Objectives: Microsurgical ligation as well as antegrade sclerotherapy have been established in varicocele treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of microsurgery. and sclerotherapy can: provide a safe and effective treatment of varicocele recurrence or persistence. Methods. Nine patients with, recurrent or persistent varicoceles were operated by means of the combination method. Under microscopic control varix veins were ligated selectively preserving: lymphatics and arteries. Ectopic veins as a possible source for varicocele persistence or recurrence were also ligated. Finally, an intraoperative venography with subsequent sclerotherapy was, performed through one of the dissected veins. Results. Despite: difficult anatomical situations after previous surgical interventions, the operations were perform, ed successfully without any complications. Clinical controls showed varicocele disappearance without damage of the testis. No varicocele recurrence or persistence was observed. Conclusions. This method combines the advantages of both methods. Precision of the microsurgical technique is combined with velocity of sclerotherapy. Thus, it may represent an Interesting alternative to conventional operation methods especially in the treatment of recurrent or persistent varicoceles. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.