Planning forage needs in beef cattle enterprises is necessary for efficient utilization of genetic and environmental resources in pastoral systems and to generate economic benefits in an environmentally sound way. Production risk evaluation is essential in feed planning for cow-calf operations in pastoral systems. The proposed method to accomplish with production risk in these systems is based on the time biological system is maintained in an acceptable state under adverse climate conditions. This is coined "buffering time". The buffering time is calculated for both animals and pasture using an energetic approach. For cows, the buffering time is the minimum period the animal takes to reach the lowest acceptable body weight. for pasture, it is period for herbage mass to decrease to its mininum acceptable pasture buffering time indicated that increasing stocking rates put grazing systems at a higher risk.200
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