CMFRI Digital Repository

    Studies on the estuarine copepods of India

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    Out of the 67 species of calanoids recorded from the estuarine waters of India, 36 species occur in the backwaters around Cochin. The occurence, distribution and seasonal abundance of these species in the estuarine system around Cochin is dealt with

    Diurnal activity of the prawn Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan

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    Several authors have reported that penaeid prawns remain active above substratum at night and stay quiet, buried in sand during the day (Fuss, 1964; Fuss and Ogren, 1966 ; Wickham, 1967; Hughes, 1968). Menon and Raman (1961) also suggested increased nocturnal activity in Indian penaeid prawns. Kutty (1967) pointed out the burrowing habit of Penaeus semisculcatus and estimated the metabolism of the buried prawn; his short term observations, however, did not indicate that Penaeus indicus has the burrowing habit. Burrowing methods of Metapenaeus masiersii have been described by Dall (1958) and those of Penaeus duorarunt by Fuss (1964). It appears that the burrowing habits of the penaeid prawns are more or less similar. As evident, precise information on the burrowing behaviour, emergence from the substratum and activity of the Indian prawns are wanting. The authors had occasion to observe the activity rhythm of a group of penaeid prawns, Penaeus semisulcatus reared in the sea water aquarium of the Institute primarily for a series of experiments on metabolic adptations. The present observations, though not strictly planned, appeared to be of interest especially since much is yet to be known about the behaviour of the Indian prawns and are therefore presented here

    Note on the phyllosoma of Puerulus sewelli Ramadan

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    Prasad and Tampi (1959) in their paper ' On a collection of palinurid phyllosomas from the Laccadive seas' described a type of phyllosoma larvae which resembles the phyllosomas of palinurids except in that the larvae have bifid second antennae. This type was provisionally designated as the larva of Panulinis sp. VI. Since the publication of the paper the authors had occasion to examine several specimens of Puerulus sewelli Ramadan collected from the west coast of India at depths varying from 200 to 350 m. The collections included a good many berried individuals with the eggs in different stages of development. As there is no information in literature on the larvae of Puerulus an attempt was made to dissect out the embryos to study them. Some of the eggs were in an advanced stage of development and the embryos taken out from them showed sufficient diagnostic characters

    On Ichthyoplankton of the Cochin Backwaters during spring tides

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    It is known that the seed of several cultivable fishes occur in abundance in backwater areas. In order to understand the availability and distribution pattern of the ichthyoplankton of the Cochin Backwater, samples were collected regularly from a fixed station (09°58/N, 76°15/E) in Mattancherry Channel in the Cochin Backwater by operating a half a metre diameter nylon net (0.33 mm mesh size) for half an hour duration against the spring tide on full and new moon days from surface and bottom waters from June 1974 to December 1976. The ichthyoplankton at the station composed of gobids, clupeids, Ambassis sp., Cynoglossus sp., Chanos chanos, Solea elongata, Solea sp., Pseudorhombus sp., Samaris sp., Elops sp., Trypauchen vagina, Pterois sp., Stolephorus sp., Haplocheilm sp., Sphyraena sp., Siganus sp., Syngnathus sp., Scatophagus sp., Leiognathits sp., Chirocentrus sp., Balistidae, Sciaenidae and Tetrodontidae. The seasonal fluctuation of the fish larvae and other associated plankters in relation to the environmental parameters such as salinity, temperature and rainfall in the region are discussed

    Distribution and biology of the Skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) taken by the longline fishery in the Indian Ocean

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    The skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis remains to be one of the least exploited species of commercially important tunas in the Indian Ocean. At present they are taken mainly by the surface fishery and they form a minor component in the long line catches. The present communication provides information on their distribution, availability, abundance, length composition and spawning of skipjack based on the catch statistics and biological data obtained by the longline operations of Japanese commercial and research vessels. Relative density indices show that they were widely distributed in the western Indian Ocean during the first quarter, in the eastern Indian Ocean and northwest coast of Australia in the second quarter and in the third and fourth quarters they were widely distributed in the tropical waters. Their overall abundance and average density were at its peak in June, although they evinced seasonal variation. The fishes of the size group 58-70 cm dominated the longline catches, especially from the northern sector. In the central and eastern Indian Ocean, the specimens examined were relatively smaller. Available information on the gonad indices reveals that spawning activity is an extended one and it is relatively high in the northern and central Indian Ocean areas during September through April

    Studies on Indian Copepods 4. Description of the female and a redescription of the male of Pseudodiaptomus ardjuna Brehm (Copepoda, Calanoida) with notes on the distribution and affinities of the species

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    In 1953, Brehm described a new species of calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus ardjuna from Salsette Island, Thana District, Bombay. He had at his disposal only two male specimens, one of which was damaged. However, he could rightly identify it as a new species of the genus Pseudodiaptomus Herrick and gave a brief description of the male. The female of this species has not so far been described and there is no subsequent report of the male itself from anywhere. This short paper is meant to give a full account of both male and female collected from the South-East coast of India, off Mandapam. The present study is based on the examination of numerous specimens obtained from the plankton hauls, in the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Bay ; samples were also obtained from the saline creeks leading to the Central Marine Fisheries Research Station Experimental Fish Farm. No morphological differences were noticed between the three examples ; however, the present material differs in some details from the descriptions and diagrams given by Brehm for the specimens he collected from Bombay waters and these differences are discussed below. In describing the various parts of the body, I have adopted the terminology suggested byGooding (1957) with some modifications (Ummerkutty, 1960 & 1960 a). In presenting the ornamentation of the swimming legs Sewell's suggestion (1949) to differentiate spines by Roman and setae by Arabic numerals is adopted

    On the fluctuations of the oil sardine Fishery at Cannanore During 1961—1964

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    The decreasing trend in the catches of oil sardine at Cannanore from 1961-62 season leading to the total failure during 1963-64 and the remarkable recovery during 1964-65 are described. Information on the biology of the fish, based on the catches, such as maturity and feeding activities is briefly given. Observations on the behaviour of the fish in relation to certain environmental conditions have shown that temperature and salinity, perhaps, play a more significant role In the abundance of the population than factors like food or spawning. Juvenile oil sardine appear to have a narrower range of tolerance to temperature and salinity while the adults appear to have a wider range. Abudance of yearclasses in relation to their individual contributions to the fishery during each season has shown that the success or failure of the fishery in a given season depends upon the abundance of the juveniles recruited during that season. The probable causes for the failure of the fishery during 1963-64 and for the recovery during 1964-65 are discussed in the light of the data available

    A new distributional record of Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier) along the Indian coast

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    Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier) has been recorded for the first time from the Indian coast based on a specimen obtained from the Bombay coast. A description of the species has been given

    Demospongiae of Minicoy Island (Indian Ocean) - Part 2 Order Poecilosclerida

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    Detailed systematic account of 11 species of Poeoiloscleridean sponges referable to 6 families artd 8 genera collected from Minicoy Island is presented in this paper

    Studies on Indian echinoderms - ii. On Protankyra tuticorenensis sp. Nov. and other apodous holothurians from the Indian Seas

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    Ten species of apodous holothurians belonging to nine genera are described in detail with keys to various taxa. Protankyra tuticorenensis a new species collected from Tuticorin (Gulf of Mannar) is described here. Anaptagracilis Semper and the genus Labidoplax are recorded here for the first time from the Bay of Bengal. Notes on the habits of various species are given for the first time. Remarks on the zoogeography are also given at the end of the paper
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