Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The Effect of Green Waste Composting on the Concentration and Composition of Ambient Bioaerosols

By Louise J. Pankhurst


The emission and dispersal of bioaerosols from commercial composting facilities has become an issue of increasing concern over the past decade, as historical evidence links bioaerosol exposure to negative human health impacts. As a result, recommended concentrations and risk assessment limits were imposed in 2001. However, more recent research has suggested that these limits may be exceeded under certain circumstances. For example, underestimation of bioaerosol concentrations may occur through „snapshot‟ sampling, and the use of methods that may reduce culturability of bioaerosols. This study aimed to address several gaps in knowledge, including quantification of bioaerosol concentrations downwind from sites, analysis of the effect that operational and environmental influences have on emission and downwind concentrations, and investigation of methods for the enumeration of non-culturable bioaerosols. The concentrations of bioaerosols upwind, on-site and downwind from two open-air green waste windrow composting facilities were enumerated in extensive detail, producing the first detailed and validated database of bioaerosol concentrations at green-waste composting facilities. The effects of composting processing activities, season, and meteorological conditions on concentrations were also investigated utilising this dataset. Results from these studies suggested that bioaerosols are able to disperse in elevated concentrations to distances beyond the 250 m risk assessment limit. Downwind peaks in concentration were directly linked to compost processing activities on-site, with the risk of sensitive receptor exposure to bioaerosols during non-operational hours minimal. Further, it was found that patterns in downwind concentrations of bioaerosols are likely to be governed by buoyancy effects, as a second peak in concentrations was found at 100-150m downwind. This finding was further supported through the use of a novel direct counting method. Finally, molecular methods allowed the composition of bioaerosols emitted from composting to be determined and showed that composting significantly alters the aerobiotic community at distances downwind. The methods investigated provide the potential for detailed, continuous measurements of bioaerosols, alongside identification of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, and could ultimately lead to source apportionment of bioaerosols

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles


  1. (2003a), Effects of bioaerosol polluted air on airways of residents: A cross sectional study.
  2. (2006). 454 sequencing put to the test using the complex genome of barley,
  3. (2007). A 5-year followup study on respiratory disorders and lung function in workers exposed to organic dust from composting plants,
  4. (1997). A collaborative European study of personal inhalable aerosol sampler performance,
  5. (2001). A Combined Phospholipid and 16SrDNA PCR-DGGE Analysis to Study Bioremediative Microbial Communities In Situ,
  6. (1999). A comparison of species diversity estimators,
  7. (2006). A molecular approach to the characterization of the eukaryotic communities of an extreme acidic environment: Methods for DNA extraction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis,
  8. (2002). A molecular typing approach for evaluating bioaerosol exposure in wastewater treatment plant workers.
  9. (2006). A new sub-sampling method for analysis of air samples collected with the Andersen single-stage sampler.
  10. (1999). A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project),
  11. (2006). A note on the power of Fisher's least significant difference procedure,
  12. (2007). A pyrosequencing-tailored nucleotide barcode design unveils opportunities for large-scale sample multiplexing,
  13. (1966). A sampler for respiratory health hazard assessment.
  14. (1997). Actinomycetes in composts.
  15. (2006). Advances in environmental and occupational disorders,
  16. (2006). Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants,
  17. Advice Committee on Dangerous Pathogens (2004), The Approved List of Biological Agents. Health and Safety Commission,
  18. (1990). Air Pollution and Forests, 2nd ed,
  19. (2002). Air Pollution and Plant Life, 2nd ed,
  20. (2002). Air Pollution, 2nd ed,
  21. (2007). Airborne microbiological characteristics in public
  22. (2001). Ambient air levels of Aspergillus fumigatus and thermophilic actinomycetes in a residential neighborhood near a yard-waste composting facility,
  23. (2006). Amenity and Report Management Reporting Plan (AMRP) for Operation of an In-Vessel Composter,
  24. (2005). Amenity impacts of episodic emissions from composting facilities,
  25. (2004). An Environmental Risk Mangement Framework for Composting Facilities in England and Wales, Environment Agency,
  26. (1999). Analysing Environmental Data,
  27. (1997). Analysis of actinomycete communities by specific amplification of genes encoding 16S rRNA and gel-electrophoretic separation in denaturing gradients,
  28. (2008). Analysis of airborne microorganisms, MVOC and odour in the surrounding of composting facilities and implications for future investigations,
  29. (2009). Analysis of bacterial activity, biomass and diversity during windrow composting,
  30. (1974). Antibody responses in patients with farmer's lung disease to antigens from Micropolyspora faeni,
  31. (2004). Antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter spp.
  32. (2009). Application of advanced optical methods for classification of air contaminants,
  33. (2008). Application of real-time PCR for total airborne bacterial assessment: Comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods,
  34. (2008). Artificial neural network models of relationships between Alternaria spores and meteorological factors in Szczecin (Poland),
  35. (2006). Aspergillosis, Schering-Plough Corporation.
  36. (2006). Aspergillus fumigatus, available at: (accessed 18th
  37. (2009). Assessment of airborne microorganism contamination in an industrial area characterised by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant,
  38. (2008). Assessment of atmospheric fungal prevalence through field ergosterol measurement I – Determination of the specific ergosterol content in common ambient fungal spores and yeast cells,
  39. (2008). Assessment of atmospheric fungal prevalence through field ergosterol measurement II: Establishing the conversion factor,
  40. Association for Organics Recycling (2009), A Standardised Protocol for the Monitoring of Bioaerosols at Open Composting Facilities, Association for Organics Recycling,
  41. (2004). Associations between acute symptoms and bioaerosol exposure during the collection of household waste.
  42. (1997). Bacteria and fungi in organic dust as potential health hazard,
  43. (2007). Bacteria spectra obtained by laser induced fluorescence,
  44. (2001). Bacterial community profiling using DGGE or TGGE analysis,
  45. (1996). Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR,
  46. (2007). Bio-aerosol Monitoring at Lount Composting Facility,
  47. (2007). Bioaerosol and Odour Monitoring at Three Compost Sites,
  48. (2007). Bioaerosol concentrations and the identification of aerosolized bacteria by 16S rDNA analysis in work environments,
  49. (2002). Bioaerosol exposure during refuse collection: Results of field studies in the real-life situation.
  50. (1997). Bioaerosol exposure in waste collection: A comparative study on the References Louise Pankhurst significance of collection equipment, type of waste, and seasonal variation.
  51. (2003). Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects,
  52. (2001). Bioaerosol lung damage in a worker with repeated exposure to fungi in a waterdamaged building. Environmental Health Perspectives,
  53. (2006). Bioaerosol releases from compost facilities: Evaluating passive and active source terms at a green waste facility for improved risk assessments,
  54. (1994). Bioaerosols associated with composting facilities,
  55. (2009). Bioaerosols in composting facilities: Occupational health risk assessment,
  56. (2004). Bioaerosols in outdoor air - Statement of environmental medical assessment criteria on the basis of an epidemiological cross sectional study, Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft,
  57. (2006). Bioaerosols in Waste Composting: Deriving source terms and characterising profiles, Environment Agency,
  58. (2009). Characterisation and Dispersal of Bioaerosols Emitted from Composting Facilities.
  59. (1998). Characterisation of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: An aid to effective engineering controls and preventative strategies.
  60. (2005). Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan, Atmospheric Environment,
  61. (2008). Chemical and biological features of Burkholderia cepacia complex lipopolysaccharides,
  62. (1999). Choosing and Using Statistics. A Biologist's Guide, Blackwell Science Limited,
  63. (2005). Climate factors influencing bacterial count in background air samples,
  64. (1994). CLUSTAL W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice,
  65. (1986). Collection of airborne micro-organisms on Nucleopore filters, estimation and analysis - CAMNEA method,
  66. (1999). Collection of airborne microorganisms by electrostatic precipitation,
  67. (1995). Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.
  68. (2000). Collection of fungal spores on air filters and spore reentrainment from filters into air.
  69. (2009). Comparative study of genetic diversity of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis isolates from the Canary Islands by RAPD-PCR,
  70. (1994). Composting and bioaerosols.
  71. (2005). Composting Industry Code of Practice, The Composting Association,
  72. (2001). Controlling dust and bioaerosols at a biosolids composting facility,
  73. (2007). Conversation regarding composting facilities.
  74. (2007). Cultivation gives context to the microbial ecologist.
  75. (2006). Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes,
  76. (2005). Design and application of an oligonucleotide microarray for the investigation of compost microbial communities,
  77. (1998). Design and evaluation of useful bacterium-specific PCR primers that amplify genes coding for bacterial 16S rRNA.
  78. (2007). Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),
  79. (2009). Determination of emitted airborne microorganisms from a BIO-PAK wastewater treatment plant,
  80. (2004). Development and use of flow cytometry for detection of airborne fungi,
  81. (2007). Development of compost maturity and Actinobacteria populations during full-scale composting of organic household waste,
  82. (1997). Diarrhoea among waste collectors associated with bioaerosol exposure.
  83. (2006). Dispersion of bioaerosols from composting facilities, Waste
  84. (2007). Diversity of aerosolised bacteria during land application of biosolids,
  85. (2009). Domestic waste composting facilities: A review of human health risks,
  86. (2001). Dynamics of mycelial aggregation in cultures of aspergillus oryzae,
  87. (2009). E-mail regarding Aspergillus fumigatus recommended limits. Sent to
  88. (1997). Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gramnegative bacteria.
  89. (1990). Effect of aerosolization on subsequent bacterial survival,
  90. (2002). Effect of electrical charges and fields on injury and viability of airborne bacteria,
  91. (1997). Effect of impaction, bounce and reaerosolization on the collection efficiency of impingers,
  92. (2007). Effects of temperature and biostimulation on oil-degrading microbial communities in temperate estuarine waters,
  93. (2004). Emission and dispersal of bioaerosol during the agitation of green waste compost piles, 28-30,
  94. (2006). Endotoxin (1→3)-β-D-glucans and fungal extra-cellular polysaccharides in New Zealand homes: A pilot study.
  95. (2007). Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source – Use of soil compost agar to address plate „masking‟.
  96. Environment Agency (2001a), Health Effects of Composting. A study of three compost sites and review of past data, Environment Agency,
  97. Environment Agency (2009a), Guidance on the evaluation of bioaerosol risk assessments for composting facilities, Environment Agency,
  98. (1996). Environmental assessment of aerosols, bioaerosols, and airborne endotoxins in a machining plant,
  99. (2005). Environmental Protection Act
  100. (1987). Estimating downwind concentrations of viable airborne microorganisms in dynamic atmosphere conditions.
  101. (2005). Estimating fugitive bioaerosol releases from static compost windrows: Feasibility of a portable wind tunnel approach.
  102. (1995). Evaluation of bioaerosols in a municipal solid waste recycling and composting plant,
  103. (2009). Evaluation of inflammatory effects of airborne endotoxin emitted from composting sources, Environmental Health Perspectives, submitted 27th
  104. (2004). Exposure assessment and analysis for biological agents.
  105. (2006). Exposure to aerosolized bacteria and fungi among collectors of commercial, mixed residential, References Louise Pankhurst recyclable and compostable waste,
  106. (2000). Exposure to airborne fungi, MVOC and mycotoxins in biowaste-handling facilities.
  107. (2005). Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxins in agricultural industries.
  108. (2006). Exposure visualisation of ultrafine particle counts in a transport microenvironment,
  109. (2001). Extraction of nucleic acids from environmental samples,
  110. (1999). Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides in the characterisation of microbial communities in soil: A review,
  111. (2004). Filamentous microorganisms and their fragments in indoor air - A review,
  112. (2008). Foraging strategies of the external mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Scutellospora calospora,
  113. (1988). Fungal and actinomycete spores as pollutants of the workplace and occupational allergens,
  114. (1996). Fusarium toxins and fungi associated with handling of grain on eight Finnish farms,
  115. (1997). Gastrointestinal symptoms among waste recycling workers.
  116. (2005). Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors,
  117. (1995). Glycosphingolipids from Sphingomonas paucimobilis induce monokine production in human mononuclear cells, Infection and immunity,
  118. (2006). Greengenes, a chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbench compatible with ARB,
  119. (1995). Hazard to man and the environment posed by the use of urban waste compost: A review,
  120. (2000). Health complaints and immunological markers of exposure to bioaerosols amongst biowaste collectors and compost workers.
  121. (2004). Health effects associated with exposure to residential organic dust,
  122. (2008). Health effects due to endotoxin inhalation (review),
  123. (2005). Health Impact Assessment of Waste Management: Methodological Aspects and Information Sources, Environment Agency,
  124. (2007). Health impacts of composting air emissions,
  125. (1988). Health risks of indoor pollutants,
  126. (2001). House dust endotoxin and wheeze in the first year of life,
  127. (2007). Identification of mycobacteria in peat moss processing plants: Application of molecular biology approaches,
  128. (1999). Identification of novel bacterial lineages as active members of microbial populations in a freshwater sediment using a rapid RNA extraction procedure and RT-PCR,
  129. (2002). Immunological aspects and affections of rubbish collectors caused by bioaerosols,
  130. (2004). Impact of DNA extraction method on bacterial community composition measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,
  131. (2006). Incorporating polymerase chain reaction-based identification, population characterisation, and quantification of microorganisms into aerosol science: A review,
  132. (2000). Increased levels of markers of microbial exposure in homes with indoor storage of organic household waste,
  133. (1995). Influence of various dust sampling and extraction methods on the measurement of airborne endotoxin.
  134. Ingenieure (2004a), Measurement of airborne microorganisms and viruses in ambient air. Active sampling of bioaerosols,
  135. Ingenieure (2004b), Measurement of airborne microorganisms and viruses in ambient air. Culture based method for the determination of the concentrations of moulds in air,
  136. (2007). Interactions between microbial community structure and the soil environment found on golf courses,
  137. (1989). Isolation and direct complete nucleotide determination of entire genes. Characterization of a gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA,
  138. (1955). Isolation of fungi from hyphæ present in soil,
  139. (2009). Kestrel 3000 Pocket Wind Meter Specifications, available at:
  140. (2007). Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme, available at: (accessed 18th
  141. (1984). Levels of Aspergillus fumigatus in air and in compost at a sewage sludge composting site,
  142. (1983). Levels of gram-negative bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, dust, and endotoxin at compost plants.
  143. (2001). Lipopolysaccharide enhances cytolysis and inflammatory cytokine induction in bovine alveolar macrophages exposed to Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin,
  144. (2003). Lipopolysaccharide of Burkholderia cepacia complex,
  145. (1999). Long-term sampling of airborne bacteria and fungi into a non-evaporating liquid, Atmospheric Environment,
  146. (2007). Lower Trent Composting Plant Working Plan,
  147. (2003). Man and His Waste. Bioaerosol exposure and respiratory health effects in waste management.
  148. (2007). Managing the potential public health risks from bioaerosol liberation at commercial composting sites in the UK: An analysis of the evidence base,
  149. (2001). Measuring Bioaerosols. Occupational Health and Safety,
  150. (1996). Methods for Microbiological Examination of Food and Animal Feeding Stuff - Part 0: General Laboratory Practices, British Standards Institution,
  151. (1998). Methods for quantitative assessment of airborne levels of noninfectious microorganisms in highly contaminated work environment,
  152. (1991). Microbial biomass measured as total lipid phosphate in soils of different organic content,
  153. (1997). Microbial community changes during the composting of municipal solid waste,
  154. (2002). Microbial community dynamics during composting of organic matter as determined by
  155. (2008). Microbial community dynamics during composting of sewage sludge and straw studied through phospholipid and neutral lipid analysis,
  156. (2005). Microbial community growth and utilization of carbon constituents during thermophilic composting at different oxygen levels,
  157. (2002). Microbial emissions from composting sites, environmental and health impact of solid waste management activities.
  158. (1998). Microbial evolution, diversity, and ecology: A decade of ribosomal RNA analysis of uncultivated microorganisms,
  159. (1999). Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill,
  160. (1997). Microorganisms and endotoxin in experimentally generated bioaerosols from composting household waste,
  161. (2006). Model 9525 P-Trak Ultrafine Particle Counter. Operation and Service Manual. Revision J. TSI Incorporated,
  162. (2004). Molecular Expressions, available at: (accessed 24th
  163. (2006). NAST: A multiple sequence alignment server for comparative analysis of 16S rRNA genes, Nucleic acids research,
  164. (1983). Natural atmospheric microbial conditions in a typical suburban area,
  165. (2005). New personal sampler for viable airborne viruses: feasibility study.
  166. (2002). Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling, in Analysis of Ecological Communities, MjM Software Design,
  167. (2003). Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Bioaerosols from Composts and Potential Health Effects – A critical review of published data, Health and Safety Executive,
  168. (2006). Occupational endotoxin exposure and possible health effects on humans.
  169. (2005). Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.
  170. (1980). Occupational symptoms among compost workers,
  171. (1997). Occurring sporadically or periodically (Wikipedia,
  172. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2004), Planning for Waste Management Facilities. A research study,
  173. (2007). Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: Effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts,
  174. Options for the Diversion of Biodegradable Municipal Waste from Landfill,
  175. (2009). Particle size distribution of airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores emitted from compost using membrane-filtration, Atmospheric Environment,
  176. (1994). PCR and gene probes for detecting bioaerosols,
  177. (2007). Personal sampler for viable airborne microorganisms: main development stages,
  178. (1986). Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid biomarkers of acetate-oxidizing sulphate-reducers and other sulphide-forming bacteria,
  179. (1993). Phospholipid fatty acid composition, biomass, and activity of microbial communities from two soil types experimentally exposed to different heavy metals,
  180. (2002). Phospholipid fatty acid profiles at depositional and non-depositional sites
  181. (2002). Preliminary results of monitoring the release of bioaerosols from composting facilities in the UK: interpretation, modelling and appraisal of mitigation measures,
  182. (2008). Prevalence of culturable airborne spores of selected allergenic and pathogenic fungi in outdoor air,
  183. (2001). Primer design for PCR amplification of environmental DNA targets,
  184. (2001). Procedures for the characterisation of bioaerosol particles. Part II: Effects of environment on culturability.
  185. (1993). Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA,
  186. (1998). Quantification of 16S rRNAs in complex bacterial communities by multiple competitive reverse transcriptionPCR in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints,
  187. (1999). Quantitative sampling of indoor air biomass by signature lipid biomarker analysis,
  188. (2003). Ranking and frequency of somatic symptoms in residents near composting sites with odor annoyance,
  189. (2009). Rapid and Responsive Monitoring Network for Bioaerosol Emissions: Final Report,
  190. (2006). Rapid detection of airborne viruses by personal aerosol sampler combined with the PCR device.
  191. (2007). Real-time monitoring for bioaerosols -
  192. (2008). Recommendations for study design and sampling strategies for airborne microorganisms, MVOC and odours in the surrounding of composting facilities,
  193. (1999). Reduction efficiencies of a biofilter and a bioscrubber for bioaerosols from two different piggeries,
  194. (1998). References Louise Pankhurst Golder Associates
  195. (1997). Relationship between different bioaerosol parameters sampled from the breathing zone of waste collectors - Identification of the most important parameters,
  196. (2006). Relationship between sampling duration and concentration of culturable airborne mould and bacteria on selected culture media.
  197. (2007). Remote detection of similar biological materials using femtosecond filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy,
  198. (2007). Risk Assessment for Bioaerosols for Lower Trent OWC,
  199. (1997). Sampling and assay of bioaerosols in the work environment.
  200. (2005). Sampling performance for bioaerosols with flow cytometry with fluorochrome,
  201. (2000). Sediment microbial community structure and mercury methylation in mercury-polluted Clear Lake,
  202. (1993). Shifts in the structure of soil microbial communities in limed forests as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis,
  203. (2001). Short term exposure to airborne microbial agents during farm work: exposure-response relations with eye and respiratory symptoms.
  204. (2008). Significant contributions of fungal spores to the organic carbon and to the aerosol mass balance of the urban atmospheric aerosol,
  205. (2005). Size relationship between airborne viable bacteria and particles in a controlled indoor environment study,
  206. (2008). SKC inc (2007), Air Sampling Filters and Accessories, available at: (accessed 8th
  207. (2007). Source tracking aerosols released from land-applied class B biosolids during high-wind events,
  208. (2004). Statistics Without Tears. A Primer for Non-Mathematicians. Pearson Education Incorporated,
  209. (2002). Structure and function of lipopolysaccharides,
  210. (2007). Study of bioaerosols and site influence in the La Plata area (Argentina) using conventional and DNA (fingerprint) based methods,
  211. (2000). Succession of microbial communities during hot composting as detected by PCR-single-strand-References Louise Pankhurst conformation polymorphism-based genetic profiles of small- subunit rRNA genes,
  212. (2002). Succession of microbiota estimated by phospholipid fatty acid analysis and changes in organic constituents during the composting process of rice straw,
  213. (1990). Survival of bacteria during aerosolization,
  214. (1997). Symptoms among Danish waste collectors.
  215. (2009). Synoptic and Climate Stations, available at:
  216. (2005). T-Align, a web-based tool for comparison of multiple terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles,
  217. (1998). The adaptation of existing personal inhalable aerosol samplers for bioaerosol sampling,
  218. (1997). The assessment of airborne microorganisms in large-scale composting facilities and their immediate surroundings,
  219. (1999). The Composting Association
  220. (2006). The distribution of staphylococci in bioaerosols from red-meat abattoirs.
  221. (2009). The diversity of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker for the microbial community in soil,
  222. (2004). The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations - A review,
  223. (2008). The Free Dictionary, available at: (accessed 21st
  224. (2009). The microbial signature of aerosols produced during the thermophilic phase of composting,
  225. (2005). The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex,
  226. (2001). The polymerase chain reaction as a tool to investigate microbial diversity in environmental samples,
  227. (2008). The State of Composting and Biological Waste Treatment in the UK 2006/07, Association for Organics Recycling. References Louise Pankhurst
  228. (2006). The uptake of a Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide mutant triggers an inflammatory response by human airway epithelial cells,
  229. (2009). The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas,
  230. (1977). Trends and community annoyance reactions to odors from pulp mills Eureka,
  231. (2000). Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA),
  232. (2006). UniFrac - An online tool for comparing microbial community diversity in a phylogenetic context,
  233. (2005). UniFrac: A new phylogenetic method for comparing microbial communities,
  234. (2004). Updated perspectives on emerging vibrios associated with human infections,
  235. (2002). Upper airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms in domestic waste collectors.
  236. (2000). Upper airway inflammation assessed by nasal lavage in compost workers: a relation with bio-aerosol exposure.
  237. (2003). Urticaceae pollen concentration in the atmosphere of North Western Spain,
  238. (2007). Using a bioaerosol personal sampler in combination with real-time PCR analysis for rapid detection of airborne viruses.
  239. (2002). Waste not, Want not - A strategy for tackling the waste problem in England, Strategy Unit,
  240. (2007). Waste Strategy for England
  241. (2003). Welbeck Composting Facility. Site specific risk assessment of potential bioaerosol releases. 4C-197-174, SLR
  242. (2001). Wen-Tzong Chang, Hung-Yi Chuang, Shang-Shyue Tsai, TrongNeng Wu and Fung-Chang Sung.
  243. (2007). Wikipedia
  244. (1987). Working conditions and hygiene at sanitary landfills in Finland,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.