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Determination of Krypton Diffusion Coefficients in Uranium Dioxide Using Atomic Scale Calculations

By EMERSON VATHONNE, David Andersson, Michel Freyss, Romain Perriot, Michael Cooper, Christopher Stanek, M. Bertolus and † Cea

Abstract

International audienceWe present a study of the diffusion of krypton in UO 2 using atomic scale calculations combined with diffusion models adapted to the system studied. The migration barriers of the elementary mechanisms for interstitial or vacancy assisted migration are calculated in the DFT+U framework using the nudged elastic band method. The attempt frequencies are obtained from the phonon modes of the defect at the initial and saddle points using empirical potential methods. The diffusion coefficients of Kr in UO 2 are then calculated by combining this data with diffusion models accounting for the concentration of vacancies and the interaction of vacancies with Kr atoms. We determined the preferred mechanism for Kr migration and the corresponding diffusion coefficient as a function of the oxygen chemical potential μ O or nonstoichiometry. For very hypostoichiometric (or U-rich) conditions, the most favorable mechanism is interstitial migration. For hypostoichiometric UO 2 , migration is assisted by the bound Schottky defect and the charged uranium vacancy, V U 4−. Around stoichiometry, migration assisted by the charged uranium−oxygen divacancy (V UO 2−) and V U 4− is the favored mechanism. Finally, for hyperstoichiometric or O-rich conditions, the migration assisted by two V U 4− dominates. Kr migration is enhanced at higher μ O , and in this regime, the activation energy will be between 4.09 and 0.73 eV depending on nonstoichiometry. The experimental values available are in the latter interval. Since it is very probable that these values were obtained for at least slightly hyperstoichiometric samples, our activation energies are consistent with the experimental data, even if further experiments with precisely controlled stoichiometry are needed to confirm these results. The mechanisms and trends with nonstoichiometry established for Kr are similar to those found in previous studies of Xe

Topics: [PHYS]Physics [physics], [PHYS.COND]Physics [physics]/Condensed Matter [cond-mat], [PHYS.COND.CM-MS]Physics [physics]/Condensed Matter [cond-mat]/Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci], [PHYS.COND.CM-SCE]Physics [physics]/Condensed Matter [cond-mat]/Strongly Correlated Electrons [cond-mat.str-el]
Publisher: 'American Chemical Society (ACS)'
Year: 2016
DOI identifier: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01560
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:cea-02063626v1
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