Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Determinants of job satisfaction among Dubai police employees

By Jassem Mohammed Abdulla

Abstract

Job satisfaction is one of the methods used to establish and maintain a healthy organisational structure. It has been frequently investigated in studies that deal with organisational strategies because of its potential impact on work attitudes such as job performance, productivity and organisational commitment. Although researchers have identified many factors that relate to job satisfaction, the majority of these factors can be grouped into two broad categories: (a) personal factors, and (b) environmental factors. Although personal and environmental factors are utilised as distinctly competing models of job satisfaction, researchers argue that the work environment is a better predictor of job satisfaction. Most, if not all, scales used to measure job satisfaction have been developed in Western countries. The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of job satisfaction in one of the largest public sector organisations in the United Arab Emirates, namely, the Dubai Police Force (DPF), and then, to develop a model of job satisfaction linking antecedents and consequences to job satisfaction. The police, like any other public sector organisation, needs to develop and maintain a strong relationship with its human resources in order to effectively perform crime fighting and service provider roles. The issue of job satisfaction, particularly amongst Middle East police force employees, has received only limited research attention. Although some studies have tried to identify the indicators of job satisfaction among police employees, empirical findings on those indicators have generally been sparse and inconclusive. The study employed a mixed method approach to meet its aims and to increase the reliability and validity of the results. The research strategy adopted involved sequential procedures. A qualitative study was conducted first to explore the research issue and to provide in-depth evidence for the research objectives (stage one). The results from the qualitative study were used to develop a scale. The quantitative study was carried out to explore the determinants of job satisfaction among the DPF employees (stage two). Five separate data collections (in-depth interviews, focus group, expert panel, pilot testing, and survey-DPF employees) were conducted, involving a total of 1,075 respondents. The results of this study support the conclusions of previous research that the work environment is a better predictor of job satisfaction than individual demographic variables and that personal factors are of little value to understanding job satisfaction. The results show that 47% of the variance in job satisfaction scores can be explained by eleven environmental and four personal variables (in order of importance): salary and incentives, nature of the work, public perception, organisational policy and strategy, relationships with co-workers, supervision, promotion opportunity, performance appraisal, professional development, communication, job stress, nationality, sex, shift work and public contact. Accordingly, several policy implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are discussed

Topics: Police, Dubai, Job satisfaction, 658.31422
Publisher: Glamorgan Business School
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:dspace1.isd.glam.ac.uk:10265/336
Provided by: Glamorgan Dspace

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1995). 19), “16,000 nationals apply for jobs”,
  2. (2007). A conversation with Lieutenant General Dhahi Khalfan Tamim, Commander-in-Chief of the Dubai Police, United Arab Emirates”,
  3. (2001). A dictionary of human resource management ,
  4. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
  5. (1994). A framework for quality management research and an associated measurement instrument”,
  6. (2004). A handbook of human resource management practice , Nine Edition,
  7. (1998). A longitudinal study of the job perception-job satisfaction relationship: a test of the three alternative specifications”,
  8. (1985). A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings”,
  9. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium”, J o u r nal of
  10. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal an dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behaviour”,
  11. (1996). A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance”, J o u r nal of Applied Psychology,
  12. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs”,
  13. (1981). A path-analytic study of the consequences of role conflict and ambiguity”,
  14. (1990). A revi ew and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment”, P s y c h ological Bulletin ,
  15. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations”,
  16. (1993). A s sessing linguistic equivalen ce in multilingual surveys,
  17. (2006). A study of relationship between managers' leadership style and employees' job satisfaction”,
  18. (2004). A Study to examine the effectiveness of team communication on job satisfaction
  19. (1997). A test of job security's direct and mediated effects on withdrawal cognitions",
  20. (1943). A theory of human motivation”, P s y c h ological Review ,
  21. A.(1989), The Magaddimah (translated by Rosenthal, F. and edited by Dawood, N.J.),
  22. (1992). Age, tenure, and job satisfaction: A tale of two perspectives”, J o u r nal of Vocational Behavior
  23. (2004). Aggregate job satisfaction, HRM and organisational innovation”, Working Paper RP0429,
  24. (2001). Airline station performance as a function of employee satisfaction”, J o u r nal of
  25. (1998). An assessment of survey research in POM: from constructs to theory”,
  26. (1996). An empirical test of a model of job satisfaction”,
  27. (2005). An examination of gender differences in work-family conflict”,
  28. (1951). An index of job satisfaction”,
  29. (1992). An issue for policing-educational level and job satisfaction: A research note”,
  30. (1993). Another lo ok at the job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship”,
  31. (1993). Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment among expatriate managers”,
  32. (1993). Application of Herzberg's theory in measuring job satisfaction among the high schools in Al-Ahsa Province”, P ublic Admini stration ,
  33. Arab human development report 2002: Creating opportunities for future generations,
  34. (1995). Assumptions underlying quantitative and qualitative research: implications for institutional research”,
  35. (1996). At titude toward community policing: A causal analysis”,
  36. (2009). available at: http://www.dubaipolice.gov.ae/. (accessed
  37. (2009). available at: http://www.moi.gov.ae/ (accessed
  38. (2000). B u s i ness psychology and organisational behaviour: A student's handbook , Edition Three,
  39. (2003). B u s i ness Research Methods,
  40. (2003). B u s i ness research methods, Seven Edition,
  41. (1991). B u s i ness research projects for students , London,
  42. (1997). B u s i ness research: A practic al guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students ,
  43. (1998). Basics of qualitative re search: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory , Thousand Oaks,
  44. (1986). Behavior in organizations, Allyn and
  45. (1997). Behavior in organizations: understanding the human side of work ,
  46. (2003). Business research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate, Second Edition,
  47. (1996). C omparing job satisfaction among public-and private sector employees”, A merican Review of P ublic Admin i stration,
  48. (1997). C ulture and organisations: Software for the mind ,
  49. (2006). Can internal marketing be implemented within bureaucratic organisations?”,
  50. (2000). Can you feel the force? Exploring organisation commitment in the police”,
  51. (1994). Canadian criminal justice,
  52. (1986). Career building: learning from cumulative work experience”,
  53. (1999). Career choices and characteristics of criminal justice undergraduates”,
  54. (1998). Career stages in Australian professional women: a test of Super's model”,
  55. (1994). Case study research–design and method,
  56. (2006). Co ntemporary issues in management and organisational behaviour,
  57. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behaviour”,
  58. (2004). Combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies in logistics research”,
  59. (2005). Commitment and job satisfaction as predictors of turnover intentions among welfare workers”, A d m i n i stration in
  60. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: extension and test of a three-component conceptualization”,
  61. (1996). Committed employee- the key focus in strategic development”,
  62. (2002). Community oriented policing in Germany: Training and education”,
  63. (1974). Comparisons of self- and superior ratings of managerial performance”,
  64. (2000). Conceptualizing faculty job satisfaction: Components, theories, and outcomes”,
  65. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research”,
  66. (1989). Constitution of a job in general scale: A comparison of global, composite, and specific measures”,
  67. (2008). Construction of a scale measuring the job satisfaction of public sector employees in the UAE with particular reference to the Dubai Police Force”,
  68. (1988). Contemporary communication research methods ,
  69. (2005). Convergence between measures of work-to family and family-to-work conflict: A meta-analytic examination”, J o u r nal of Vocational Behavior
  70. (1994). Correlates of job satisfaction and their implications for work redesign”,
  71. (1998). Creat ing performance management systems that promote perceptions of fairness”, In
  72. (1991). Crime victim evaluation of police investigative performance”,
  73. (2001). Critical factors for successful total quality management implementation in Turkey: evidence from the banking sector”,
  74. (2000). D o i n g Critical Management Research ,
  75. (2001). D o national levels of individualism and internal locus of control relate to well-being: an ecological level international study”,
  76. (2001). Democratic consolidation and community policing: conflicting imperatives
  77. (2001). Demographic and workplace characteristics which add to the prediction of stress and job satisfaction within the police workplace”,
  78. (1982). Demographic variables in general job satisfaction in a hospital: A multivariate study”,
  79. (1994). Det erminants of job satisfaction among police officers”,
  80. (1979). Deter minants of police job satisfaction”, S o c i ological Inquir y,
  81. (1991). Determi nants of job Satisfaction among Engineers in a public sector undertaking”,
  82. (2001). Determi nants of job satisfaction of municipal government employees”, State Local Government Review ,
  83. (1997). Determinants of citizen satisfaction with the police: the effects of residential location”,
  84. (1997). Determinants of job satisfaction of federal government employees”, P u blic Personnel Management ,
  85. (1984). Determining patrol officer job satisfaction: the role of selected demographic and job-specific attitudes”, C r i m i n ology
  86. (1975). Devel opment of the diagnostic survey”,
  87. (1985). Developing the police officer at work”,
  88. (2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Second Edition,
  89. (1998). Doctor, pa tient and perceived job image: An empirical study of stress and nurses in Singapore”, J o u r nal of behavioural Medicine
  90. (1992). Does job redesign theory explain job redesign outcomes?”,
  91. (1998). Doing Research in Business and Management: An introduction to process and method ,
  92. (1993). Doing your research project , Second Edition,
  93. (1989). E d u cational research: An introduction ,
  94. (2008). E ffect of job organization on job satisfaction among shop floor employees in automotive industries in Malaysia”,
  95. (1993). E s says i n Labor Market Analysis ,
  96. (2006). E s sentials of Organisational Behaviour
  97. (1998). Early experience of shift work:
  98. (1977). Economic aspects of job satisfaction”,
  99. (1989). Education and job satisfaction: the influence of gender, wage, earning status, and job values”, W o r k and Occupation: An I nternational
  100. (1999). Effects of justice conditions on discrete emotions”,
  101. (2004). Effects of performance appraisal politics on job satisfaction and turnover intention”,
  102. (1993). Effects of work stress on psychological well-being and job satisfaction: The stress-buffering role of social support", A u stralian
  103. (1993). Effects of work stress on psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction: the stress-buffering role of social support”, A u stralian
  104. (1992). Efficac y beliefs and work stress: An exploratory study”,
  105. (2008). Emiratisation: drawing UAE nationals into their surging economy,
  106. (1996). Employee acceptance of organizational change: the role of organizational commitment”,
  107. (2004). Employers’ roles in effectively and efficiently handling workers’ compensation issues”, H o s p ital Topic,
  108. (1989). English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah King Fahd Holy Quar-an Printing Complex.
  109. (1987). Equity theory predictions of behavior in organizations”,
  110. (1990). Establishment size, job satisfaction, and the structure of work”,
  111. (2009). Excellence Programe.
  112. (2007). Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB literature”,
  113. (1974). Expectancy theory as a predictor of work motivation and attitude: A re-evaluation of empirical evidence”,
  114. (1998). Exploring models for employee satisfaction with particular reference to a police force”,
  115. (2008). Exploring the differential impact of job satisfaction on employee attendance and conduct: The case of a utility company in the United Arab Emirates”,
  116. (1988). F o c u s Groups : A Practical Guide for Applied Research , Sage,
  117. (1988). F o c u s Groups as Qualitative Research , Sage,
  118. (1986). F o u n dations of Behavioral Research , Third Edition,
  119. (1984). F o u n dations of organizational be havior: An applied Perspective ,
  120. (1991). Facet importance and job satisfaction”, J o u r nal of Applied Psychology,
  121. (1993). Facet measures and global job satisfaction”,
  122. (2005). Factors affecting the decision of police recruits to 'dropout' of police work”,
  123. (1978). Factors associated with job satisfaction among police personnel”,
  124. (1996). Factors determining the level of job satisfaction in police work: A case study of the police force in Cairo”, Ph.D Thesis,
  125. (2000). Facu lty stressors, job satisfaction, and psychological distress among university teachers in Hong Kong: the role of locus of control”,
  126. (2001). Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction”,
  127. (1990). Focus groups : A research technique for nursing”,
  128. (1996). Focus groups”, I nternational
  129. (2007). Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Edition,
  130. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals”,
  131. (2003). G ender differences in job satisfaction in Great Britain, 1991-2000: Permanent or transitory?” Applied E c o n o m i c s
  132. (2003). G lobal versus facet predictors of intention to quit: Differences in a sample of male and female Singaporean managers and non-managers”,
  133. (1992). Gender a nd the relationship between perceived fairness of pay or promotion and job satisfaction”,
  134. (2000). Gender differences in the job satisfaction of university teachers”,
  135. (2007). Gender-job satisfaction differences across Europe: An indicator for labour market modernization”,
  136. (2002). Global jo b satisfaction and facet description: The moderating role of facet importance”,
  137. (1997). Globalization, new public management and the enabling State: Futures of police management”,
  138. (1995). Group performance and decision making”, In
  139. (1992). H ow job satisfaction and job performance are and are not linked”,
  140. (1988). H u man Motivation and Emotion, Second Edition,
  141. (1996). H u man resource management in the hospitality & tourism industry , Second Edition,
  142. (1994). Healt hy mind: healthy organisation: A proactive approach to occupational stress”, H u man Relations ,
  143. (1985). Health, Stress, and Coping , Jossey-Bass,
  144. (2005). Here today, gone tomorrow, back again the next day: Antecedents of correctional absenteeism”, J o u r nal of Criminal
  145. (1996). High pay and low morale-can high pay, excellent benefits, job security, and low job satisfaction coexist in a public agency?” P u blic Personnel Management ,
  146. (2004). How organizational image affects employee attitudes”,
  147. (2005). Human Resource and Personnel Management: Text and Cases, Fifth Edition,
  148. (2006). Human resource management in the United Arab Emirates”,
  149. (2004). Human resources management , Sixth Edition, Cape Town:
  150. (1992). I n d u strial-organiz ational psychology,
  151. (1990). I ntroduction to Industria l/Organizational Psychology .
  152. (1996). I s job satisfaction U-shaped in age?”,
  153. (2005). I slamic Perspectives on Management and Organization ,
  154. (2001). Identif ying the sources of non-equivalence in measures of job satisfaction”,
  155. (1986). Identifying the antecedents of salespersons’ intention to leave”,
  156. (2005). Impact of organizational structure on nurses’ job satisfaction: A questionnaire survey”,
  157. (1993). Improving construct measurement in management research: Comments and quantitative approaches for assessing the theoretical content adequacy of paperand-pencil survey-type instruments”, J o u r nal of Management
  158. (1994). Improving custom er service in the police station through organisational behaviour management”, Australia, National Police Research
  159. (2004). Improving doctor’s performance through job satisfaction: A cooperative study of public and private sector hospitals of Chittagong”,
  160. (1994). In-depth interviewing”,
  161. (2008). Industrial and organizational ps ychology: Research and practice ", Fifth Edition,
  162. (2006). Industrial and organizational ps ychology: Research and practice ", Fourth Edition,
  163. (1990). Inequities in organizations, salesperson motivation and job satisfaction”,
  164. (2001). Influence of performance evaluation rating segmentation on motivation and fairness perceptions”,
  165. (2003). Integrating quantitative and qualitative methods in community Research”,
  166. (1998). Intelligence and job satisfaction”,
  167. (2001). Interactions among actual ease-of-movement determinants and job satisfaction in the prediction of voluntary turnover”,
  168. (1993). Intervi ewing business owners and management: a review of methods and techniques”,
  169. (2001). Interviewee coaching, preparation strategies, and response strategies in relation to performance in situational employment interviews: An extension of Maurer, Solamon, and Troxtel
  170. (2007). Introduction: human resource management in the Middle East”,
  171. (2004). Investig ating the functioning of a middle category by Means of a mixed-measurement model”,
  172. (2007). Investor's: Guide to the UAE, available at: http://www.economy.ae (accessed
  173. (2007). Islamic work ethic in Kuwait”, J o u r nal of
  174. (2008). Islamic Work Ethic: A Critical Review',
  175. (1994). It's Accountability,
  176. (1935). J o b satisfaction ,
  177. (1997). J o b satisfaction: Application, a ssessment, causes and consequences , Thousand Oaks,
  178. (1992). J o b satisfaction: Ho w people feel about their jobs and how it affects their performance ,
  179. (1993). Job and occupational change as a function of occupational correspondence and job satisfaction”, J o u r nal of Vocational Behavior
  180. (1989). Job att itude organization: An exploratory study”,
  181. (2003). Job commitment, job satisfaction and gender as predictors of mentoring in the Nigeria police policing”,
  182. (2005). Job quality in European labour markets”,
  183. (1975). Job sa tisfaction indicators and their correlates”,
  184. (1998). Job sa tisfaction: the gender perspective among police officers”,
  185. (1993). Job satis faction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analyses based on meta-analytic findings”,
  186. (2008). Job satisfac tion: subjective well-being at work”,
  187. (2003). Job satisfacti on of hospital nurses: an empirical test of a causal model in Taiwan”, I nternational Nursing Review ,
  188. (2005). Job satisfactio n of managers in tourism: Cases in the Antalya region of Turkey”,
  189. (2000). Job satisfaction among Kuwaiti managers and employees in the government sector- An empirical study”, Ph.D Thesis,
  190. (1997). Job satisfaction among police constables: a comparative study in three developing nations”,
  191. (2003). Job satisfaction and employee performance of Lebanese banking staff”,
  192. (2005). Job satisfaction and gender segregation”, O x f o r d Econom i c Papers ,
  193. (2004). Job satisfaction and gender: An expanded specification from the NLSY”, I nternational Jo urnal of Manpower ,
  194. (1997). Job satisfaction and gender: Why are women so happy at work?”,
  195. (2009). Job satisfaction and job affect”, In:
  196. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: a meta-analysis”,
  197. (1995). Job satisfaction and organisational commitment”, In
  198. (2008). Job satisfaction and organizational citiz enship behavior (OCB): Does team commitment make a difference in self-directed teams?”,
  199. (2008). Job satisfaction and perceived leadership behaviours among the Turkish national police: A case study on Eskisehir police department”, Ph.D Thesis,
  200. (1978). Job satisfaction and the neglected variable of job seniority”,
  201. (2004). Job satisfaction and work motivation ,
  202. (2005). Job satisfaction as a function of job level”, Ad m i n i stration and Policy
  203. (2003). Job satisfaction in the public s ector: The role of the work environment”, A merican Review of Public Administration
  204. (1980). Job satisfaction in the United States in the 1970s’”,
  205. (2002). Job satisfaction of health care staff employed at health centers in Turkey”, O c c u pational Medicine
  206. (2002). Job satisfaction: A comparison of standard, non standard, and selfemployment patterns across Europe with a special note to the gender/job satisfaction paradox”,
  207. (1983). Job satisfaction: Are all the parts there?”
  208. (2005). Job Satisfaction: Empirical evidence of gender differences”,
  209. (2000). Job satisfaction”, In C.L. Cooper (Eds.), Industrial and organizational psychology: linking theory with practice ,
  210. (1994). Job search behavior of employed managers”,
  211. (1991). Job strain among police officers: Gender comparisons”,
  212. (1990). Job stress and the buffering effort of supervisory support”, G r o u p and Organizational Studies,
  213. (2002). L i n k i n g Customer and Employee Satisfaction to the Bottom Line ,
  214. (1979). Leader behavior in a police command bureaucracy: A closer look at the quasi-military model”,
  215. (1998). M i xed Methodology: Combinin g Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches,
  216. (2004). M ixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come”,
  217. (1990). M o dern police psychology for law enforcement and human behavior professionals , Springfield: Charles C.
  218. (1975). M otivation and work behaviour ,
  219. (1983). M otivation in work organization ,
  220. (1973). M otivation in work organizations ,
  221. (1998). M ultivariate data analysis ,
  222. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys: The Total Design Method ,
  223. (1993). Management development: a review and commentary”,
  224. (2002). Management Research: An Introduction ,
  225. (2005). Management: An Introduction , Third Edition,
  226. (1968). Managerial Attitudes and Performance
  227. (1995). Managing employee relations in the hotel and catering industry ,
  228. (1982). Managing Job Stress and Heath: The Intelligent Person’s Guide ,
  229. (1997). Managing Quality and Human Resources: A Guide to Continuous Improvement ,
  230. (2000). Marketing strategies for competitive advantage ,
  231. (1976). Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory”, O r ganizational Behavior and Human Performance,
  232. (1972). Mea surement and meaning of job satisfaction”,
  233. (1992). Measurement issues concerning the use of inventories of job satisfaction”,
  234. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: development of the job satisfaction survey”,
  235. (2000). Measures of five aspects of affective well-being at work”,
  236. (1980). Measuring and assessing organizations ,
  237. (1994). Measuring job satisfaction in police departments and policy implications: an examination of a mid-sized, southern police department”,
  238. (1988). Measuring work obstacles: Procedures, issues, and implications”,
  239. (1993). Menta l health, job satisfaction and occupational stress among UK teachers”,
  240. (1994). Methods of social research , Fourth Edition,
  241. (1976). Motivat ion through the design of work: test of a theory”, O r ganization Behavior and Human Performance,
  242. (1954). Motivation and personality ,
  243. (1970). Motivation and personality , Second Edition,
  244. (2000). Motivation in the work place”. In
  245. (1994). Motivation through job design”, In
  246. (2002). Motivation to work”, In
  247. (1993). Motivation? Money's only no. 2”, I n d ustry Week,
  248. (1997). Multiple regression in behav ioral research: explanation and P rediction , Third Edition, Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.
  249. (1999). National di fferences in subjective well-being”, In
  250. (1993). Nurse turnover with special reference to factors relating to nursing itself”,
  251. (2001). O r ganisational behaviour , Second Edition,
  252. (2008). O r ganisational behaviour and analysis: An integrated approach , Fourth Edition.
  253. (2003). O r ganisational behaviour: Global and Southern African perspectives . Cape Town:
  254. (1996). O r ganizational behavior: Understanding and managing life at work , Fourth Edition,
  255. (2004). O r ganizational behaviour , Fifth Edition,
  256. (2005). O r ganizational behaviour , Ninth Edition,
  257. (2002). O r ganizational behaviour , Second European Edition.
  258. (2005). O r ganizational behaviour , Tenth Edition,
  259. (1997). O r ganizational behaviour , Third Edition.
  260. (2001). O r ganizational behaviour,
  261. (2005). O r ganizational behaviour, Eleven Edition,
  262. (2003). O r ganizational behaviour, Tenth Edition,
  263. (2002). O r ganizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach ,
  264. (1986). O ut of the crisis ,
  265. (1983). Objective and perceived task characteristics as determinants of reactions by task performance”,
  266. (2002). Officer attitude surveys in community policing organizations: What are they really telling management?”,
  267. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees?”,
  268. (2004). Organisational citizenship behaviour: a case study of culture, leadership and trust”,
  269. (2002). Organiz ational behavior: Affect in the workplace”, A n n ual Review of
  270. (2008). Organiz ational communication and job satisfaction in Australian catholic primary schools”,
  271. (2006). Organizational behaviour ,
  272. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature and antecedents”,
  273. (2006). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences , Sage Publications Inc, Thousand Oaks.
  274. (2002). Organizational communication: is it a moderator of the relationship between job congruence and job performance/satisfaction?”,
  275. (1993). Organizational obstacles: Links with financial performance, customer satisfaction, and job satisfaction in a service environment”, H u man Relations
  276. (1992). Organizational stress, job satisfaction and job performance: where do we go from here?”,
  277. (1981). P olice: Force or Service?
  278. (2000). P r o blem-oriented Policing: Reflections on the First 20 Years, Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services,
  279. (1981). P s y c h ological and work: An introduction ,
  280. (1978). P s y c h ology and industry today: an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology ,
  281. (2002). P s y c h ology and work today , Eight Edition,
  282. (1990). P s y c h ology applied to work ,
  283. (2008). P u blic Health Admini stration: Princi ples for Population-Based Management, Second Edition,
  284. (1986). Par ticipation, satisfaction, and productivity: A meta analytic review”,
  285. (1983). Perce ived importance of job facet and overall job satisfaction of top and bottom level industrial managers”,
  286. (1986). Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work”, H u man
  287. (2000). Perceived job image among police officers in Singapore: Factorial dimensions and differential effects”,
  288. (2000). Perceived over qualification and dimensions of job satisfaction: A longitudinal analysis”,
  289. (1990). Perceived utilization, job satisfaction and advancement of policewomen”,
  290. (1980). Performance and satisfaction of bank managers”,
  291. (2007). Performance-based management systems for police organizations ,
  292. (1990). Perpetual thanks: its assets”,
  293. (2001). Personal background and reasons for choosing a career in policing: An empirical study of police students in Taiwan”,
  294. (2001). Personal characteristics and job satisfaction of Greek teachers”,
  295. (1985). Personal characteristics and job satisfaction: India-Nigeria comparison”,
  296. (2004). Personal characteristics as predictors of job satisfaction: An exploratory study of IT managers in a developing country”, I nf o r mation
  297. (2003). Personal correlates of job satisfaction: empirical evidence from UK universities”,
  298. (1989). Personnel Management ,
  299. (2008). Police a nd their perceived image: How community influence officers' job satisfaction”,
  300. (1990). Police force communications: Managing meaning on the firing line”, Canadian police college journal ,
  301. (1998). Police job satisfaction as a function of career orientation and position tenure: Implications for selection and community policing”,
  302. (1989). Police officer job satisfaction and community perceptions: implications for community-oriented policing”, J o u r nal of Research
  303. (1997). Police officer s views on cultivating organisational commitment: Implications for police managers”, P olicing: An I nternational
  304. (2009). Police organi zational culture and job satisfaction: A comparison of law enforcement officers’ perceptions
  305. (1981). Police patrol opera tions and management
  306. (1996). Police satisfaction with their jobs: arresting officers in the District of Columbia”,
  307. (1995). Police stress and well-being: integrating personality, coping and daily work experiences”,
  308. (2001). Policing after ethnic conflict: culture, democratic policing, politics, and the public”,
  309. (2006). Policing Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives ,
  310. (2004). Policing the police service: A case study of the rise of ‘new public management’ within an Australian police service”, A c c o u nting,
  311. (1997). Policing Urban America ,
  312. (2004). Predictin g police job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the role of social support and police organizational variables”,
  313. (1999). Predicting employee life satisfaction: A coherent model of personality, work and non-work experience, and domain satisfaction”,
  314. (2004). Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: Expanding Expectancy Value Theory”,
  315. (1988). Predictor s of job satisfaction and organisational commitment in human service organisation”, Adm i n i strative Science Quarterly .
  316. (1970). Principles of Scientific Thinking ,
  317. (1990). Problem-Oriented Policing ,
  318. (1995). Procedural justice in performance evaluation: The role of instrumental and non-instrumental voice in performance appraisal”, J o u r nal of management
  319. (2003). Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and the Effective Rule of Law”,
  320. (1988). Psychological testing ,
  321. (1978). Psychometric Theory , Second Edition,
  322. (1983). Public and private management”,
  323. (2004). Public satisfaction toward Dubai Police Force”, Master Thesis,
  324. (1992). Public sector professionals: The effects of public sector jobs on motivation, job satisfaction and work involvement”, A merican Review of Public Administration,
  325. (1990). Q ualitative evaluation and research methods ,
  326. (1988). Q ualitative Market Research: A Practitioner' and Buyer's Guide ,
  327. (1997). Q uantitative Data Analysis for Social Scientists with SPSS for Windows,
  328. (1992). Q uestionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement,
  329. (1995). Qualitative interviews in medical research”,
  330. (2004). Qualitative research methods for the social science , Pearson Education,
  331. (2004). Rac e, gender, and motivation for becoming a police officer: Implications for building a representative police department”, J o u r nal of Criminal Justice
  332. (2002). Real World Research , Second Edition,
  333. (1996). Reinventing and restructuring: Towards a new policing order”. In
  334. (1999). Relationship between perceived effectiveness and objectivity of performance appraisal system and organizational commitment, job satisfaction and performance: An empirical study”, A rab
  335. (1992). Research methods for business , Second Edition,
  336. (1992). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach , Second Edition,
  337. (1980). Research methods for community health and welfare: An introduction ,
  338. (2005). Research methods for organizational studies , Second Edition,
  339. (2007). Research methods in business studies, Fourth Edition,
  340. (1996). Research methods in social sciences , Fifth Edition,
  341. (1980). Response time and citizen evaluation of the police”,
  342. (1966). Review of Herzberg’s work and the nature of man”,
  343. (2001). Role am biguity, task cohesion, and task selfefficacy”,
  344. (2004). Role ambiguity and role conflict and satisfaction among physical education teachers in Greece”,
  345. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations”, A d m i n i strative
  346. (1981). Role perceptions, satisfaction and performance: Moderating effects of self-esteem and organizational level”, O r ganizational Behavior and Human Performance,
  347. (2003). S cale development: Theory and applications, Second Edition,
  348. (2000). S o c ial research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, Fourth Edition, Allyn and Bacon,
  349. (1992). S u m mated rating scale cons truction: An introduction , Sage,
  350. (1983). S u pervisory studies , Third Edition, Macdonald and Evans.
  351. (1971). S u r vey methods in social investigation ,
  352. (1982). Secondary analysis and social research: A guide to data sources and methods with examples , London: Allen and Unwin.
  353. (2000). Selling the brand inside”,
  354. (1988). SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of quality”, J o ur nal of Retailing
  355. (1976). Sex differences in job satisfaction”,
  356. (2004). Significant conditions in Employees Empowerment: the Case of Jordanian four Star hotels”,
  357. (1999). Sources of job satisfaction among police officers: A test of demographic and work environment models”,
  358. (1994). Sources of police Stressors, job attitudes and psychological distress”, P s y c h ological Reports
  359. (2004). Specific relationships between job demands, job resources and psychological outcomes and the mediating role of negative work-home interference”, J o u r nal of Vocational Behavior
  360. (1989). Standards of comparison and job satisfaction”,
  361. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences , Second Edition,
  362. (2009). Staying in th e job: Job satisfaction among mid-career police officers”,
  363. (1980). Str ess and work: A review and a theoretical framework”,
  364. (1977). Strategies for enhancing the prediction of job Performance from job satisfaction”, J o u r nal of
  365. (1981). Stress and police personnel”,
  366. (1978). Stress cont rol program for police officers: City of Miami Police Department”, Unpublished concept paper No.
  367. (1993). Subordinate-manager communication in different sex dyads: consequences for job satisfaction”, J o u r nal of Occupati onal and Organizational Psychology,
  368. (2000). Supervis or communication practices and service employee job outcomes”,
  369. (1999). Surprising but true: Half of the decisions in organizations fail”,
  370. (1978). T he Blue Coated Worker , Cambridge:
  371. (2006). T he business environment , Fifth Edition, Financial Times,
  372. (1997). T he employee satisfaction inventory (ESI): Development of a scale to measure satisfaction of Greek employees”,
  373. (1981). T he experience of work: A compendium and review of 249 measures and their use ,
  374. (1933). T he human problems of an Industrial civilization
  375. (1998). T he Human Side of Organizations , Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
  376. (1969). T he measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: A strategy for the study of attitudes.
  377. (1959). T he Motivation to Work, Second Edition,
  378. (2002). T he move to community policing: Making change happen,
  379. (1997). T he service profit chain: How leading companies link profit and growth to loyalty, satisfaction, and value ,
  380. (1996). T he view of religion between the one who asks and the one who answers , Wahba Book Shop, Cairo (Arabic Language).
  381. (2002). Taking the measure of work: A gu ide to validated scales for organizational research and diagnosis . Thousand Oaks,
  382. (2005). Tertiary education, commitment and turnover in police work”, P olice Practice and Resear ch:
  383. (1992). The 12-hour work day: A 48-hour, eight- day week”,
  384. (1998). The age and job satisfaction relationship: Does its shape and strength still evade us?”
  385. (2003). The commitment and satisfaction of lowerranked police officers: Lessons for management”,
  386. (1996). The congruence between the importance of job satisfaction and the perceived level of achievement”,
  387. (2005). The construct of work commitment: testing an integrative framework”, P s y c h ological Bulletin ,
  388. (1999). The dete rminants of job satisfaction among United States Air Force's security police”,
  389. (2004). The determinants of job satisfaction among hospital nurses: a model estimation in Korea”,
  390. (2001). The determinants of public officials’ job satisfaction–the case of Korean public officials in the cadastral administration”, New Technology for a New Century International Conference, FIG Working Week Seoul,
  391. (2006). The Development of an employee satisfaction model for higher education”,
  392. (1996). The di mensions, antecedents and consequences of emotional labor”,
  393. (2001). The effect of personal characteristics on job satisfaction: a study among male managers in the Kuwait oil industry”,
  394. (1998). The effect s of organizational citizenship behavior on performance judgments: A field study and a laboratory experiment”, J o u r nal of Applied Psychology
  395. (1996). The effects of demographics on job satisfaction and newspaper management: A case study of Al-Bayan newspaper in the UAE”, Ph.D Thesis,
  396. (1996). The effects of organizational restructure on employee satisfaction”,
  397. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing , Second Edition,
  398. (1967). The human organization: Its management and value ,
  399. (1992). The impact of flexible benefits on employee satisfaction: A field study”,
  400. (2001). The impact of job satisfaction on turnover intent: A test of structural measurement model using a national sample of workers”,
  401. (1996). The impact of stress in site management effectiveness”,
  402. (2004). The impact on the job satisfaction of subordinate to transformational leadership of police chief”,
  403. (2005). The importance of a new philosophy to the post modern policing environment”,
  404. (2004). The inchoate nature of community policing: examining the differences between community policing and traditional police officers”,
  405. (2001). The interaction of affect and cognition: A neurobiological perspective”,
  406. (2006). The interaction of social skill and organizational support on job performance”, J o u r nal of
  407. (1987). The job ch aracteristics approach to task design: A critical review”,
  408. (1991). The job climate for women in traditionally male blue-collar occupations”,
  409. (2001). The job satisfactionjob performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review”, P s y c h ological
  410. (2004). The management of the early stages of restructuring in a tertiary education institution: An organisational commitment perspective”,
  411. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization”,
  412. (2003). The measurement of job satisfaction: an empirical study of frontline employees
  413. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment”, J o u r nal of Vocational Behavior
  414. (1994). The methodology of focus groups: the importance of interaction between research participants”,
  415. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction”,
  416. (1996). The perceived levels of job satisfaction among police officers: A descriptive review”,
  417. (1984). The poli ce stress hypothesis: A critical evaluation”, C r i m i nal
  418. (2008). The poli ce turnover problem: Fact or fiction?”,
  419. (2001). The Practice of Social Research , Ninth Edition,
  420. (2004). The Practice of Social Research , Tenth Edition,
  421. (1911). The principles of Scientific Management ,
  422. (2005). The Psychology of behaviour at work: The individ ual in the organisation , Second Edition,
  423. (1993). The public and the police in the city of
  424. (2000). The re lationship between tenure and non-tenure track status of Extension faculty and job satisfaction”, J o u r nal of Extension
  425. (2004). The Reasons for Choosing a Career in Policing among South Korean Police Cadets”, J o u r nal of Criminal Justice
  426. (1998). The relation between job level and job satisfaction”,
  427. (1998). The relationship between job satisfaction and personal characteristics of Turkish workers”,
  428. (1992). The relationship between personal variables and job satisfaction, a comparative study between national and foreign workers in the public sector in Kuwait”,
  429. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes and performance: An organizational level analysis”,
  430. (1992). The relationships between individual inputs, perceptions, and multidimensional pay satisfaction”, J o u r nal of Applied Psychology
  431. (2005). The relationships between Selected demographic factors and the level of job satisfaction of extension agents”,
  432. (2001). The role of customer satisfaction in achieving business excellence”,
  433. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis”,
  434. (1992). The role of opportunity in the conceptualization and measurement of job satisfaction”,
  435. (1996). The roots of satisfaction: the case of Sultan Qaboos University: A new university in a developing country”, Ph.D Thesis,
  436. (1996). The satisfaction and retention of frontline employees”,
  437. (2007). The search for job satisfaction: A survey of Alabama policing”,
  438. (1992). The situational occurrences theory of job satisfaction”,
  439. (1966). The social psychology of organizations ,
  440. (1989). The Social Psychology of Work
  441. (1993). The theory and practice of personnel management , Seventh Edition,
  442. (2006). The United Arab Emirates youths (UAEU) between modernity and traditionalism”,
  443. Thomas (Eds.) C o m p rehensive handbook of psychological assessment ,
  444. (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for mixed method evaluation designs”, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
  445. (2001). Toward a greater understanding of how dissatisfaction drives employee turnover”,
  446. (1963). Toward an understanding of inequity”,
  447. (2008). Training, job satisfaction and workplace performance
  448. (2002). Trust context: effect on organizational citizenship behavior, supervisory fairness, and job satisfaction beyond the influence of leader-member exchange”,
  449. (2004). U n derstanding police culture , Third edition,
  450. (2007). U s i n g Multivariate Statistics , Fourth Edition., Allyn &
  451. (1979). Understanding job satisfaction ,
  452. (2002). Understanding the factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction”, J o u r nal of Nursing Admini stration,
  453. (2005). Unhappy employees,
  454. (2002). Using a single-item approach to measure facet job satisfaction”,
  455. (1994). W o men and men at work, Pine Forge Press,
  456. (1982). W o r k and Motivation ,
  457. (1975). W o r k and Well-being ,
  458. (2005). W o r k Psychology: Understanding hum an behaviour in the workplace , Fourth Edition,
  459. (1980). W o r k Redesign ,
  460. (1996). Ways groups influence individual work effectiveness”, In
  461. (2002). Women abro ad: Getting the best results from women managers”,
  462. (1998). Women's Careers and Occupational Stress”,
  463. (1997). Work assignments and police work: exploring the work world of sworn officers in four New Mexico police departments”, P olicing:
  464. (2002). Work Intensification, Discretion and the Decline in Well-being at
  465. (1986). Work motivation theories”,
  466. (1991). Work stress and employee health”,
  467. (2005). Work stress, self-efficacy, Chinese work values, and work well-being in Hong Kong and Beijing”, I nternational
  468. (2003). Workpl ace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction”,
  469. Ye h (2001), “An investigation of moral values and ethical content of the corporate culture: Taiwanese versus U.S. sales people”, J o u r nal of Business Ethics

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.