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近代イギリス大衆学校における一斉教授の成立について

By 佳代子 児美川

Abstract

There have been two ways of understanding about the original form of the simultaneous teaching. Some preceding studies regard the monitorial system, especially arranged according to Lancasterian plan, as the origin. Others attribute it to David Stow's "gallery lesson". This paper has attempted to clarify the essential qualities of the simultaneous teaching, inquiring into the differences between the monitorial system and Stow's system. Monitorial system had dual aspects of simultaneity; one was the simultaneous class teaching by the monitors, and the other was the simultaneous behavior of all the pupils, which evoked the pupils' readiness for the following lessons. The mechanical repetition of these simultaneous learning and behaving kept the order of monitorial schools. On the other hand, the moral influence of master and the mutual sympathy of pupils made possible Stow's simultaneous instruction at the gallery. Curiously, in spite of these differences, the arrangements of Stow's schoolroom had something in common with that of Lancasterian school. Furthermore, Stow also emphasized the importance of "physical exercises" which called the attention of the pupils at the commencement of a lesson. For example, "rising up and sitting down simultaneously" was imposed upon the pupils. So it comes to light that Stow's simultaneous instruction as well as Lancasterian system included the simultaneous behavior for order. Consequently, it can be said that the simultaneous teaching was not only a instructing method but also a way of school management. Therefore it has supported the disciplinary power of modern schools

Topics: 370, 372.33, 375.11
Publisher: 東京大学教育哲学・教育史研究室
Year: 1993
OAI identifier: oai:repository.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp:2261/630
Provided by: UT Repository

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