Europe has been the centre of commercial mussel farming in the world and production has been nearly stagnating over the past \ud decade in the major mussel producing countries—Spain, the Netherlands, France and Italy, due to common problems of high \ud cost of production through advanced technologies, limitations of growing grounds and the price structure not being commensurate \ud with cost of production. It is believed that any substantial increase in world production of mussels can come about only through \ud expansion of mussel culture programmes in the developing countries, including India. \ud Due to several limitations, natural production of mussels in India cannot be increased more than 2-3 times the present sustenance \ud level. The technology of mussel culture which has been developed at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute has shown \ud the high production potential and field extension programmes have already been taken up. In the paper, the constraints for \ud expansion of mussel culture into the level of a small industry have been identified. \ud The need for research thrusts for improving the technology and increasing production rate has been highlighted. Areas \ud which need such efforts are seed production, transplantation of mussels, studies on ecology and physiology of mussels, experiments \ud on mixed farming, improvements in the culture system specific to our coastal conditions, pollution and disease problems and \ud post-harvest technology. Legal aspects relating to lease of water areas and navigational problems have been touched upon. \ud The immediate need is for a perspective planning for the development of mussel culture as an industry with the full realisation \ud of its potential. Governmental support and assistance from public financing institutions with an element of risk coverage in the \ud initial stages would help the establishment and growth of the industry
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