At the Court of an African King. London: Faber and Faber, doi
  39. (1977). Beyond the Formen: Towards a Revised Marxist Theory of Pre Capitalist Formations and the Transition to Capitalism', doi
  40. (1960). Bonnat: Trader and Mining Promoter',
  41. (1978). Capital and the Forest Kingdom of Asante: A Model of Early Change',
  42. (1981). Capitalism and Cheap Labour Power in South Africa: From Segregation to Apartheid' 1981a ih'H. Wolpe (editor) doi
  43. (1981). Capitalism and the Domestic Cormunity. . L; a-r-5-r-i cFg-e Cambridge lJniversity Press,
  44. (1966). Cass and Company Limited, Third Edition,
  45. (1982). Chan5ing Relations Among the--MaZa of Southeastern Camer -oons sin_ce the Colonial Conquesf. monogra-pTs-7rom the WTr-'ir-ca-n Studies Centre,
  46. (1976). Chibaro: African Mine Labour in doi
  47. (1980). Class and Economic Chanje in Kenya. The f an African Petite- e 1905-1970; New Haven and Lon-don-i- doi
  48. (1972). Class in Africa: Analytical Problems and Perspectives',
  49. (1966). Cocoa in the Gold Coast: A study in the relations between African farmers and Agricultural Experts',
  50. (1974). Colonial Administration and Rural Politics
  51. (1975). Colonial Land Policy in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast 1900-1957',
  52. (1982). Colonialism and Economic Growth doi
  53. (1978). Colonialism and Underdevelopment in Ghana.
  54. (1976). Concessions Scramble and Land Alienation in British Southern Ghana, doi
  55. (1978). Contribution a la ge'Ographie histroique de Va en pays baule (Cote d'Ivoire)',
  56. (1979). Coping with the Contradictions: The DevelODment of the State in Kenya, 1895-1 9140, doi
  57. (1974). Correspondence: Protest: Tradition and Change -A Critique of doi
  58. (1978). Correspondence', Economy nd doi
  59. (1966). Danish Settlements in West Africa 1658-1850, translated by S. Mammen doi
  60. (1971). de The Truth about the West African Land Question. London: Frank Cass Company Ltd., Se ond Edition,
  61. (1981). Decolonising African History',
  62. (1978). Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopmer London: Macmillan,
  63. (1977). Development and Underdevelopment: A Fa-rxist Analysis. London* Ma-CMNI'Tan,
  64. (1974). Dissidence in Asante Politics: Two Tracts from the Late Nineteenth Century',
  65. (1979). Distance Exchange and the Formation of the State: The Case of the AbronjKinýdom of Gyaman', doi
  66. (1930). Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America. Two vclumes, volume one, WashinFt. on D. C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington,
  67. (1964). Documents of Ghana History 1907-1957. London: T as Nilson and Sons, doi
  68. (1978). Early Hisloryof Archaeology ofAccra',
  69. (1970). Economic Forms in Pre Colonial Ghana',
  70. (1975). Economic Initiative and African Cash Farming: Pre Colonial Origins and Early Colonial Developments',
  71. (1965). Economy of the Gold Coast Under British Colonial Adminstration',
  72. (1975). Effects of the Atlantic Slave Trade on some West African Societies', Revue Francaise d'Histoire d-'Outre Me--r. doi
  73. (1966). Eighteen Years on the Gold Coast of Africa. TWO Volumes. London: Fran 'Cass-and Company. Second Edition,
  74. (1976). Epistem. ological Practice and the Social Sciences',
  75. (1978). Evolution of Social Systems. doi
  76. (1971). Firearms and Warfare on the Gold and Slave Coasts from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries', doi
  77. (1973). Forced Labour in British West Africa; The Case of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, 1906-1927', doi
  78. Four Years in Ashantee.
  79. (1981). Frank and Wallerstein Revisited: A Contribution to Brenner's Critique', doi
  80. (1979). From Feudalism to Capitalism: Transition or Transitions? ', in I. Wallerstein, 1979a WALLERSTEIN, I. 'Three paths of national development in sixteenth century Europe', in I. Wallerste
  81. (1981). Gold and Slaves on the Gold Coast',
  82. (1973). Gold in the Gold Coast. Accra: Ghana Geological Survey D-e-pe. rtment Memoir Number 4, reprinted
  83. (1978). Gold Mining and. Trading Among the Asante of Ghana', doi
  84. (1972). Gold Mining in Ghana,
  85. (1983). Gold Production, Slave Labour$ and State Intervention in Pre-Colonial Akan Societies: A Reply to Raymond Dumett',
  86. (1977). Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy, (Rough Draft). Tra-n-s-Tated with a forward by Martin Nicolaus. London: Penguin Books in association with New Left Review,
  87. (1979). Historical Modalities of the Exploitatioi and Overexploitation of LabOUr',
  88. (1979). How not to be a Marxist historian: the Althusserian threat to African history',
  89. (1978). Ideologie de Vor chez les Akan de Cote d'lvoire et du Ghana', doi
  90. (1971). Inter State Boundary Litigation in T-sFa-nti: Social Research Documents Volume 4, HolTand: Afrika Studicentrum, Leiden ar University of Cambridge,
  91. (1982). Introduction to the SociologX of (editors) "Developin_q Societies".
  92. Labour Resistence and Labour Control in the Ghanaian Gold Mining Industry 1870-1980'.
  93. (1980). Land and Subjects in the History of the Manwere Fekuo of Kumase: An essay in the political economy of the Asante State'. doi
  94. (1969). Latin America, Underdeveloment or Revolution7 NeW York and London: monthly Review-Fr-ess,
  95. (1979). Lawyers in Gold Coast Politics c. 1900-1945, m Mensah SaFETah to doi
  96. (1964). Les Societes traditionalles en Afriqye tropicale et le conceptde mode production asiatique',
  97. (1977). London:
  98. (1950). London: international Atrica-n-T-nstitute,
  99. (1982). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul in association with the Institute of South East Asian Studies, doi
  100. (1981). London: Routledge Kegan Paul, doi
  101. (1400). London: Weidenfield and Nicolson,
  102. (1979). Markets in West Africa. doi
  103. (1981). Marriage and Adultery: Some Considerations Towards a Social History of PreColonial Asante', doi
  104. (1970). Marx's Theory of Alienation. London: R-FF-n Press, doi
  105. (1972). Marxism and 'Primitive' Societies. Translated by N. Klopper, New 7ork and London: Monthly Review Press, doi
  106. (1972). Marxism and Anthropology, Review Article of E. Terray Primitive Societies', doi
  107. (1970). Marxist Theories of Imperial ism. London: Routledge
  108. Measuring the Atlantic Slave Trade Once Again: A doi
  109. Mode of Production and Social Formation: An auto-critique. London: Macmillgn--, doi
  110. (1979). Modern Africen History: Some Historiographical Observations',
  111. (1905). Monopolists and Speculators: British Investment in West AfricanRubber, doi
  112. (1975). Neo-colonialisme et Transition au ca italisme: Exemple de B -i i TI e -. "' ]a 'Comilog' au Congo-brazzavi - 15ýaris.
  113. (1976). nomic History of Tropical Africa: Colonial Period, Volum, e Two, London: Frank Cass-,
  114. (1976). Notes on Begho'.
  115. (1926). Notes, cn the Early History of Tarkwa as a Gol d Mi ni ng Di stri ct Gol d
  116. (1969). Oral Traditions of Adanse,
  117. (1976). Organising the Farmers. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African ýtudies, doi
  118. (1970). Osei Kwame's Interdiction on Danish Trade,
  119. (1979). Peasants and Capitalists in Southern Angola 1840-19Zb. Cambriage: Cambridge University Pres , doi
  120. (1982). Placing Women in History', doi
  121. (1969). Political Anthropology.
  122. (1971). Politics in Ghana, 1800-1874',
  123. Pre Colonial African Trade: Essaýs (editors) on Trade doi
  124. (1979). Precolonial Gold Mining and the State in the Akan Region: With a Critique of the Terray Hypothesis',
  125. (1972). Protest: Tradition and Change. An Analysis of Southern Gold Coast Riots 1890-1920', doi
  126. Rank and Class Among the Asante and Fante in the Nineteenth Century', doi
  127. (1972). Reactions and Adaptions in West Africa to Changes in the Slave Trade', 1971b,
  128. (1970). Reading Capital. doi
  129. (1973). Reflections on the Pertinence of a Theory of the History of Exchange', doi
  130. (1923). Reliqion and Art in Ashanti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7. Ashanti Law and Constitution. oxford: doi
  131. (1980). Resistence and Hidden Forms of Consciousness Amongst African Workers', Review of African Political doi
  132. (1979). Review Article: The Problem of Slavery in African Studies', doi
  133. Rural Women's Subsistence Production in the Capitalist Periphery', doi
  134. (1979). Sisters and Wives: The Past and Future of Sexual 1: tj UA reenwood Press,
  135. Slave Marketing in West Africa', doi
  136. (1981). Slavery in the Context of Ideology', doi
  137. Social Factors in Cocoa Farming,
  138. (1970). Some Economic and
  139. Some Notes on Gold Coast Exports 1886-1913',
  140. (1974). State Intervention in the Asante Economy',
  141. Stone Age Economics. London: Tavistock PUFI'Tc-ali 656"i--, 1-97-47 SAMOFF,
  142. (1970). Studies in Rural Capitalism in West Africa. London: doi
  143. (1972). Systems of Agriculture in Tropical Africa', doi
  144. (1975). Technology, Tradition and the State',
  145. (1975). The 'overdeveloped' post colonial state: A revaluation. doi
  146. (1975). The 1916 Bongo Riots and their Background Aspects of the Early Colonial Administrati of doi
  147. (1951). The Accumulation of Capital. London: To-uj-fT-eTg-e and Kegan Paul,
  148. (1958). The Akan of Ghana. doi
  149. (1976). The Akan, Mande and Mole Dagbane Peoples 1800-1880',
  150. (1974). The ArchaeloýX of Knowledge. Translated Fy-7F. M. ýheridan bMith. Lo-Fdon: Tavistock Publications,
  151. (1981). The Asante. Published for the Trustees of the Britis seum,
  152. The British Trans Atlantic Slave Trade, doi
  153. (1971). The British Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, doi
  154. (1927). The British West Africa Settlements 1750-1821. Imperial Studies, Nu er 2. Lon on: Uongian,
  155. (1979). The CaRitalist World Economy. Cambridge:
  156. (1972). The Communist Manifesto. doi
  157. (1981). The Comprador on the Gold Coast: A study of Merchant entrepreneurs during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries',
  158. (1964). The Division of Labour in Society, translaTed by G. doi
  159. (1978). The Dutch and the Guinea Coast 1674-1742. A collection of documents from the General State Archive at Tfie Hague. Accra: Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences,
  160. The Dutch Participation in the Atlantic Slave
  161. The Economic Costs of West African
  162. The Economy of the Fanti Confederation'
  163. (1964). The Economy of the West African Coast in the Sixteenth Untury', Part One and Two,
  164. (1974). The example of the Incas', doi
  165. (1979). The Expansion of the Fante and the Emergence of Asante in the Eighteenth Century'. doi
  166. (1981). The Failure of European Mining Companies in the Nineteenth Century Gold Coast', doi
  167. The Fanti Confederacy 1865-1869', Transactions -
  168. (1974). The First Industrial Nation: An Economic History of Britain, doi
  169. (1970). The German Ideology. London: Lawrence and Wishart,
  170. (1956). The Gold Coast Economy About 18801,
  171. (1963). The Gold Coast, Britain and the Netherlands 1850-1974.
  172. (1850). The Gold Mining Industry in Akyem Abuakwa,
  173. (1979). The Golden Stool and the Elephant Tail: An Essay on Wealth in Asante',
  174. (1970). The Impact of Cocoa Cultivation on the Traditional Land Tenure System of the Akan of Ghana',
  175. (1978). The Imperial Impact. doi
  176. (1960). The Inter-sectoral Structure of the Economy of Ghana
  177. (1979). The Material of Reproduction: Anthropological Views on Historical Materialism and Kinship', doi
  178. (1980). The Modern World - SZstem II: M6rcantilism anU-'5e Consolidation of the European World Economy,
  179. (1974). The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Oriýlns 0 the uropean World Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Studies in Social Disconti'Fuifty.: New-Yor-k and London:
  180. (1978). The Modes of Production Controversy',
  181. (1971). The Mossi and Akan States 1500-1800't
  182. (1978). The New Economic Anthropology. doi
  183. (1961). The Northern Factor in Ashanti History; Begho and the Mandel, 'Journal of African History, doi
  184. (1965). the Northwest', Research Review Supplement Number 1, Ashanti Research Project, doi
  185. The Origins of African Slaves: The Dutch Activities on the Guinea Coast, 1675-17951,
  186. (1977). The Origins of Capitalist Development:
  187. (1966). The Origins of the Akan',
  188. The Papers of George Ekem Ferguson, doi
  189. (1976). The Political Economy of the African Peasantry and Modes of Production',
  190. (1971). The Political Economy of the Gold Coast and Ghana',
  191. (1972). The Political EconoTZ of Colonialism in na. London: Oxford UFT-veýrsity 'i TFa-n-a Press,
  192. (1958). The Position of the Chief in the Modern Pol . itical System'of Ashanti.
  193. (1975). The Pre Colonial Economies of SubSaharian Africa,
  194. (1975). The Problem of the Capitalist State',
  195. (1975). The Regimento da Mina', Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, IT-,
  196. The Rise and Fall of an African Merchant Class on the Gold Coast, 1830-19741, Cahiers d'Etudes doi
  197. (1979). The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparativ Analysis', in I. Wallerstein, doi
  198. (1976). ThE Role of Slavery in the Economy and Social History of the Sudanic Zone of West Africa',
  199. (1967). The Royal African Company.. doi
  200. (1971). The Rubber Trade of the Gold Coast and Asante in the Nineteenth Century: African Innovation and Responsiveness, doi
  201. (1967). The Ruch and the English 1680-17161V
  202. (1972). The Slave Trade and British Capital Formation in the Eighteenth Century: A Comment on the Williams Thesis', doi
  203. The Slave Trade in the Bight of Benin, doi
  204. (1875). The Social and Domestic Slavery on Western Africa and Its Evil-Influence on Commercial Progress',
  205. (1974). The Social Impact of the European Liquor Trade on the Akan of Ghana 1875-19101, doi
  206. (1969). the Social Order. London: Routl-edge and Kegan Paul,
  207. (1974). The Socialist Register doi
  208. (1972). The State in Post Colonial Societies Pakistan and Bangladesh',
  209. (1974). The State in Post-Colonial Societies - Tanzania'
  210. (1977). The Structure of Greater Asante: A Restatement',
  211. The Structure of Peripheral Capitalism',
  212. The Trade Makers. Elder Demester in West Africa 1852-1972. London: Georg Allen and Unwin, doi
  213. The Tradition of Resistance doi
  214. (1976). The Transition from Feudalism to CapTfaTism.
  215. The Two Asantes: Competing Interpretations of "slavery" in Akan-Asante Culture and Society',
  216. (1979). The World System of Capitalism: Past ana-Fr--esent.
  217. (1980). Thesis University of Birmingham
  218. Time and Social Structure: An Ashanti Cz. se Study',
  219. (1966). Topics in West African HistorX.
  220. (1979). Towards a Reconstruction of Pre-Colonial Central African History',
  221. (1976). Towards a Usable African Past'.
  222. (1970). Trad. e among the Asante of Ghana up to the end of the eighteenth century',
  223. (1982). Trade and Politics in the Seventeenth-Century Gold Coast. Balti re and London: The John Hopkins iversity Press,
  224. Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast 1600-1720. doi
  225. (1971). Trade and Trading Patterns of the Akan in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries',
  226. (1977). Trade Patterns in Ghana at the beginning of the eighteenth century', doi
  227. (1979). Trade Without Rulers. London:
  228. (1973). Traditional and Modern Economics of the Brong District',
  229. (1976). Trans ated by JUdIth White.
  230. (1975). Transubstantiation in the Study of African Reality',
  231. (1952). Tribes of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. London: In rnational African T-ns-fift-ute,
  232. (1979). Underdevelopment in Northern Ghana: Natural Causes or Colonial Capitalism? ' Review of African Political Economy, doi
  233. (1972). Volume Three. London: Lawrence and Wisharf,
  234. (1970). Volumes two and four, CambFTgW:
  235. (1977). Wallerstein's World Capitalist System: A Theoretical and Historical Critique', doi
  236. (1977). Warfare and Economy in Asante: An Essay in Methodology',
  237. (1968). West Africa Under Colonial Rule. doi
  238. (1971). West African and European ExRansion, The DahomeyNiger Hinterland 1885-1898. New Haven and London: doi
  239. West African Traders in Ghana in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. ban-clon: Longman, I ARHIN, doi
  240. (1969). West African Unfree Labour Before and After the Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade',
  241. (1964). with an introduction by E. Hobsbawm, London: Lawrence and Wishart,
  242. (1967). with BUAH, The Growth of African Civilisation: A History of
  243. (1978). World Accumulation 1492-1789. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.