CHAPTER II.\ud The Horse considered as a Machine. — Necessity of understanding its Construc-\ud tion.— General Physiological and Anatomical Facts. — Architectural Prin-\ud ciples involved in the Construction of the Skeleton.— Of the Joints. —The\ud Vertebra. —The Cartilages and Ligaments.—The Muscles, Voluntary and\ud Involuntary. —General Facts, Anatomical, Physiological, and Mechanical,\ud regarding the Muscles. —Articular Ligaments. —Tendons. — The Law of\ud Repair in Muscles and Tendons.—Relation of the Form of Organs to their\ud Functions.—Utility made to conform to Beauty in the Form of Organized\ud Beings........................ 22\ud CHAPTER III.\ud Special Anatomy.—Necessity of Technical Terms.— The lib spinalis. — Defi-\ud nition of Terms. — Psoas magnus. — Iliacus.—Tensor Vaginae Femoris.—\ud Sartorius.—Pectineus, Small Adductor, etc. — Great Gluteus. — Deep Glu-\ud teus. — Long Vastus. — Semi-tendinosus. — Semi-membranosus. — Great Ad-\ud ductor.— Gracilis.— The Adduction and Abduction of Muscles. — Triceps\ud Femoris. — Gastrocnemii. — Automatic Action in the Hind Leg. — The Per-\ud forans and Perforatus Muscles and their Tendons. — Suspensory Ligament.—\ud Difficulties in the Way of determining the Amount of Work done by Muscles.\ud — Elongation and Contraction of the Limbs. — Interference and Stifle Ac-\ud tion.— The Action of the Hock Joint to prevent Interference.—The Order\ud of Action in the Various Muscles of the Posterior Extremity in Locomotion . 35\ud CHAPTER IV.\ud The Comparison of the Anterior Extremity to the Spokes of a Wheel considered.\ud — Its Three Characters of Crutch, Passive Tool, and Active Automaton.—\ud The Great Serratus. —Its Double Character of Tendon and Muscle.—\ud Centre of Motion.—The Trapesius and Yellow Cord. — Levator AnguliVI CONTENTS.\ud PAGE\ud Scapulae. — Trachelo subscapularis, its Function hitherto unknown. — The\ud Great Dorsal and Pectoral as Propellers. — The Mastoido humeralis as an\ud Extensor. —The Muscles of the Shoulder-Blade.—The Pair of Muscles that\ud flex the Shoulder. — The Function of the Triceps in resisting the Fall of the\ud Body and in Locomotion. — Function of the Flexors of the Forearm. — High\ud Action. — Obstacles to a Full Understanding of the Functions of the Loco-\ud motive Muscles removed by the Camera. — Analysis of the Movements of the\ud Anterior Extremity. — Mechanical Points desirable in a Horse for Speed or\ud Strength. — Low Centres of Motion. — Long Levers. — Comparison between\ud the Anterior and Posterior Extremities. — Why Quadrupeds rise from Recum-\ud bent Positions with Difficulty. — Why Boxers and Others liable to be placed\ud suddenly on the Defence have their Limbs semi-flexed. — Elements of\ud Speed.........................60\ud CHAPTER V.\ud Influence of Gravity constant. — Momentum accelerated.—The Law of Falling\ud Bodies and its Application to Locomotion. — The nearer the Trajectory of the\ud Centre of Gravity is to a Straight Line the more perfect the Locomotion. —\ud The Theory of Quadrupedal Locomotion stated. — Analysis of the Run.—\ud The same in all the Domestic Animals. — The Bound of the Deer.—Why the\ud Flexor Tendons of the Fore Legs are more liable to be injured in the Run. —\ud What is the Gallop? —Objections of Artists answered. — Truth must prevail\ud over Conventionalism. — The Canter..............83\ud CHAPTER VI.\ud The Leap not properly a Pace. — Action in the Leap described.—The Danger\ud to be apprehended in the Leap. — The Standing Leap. — Correspondence in\ud the Action of the Horse in the Leap and the Deer in the Bound. — Action in\ud the Trot. — Distinction between a Step and a Stride. — The Difficulty to be\ud encountered in increasing the Speed of Trotters. — Difference in the Action in\ud the Trot and the Run. — Difficulty in restraining a Horse from breaking into\ud a Run explained. — Fast Trotting cultivated in America in Thoroughbreds. —\ud Trotting not Hereditary, but a Habit. — Theory and Mechanical Action in the\ud Trot. — The Action in Ambling, or "Pacing." — Definition of the Walk appli-\ud cable to Bipeds, not to Quadrupeds. — The Action in the Walk. — The Action\ud in the Pace known as Single-Foot...............105\ud CHAPTER VII.\ud Illustrations of the Paces..................118 \ud \ud Appendi
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