Background: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) represents an uncommon skin tumor typically occurring on sun-damaged skin of the elderly. Histopathologic variants include spindled, clear cell, osteoid, osteoclastic, chondroid, pigmented, granular cell and myxoid lesions. To date, an atypical lymphoid infiltrate, including CD30-positive large cells mimicking lymphomatoid papulosis, has not been described in association with AFX. Methods: The clinical and histopathological characteristics of two AFX cases inciting an atypical lymphoid infiltrate, along with immunohistochemical profiles and T-cell receptor gamma ( TCR γ) gene rearrangement results, were reviewed. Results: Lesions in both cases occurred as solitary nodules in elderly patients. Microscopically, both lesions showed a cellular proliferation composed of pleomorphic spindle cells, associated with a prominent intralesional atypical lymphoid infiltrate. The spindle cells expressed CD10 but lacked the expression of S-100, cytokeratins and muscle markers, thereby confirming the diagnosis of AFX. CD30 highlighted a significant subset of large mononuclear cells in the lymphoid infiltrate of one case. TCR γ gene rearrangement analyses were negative for both cases. Conclusion: An atypical lymphoid infiltrate, including the one resembling lymphomatoid papulosis, associated with AFX has not been previously described. It is important to recognize the reactive nature of the infiltrate to avoid a misdiagnosis of lymphoma.Zheng R, Ma L, Bichakjian CK, Lowe L, Fullen DR. Atypical fibroxanthoma with lymphomatoid reaction
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