Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The general as statesman : exploring the professional need for commanders to support viable political outcomes in peace and stability operations as typified by the UK military approach

By R Lovelock


The problem of theatre level politico-military arrangements during peace and stability operations is important because the intervening actors, working in complex and often ambiguous circumstances, need to calibrate the application of military and political means as a coherent interdependent whole. This is necessary in order to build peace, secure viable political outcomes and hence strategic successes; however it is not easy in practice. This thesis examines the hypothesis that, beyond their security-related tasks, military commanders should provide direct support to civilian interlocutors in order to facilitate and sustain the local political process. This requires military co-operation with other relevant actors, responsiveness to political direction and the specific shaping of military operations to impact decisively on political outcomes. This work establishes that Western and United Nations doctrinal guidance extols political primacy and civil-military cooperation but does not fully explain the central importance of the political process, nor does it capture the potential peace building role of the military component. Analysis of practice in Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan, suggests that military commanders retain a uniquely influential position and have generally used their military means to positively influence political progress and help coordinate multi-dimensional plans. On occasion, to secure momentum and fill a void, commanders have quietly assumed a political function. Doctrine now needs to be refreshed to reflect practice. It should explain the military role in supporting the political process, elaborate the politico-military relationship as the inner core of a comprehensive approach to peace building and provide candid guidance on the difficulties to be expected where politico-military and coordination arrangements are incoherent. Moreover further work is needed on the wider application of this doctrine by the United Nations and the preparation of civilian leaders for politico-military relationships

Year: 2011
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles


  1. (2007). (Powerpoint presentation to DPKO town hall meeting - Author's copy)." Henry L.Stimson Center,
  2. (2000). 111 Provost Company Post Operation Report Op Agricola - February -
  3. (1957). 2 Para ―Some Reflections on Cyprus‖ "
  4. (2008). 3-07 Stability Operations."
  5. (2006). 3-24, MCWP 3-33.5 Counterinsurgency Field Manual."
  6. (2010). 48 killed in suicide bombings targeting members of Iraq's Awakening councils."
  7. (2010). A Bad Week for Afghan Strategists."
  8. (1993). A Draft Concept of Second Generation Multinational Operations.
  9. (2007). A firm foundation." Nato Review Web edition
  10. (2001). A First-Hand Perspective from Kosovo." In Peace Support Operations Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives, edited by Thomas Bernauer,
  11. (2006). A Guide to Navigate Your Dissertation." former member of
  12. (1996). A Guide to Peace Support Operations. Providence, R I:
  13. (1954). A Handbook on Anti-Mau Mau Operations." General Headquarters,
  14. (1993). A History of Warfare.
  15. (2009). A New Partnership Agenda: Charting a New Horizon for UN Peacekeeping."
  16. (2009). A Petraeus Doctrine for Whitehall."
  17. (2010). A prisoner of his generals."
  18. (2001). A View From Kosovo."
  19. (2003). A Wiser Peace:An Action Strategy for a Post-Conflict Iraq."
  20. (2010). Accidental Counterinsurgents: Nad E Ali, Hybrid War and the Future of the British Army ": Unpublished,
  21. (2003). Achieving the Vision to Restore Full Sovereignty to the Iraqi People (Strategic Plan)." edited by Coalition Provisional Authority.
  22. (2010). Adaptability and Partnership:Issues for the Strategic Defence Review. Cm 7794." Secretary of State for Defence (The Stationery Office),
  23. (2009). Adapting Government for Stabilisation and Counter-Insurgency Operations."
  24. (1999). Address to the Chicago Economic Club."
  25. (2001). Admiral Sir Michael, GCB OBE ADC. "UK Strategic Choices Following the Strategic Defence Review and 11th September."
  26. (2010). Afghan commander Stanley McChrystal fired by Obama."
  27. (2010). Afghan forces' apathy starts to wear on US Platoon in Kandahar." The Washington Post (online),
  28. (2001). Afghanistan and Central Asia: Priorities for Reconstruction and Development."
  29. (2008). Afghanistan is a nasty war we can never win."
  30. (2001). Afghanistan World Bank Approach Paper."
  31. (2010). Afghanistan: The Consequences of a ―Conceptual Withdrawal‖." The German Marshall Fund of the United States,
  32. (2010). Afghanistan: what would Byzantium do?"
  33. (2004). Afghanistan: Winning a Three Block War."
  34. (2007). Africa:
  35. (2008). After Saddam : prewar planning and the occupation of Iraq.
  36. (2010). aims in Afghanistan: Played for fools."
  37. (2008). Air Chief Marshal Sir Jock. "Chief of Defence Staff RUSI Christmas Lecture "
  38. (2003). Airpower in Small Wars:
  39. (2008). Al-Sadr ceasefire allows troops to enter Shia slum."
  40. (1999). Albanian Violence Stalls Serb Repatriation." Institute for War & Peace Reporting,
  41. (2010). Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) Commanders Initiative Group (CIG) Programme Paper ISP PP 2010/01: Operationalising the Comprehensive Approach." London: Chatham House,
  42. (2003). America's role in nation-building:: from Germany to Iraq.
  43. (2002). An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa,
  44. (2002). An Evolving 'Post-Conflict' Role for the Military: Providing a Secure Environment and Supporting the Rule of Law."
  45. (2004). An Historic Review of CPA Accomplishments." Coalition Provisional Authority,
  46. (2007). Analysis of Petraeus' and Crocker's comments at
  47. (2008). Anbar Awakens: The Tipping Point." Military Review March-April
  48. (2009). and politics in Afghanistan: McChrystal in the bull ring."
  49. (2000). and UNMIK Sharing a Common Vision for Kosovo." NATO'S NATIONS and Partners for Peace,
  50. (2001). Andreas Wenger, and with the assistance of Yvonne Rosteck, eds. Peace Support Operations Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives.
  51. (2010). Appraising Moshtarak: The Campaign in Nad-e-Ali District, Helmand." London: RUSI Briefing Note,
  52. (2007). Army and Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Foreword by
  53. (2001). Aspects of Peacekeeping: Frank Cass Publishers,
  54. (2007). Assessing the Surge: A RUSI Interview with Ambassador Ryan Crocker."
  55. (2004). At War's End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge:
  56. (2003). Authoring a PhD.
  57. Baghdad,
  58. (2010). Barack Obama 'angry' over McChrystal claims."
  59. (1998). Beyond the Logjam: A Doctrine for Complex Emergencies."
  60. (2004). Blue Helmets A Review of United Nations Peace-keeping. Third Edition ed.
  61. (2005). Book Review of The Utility of Force." The Sunday Times,
  62. (2009). Book Review: The Insurgent Archipelago: From Mau to Bin Laden - John Mackinlay." British Army Review 148,
  63. (2006). Book Review. My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope."
  64. (2003). Bosnia fixer with global perspective."
  65. (2006). Bremer's Seven-Step Plan for Iraqi Sovereignty." PBS,
  66. (2007). Briefing at NATO HQ
  67. Brigadier (former Military Advisor to
  68. (1999). Brigadier (Former UK Brigade Commander Kosovo
  69. (2001). British Defence Doctrine (Second Edition)."
  70. (2008). British Defence Doctrine (Third Edition) ",
  71. (2010). British official urges Afghanistan to negotiate with Taliban, other insurgents." The Washington Post (online), 11
  72. (2001). British troops quell Mitrovica riots." The Times,
  73. (1945). Brush Fire Wars: Minor Campaigns of the British Army since
  74. (2009). Building Peace After War.
  75. (2007). Building the Afghan Security Forces." Ace Rapid Reaction Corps Journal Spring
  76. (1977). Bunch of Five.
  77. (2003). Bush in Babylon: The Recolonisation of Iraq.
  78. (2006). By jingo, our brave boys are off to tame the Afghan. And they'll fail."
  79. (2006). Calibrating Ink Spots: Filling Afghanistan‘s Ungoverned Spaces."
  80. (2005). Campaign Design for Winning the War
  81. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Third Edition. . Thousand Oaks: Sage,
  82. (1945). Charter of the United Nations."
  83. (2002). Civil Military Responses to Security Challenges in Peace Operations: Ten Lessons from Kosovo."
  84. (2007). Civil-Military Coordination Practices and Approaches Within United Nations Peace Operations."
  85. (2005). Civil-Military Relations in Peace Operations: Political Leadership without Micromanagement. Paper prepared for presentation at the annual International Studies Association Convention in Honolulu,
  86. (2000). Civil-Military Relations in the Kosovo Crisis: An Emerging Hegemony?"
  87. (2009). Civilian, Military Officials at Odds Over Resources Needed for Afghan Mission."
  88. (2003). Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 1 De-Ba`athification of Iraqi Society."
  89. (2003). Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2 Dissolution of Entities."
  90. (1999). Coercive Inducement and the Containment of International Crises.
  91. (2007). Col US Army Ret. (planner in CPA during 2003, command group adviser in MNSTC-I during 2004-5, member of MNF-I Joint Strategy Assessment Team February-November
  92. (2003). Colonel Blimp Really is Dead - ACGS Oxford Union Speech [author's copy]."
  93. (2009). Colonel Iron and the Charge of the Nights "
  94. (2007). Colonel US Army Ret., (planner in CPA during 2003, command group adviser in MNSTC-I during 2004-5, member of MNF-I Joint Strategy Assessment Team February-November
  95. (2008). Colonel, (Former Chief Campaign Plans MNF-I
  96. (2008). Colonel, (former MA to DCOM ISAF Jun-Dec
  97. (1999). Comfortable with Chaos.
  98. (2009). COMISAF's Initial Assessment."
  99. (1995). Command Arrangements for Peace Operations." CCRP,
  100. (2009). Command Transformation. "Multiple Futures Final Report."
  101. (2000). Commander Kosovo Force. "Commanding KFOR."
  102. (2009). Commander's Counterinsurgency Guidance." Kabul, Afghanistan: Headquarters International Security Assistance Force
  103. (2007). Commander's Letter." Baghdad: Multinational Force-Iraq,
  104. (2007). Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate Iraq: The Crocker-Petraeus Report, One Hundred Tenth Congress First Session,
  105. (2007). Committee on Foreign Relations. Iraq : the CrockerPetraeus report : hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Tenth Congress, first session,
  106. (2003). Comparative and Operational Aspects of Peacekeeping in Intra-State Conflicts with particular reference to Irish participation in ONUC 1960-64." PhD,
  107. (2009). Complex Peace Operations and Civil-Military Relations Winning the peace.
  108. (2000). Confrontation over Pristina airport "
  109. (2005). Contemporary Conflict Resolution. Second Edition ed.
  110. (1981). Counter insurgency and internal security."
  111. (2001). Counter Insurgency Operations (Strategic and Operational Guidelines)."
  112. (1967). Counter-Insurgency Campaigning. London: Faber and Faber,
  113. (2006). Counter-insurgency Redux."
  114. (2007). Counter-insurgency: learn and adapt? can we do better?"
  115. (2009). Countering Insurgency ":
  116. (1995). Counterinsurgency in the post-imperial era. Manchester and New York:
  117. (2006). Counterinsurgency Warfare. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International,
  118. (1995). Counterinsurgency: Strategy and the Phoenix of American Capability."
  119. (2007). David Petraeus' Change of Command Remarks. ." Baghdad: Multinational Force-Iraq,
  120. (2007). Decision Making in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Strategic Shift of
  121. (2010). Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Removing Saddam Hussein by Force." In Operation Iraqi Freedom Key Decisions Monograph Series edited by
  122. (1966). Defeating Communist Insurgency. London New York: Chatto and Windus Praeger,
  123. (2005). Defeating Complex Insurgency: Beyond Iraq and Afghanistan."
  124. (2006). Defence internal brief. Deployment of UK forces to Afghanistan."
  125. (1991). Defence Policy and Low-Intensity Conflict: The Development of Britain’s “Small Wars” Doctrine During the 1950s.
  126. (2000). Defining Warlords."
  127. (2000). Democracy by Force. Cambridge:
  128. (2004). Department of the United States Army. "Field Manual Interim 3-07.22 Counterinsurgency Operations."
  129. (2008). Developing a Performance Measurement System for Security Sector Interventions."
  130. (2005). Directive 3000.05: Military Support for Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR)."
  131. (2007). Discussion with Author.
  132. (2005). Discussion with senior UN official in UN Headquarters
  133. (2010). Display of unity fails to hide lack of clarity."
  134. (2006). Doctrine: Think before you shoot."
  135. (2000). Documents On The Laws Of War. Third ed. Oxford:
  136. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research.
  137. (2010). Downfall of the Jedi General." The Sunday Times,
  138. (2007). Dr,. (former CPA Strategic Planner 2003-4, member of MNF-I Joint Strategy Assessment Team Spring
  139. (2007). Dr., (former CPA Strategic Planner 2003-4, member of MNF-I Joint Strategy Assessment Team Spring
  140. (2005). Drawing Lessons from the Past: Historical Analysis of Stabilization Operations."
  141. (1950). DSO Director of Operations. "Report on the Emergency
  142. (2005). Dusty Warriors. London: Harper Perennial,
  143. (1996). Edition)." Prepared under the direction of the Chief of the General Staff,
  144. (2003). Effects-Based Operations: A US Perspective."
  145. (2010). Email to author "Re:Request for information on CPA-CJTF-7 Relationship".
  146. (2010). Email to author: "Afghanistan Interview Follow Up."
  147. (1999). Encyclopaedia of International Peacekeeping Operations.
  148. (2007). End of Year Message." Baghdad: Multinational Force-Iraq,
  149. (2002). Ending civil wars : the implementation of peace agreements.
  150. Establishing Collective Security in Kenya." British Army Review No1
  151. (2010). Executive Summary of the Unified Action Handbook Series. A Guide to Strengthened Civil Military Cooperation in the Combatant Command's Area of Responsibility."
  152. (2007). Experts and Briefings Received Discussion with senior British diplomat.
  153. (2008). Fault Lines: Inside Rumsfeld's Pentagon " Boston Review,
  154. (2006). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure
  155. (1998). Fighting For Peace.
  156. (2002). for Strategic and International Studies, and Association of the United States Army (AUSA). "Post-Conflict Reconstruction Task Framework."
  157. (2008). Former Commander Multi-National Division South East,
  158. (2008). Former Deputy Commander Stability ISAF
  159. (1999). Former head of DFID Kosovo Office
  160. (2010). Former UNMIK Political Officer 2000-2002.
  161. (2002). Framework Operations: The Contemporary Role of United Nations Civilian Police Contingents Within Peace Support Operations."
  162. (2000). France And Missions De Paix."
  163. (1999). From Counterinsurgency to Peace Enforcement: New Names for Old Games?"
  164. (1997). From Mission Cringe to Mission Creep?
  165. (2010). FT interview transcript: Gen Stanley McChrystal "
  166. (2003). Future of Land Warfare."
  167. (2010). Gen David Petraeus to review 'courageous restraint'."
  168. (2010). Gen McChrystal says conditions in Afghanistan war are no longer deteriorating." The Washington Post (online), 5
  169. (2007). General Calls Iraq Situation ‗Dire‘."
  170. (1999). General Sir Mike, (former Commander Kosovo Force (KFOR)
  171. (2010). General, (former Commander KFOR 1999-2000).
  172. (2004). Generals, take note: peace-keeping requires more courage than war."
  173. (2002). Globalisation and Insurgency: Adelphi Paper 352." The International Insititute for Strategic Studies,
  174. (2001). Governance and the New Wars. The Merging of Development and Security.
  175. (2001). Government Documents --, "Military Technical Agreement Between the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and the Interim Administration of Afghanistan (‗Interim Administration‘).":
  176. (2004). Guerriers de la Paix: Du Kosovo à l'Irak: Grasset,
  177. (2009). Guiding Principles for Stabilization and Reconstruction.
  178. (2003). Handbook on United Nations Multidimensional Peacekeeping Operations." edited by Department of Peacekeeping Operations Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, 213: United Nations,
  179. (2000). Happened to the KLA?"
  180. (2009). Hard Lessons: The Iraq Reconstruction Experience."
  181. (2010). Honoring Courageous Restraint." HQ International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan,
  182. (2010). In Afghanistan, Petraeus will have difficulty replicating his Iraq success."
  183. (2006). In Iraq, Military Forgot the Lessons of Vietnam Early Missteps by U.S. Left Troops Unprepared for Guerrilla Warfare "
  184. (2004). Insurgency and Counter Insurgency in Iraq." Rand,
  185. (2006). Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency in Iraq. London: Hurst and Company,
  186. (1971). Intensity Operations. London and Harrisburg:
  187. (2001). Internal Wars: Rethinking Problem and Response."
  188. (2004). International Administration of War-Torn Societies."
  189. (2010). International Conference outcomes."
  190. (2007). Intervening in conflict: the policy issues."
  191. (1992). Intervention in the 1990s A New Logic of War.
  192. (2000). Interview: Brig Robert Fry Commander of Kosovo Force's Multinational Brigade (Centre)."
  193. (2008). Introduction." In War Without Consequences: Iraq's Insurgency and the Spectre of Strategic Defeat, edited by Terence McNamee.
  194. (2002). Iraq Country Handbook."
  195. (2003). Iraq inches nearer towards goal of a interim authority."
  196. (2009). Iraq, the unraveling (XXIV): U.S. Embassy vs.
  197. (2003). Iraq: Too Uncertain To Call."
  198. (2003). Iraq's Path to Sovereignty."
  199. (2010). Iraq's Supreme Court ratifies election results."
  200. (2009). ISAF Tactical Directive."
  201. (2003). Jaded US Troops at heart of problems."
  202. (2005). Joint Discussion Note 4/05, The Comprehensive Approach."
  203. (2005). Joint Doctrine Note 1/05, The UK Military Effects-Based Approach."
  204. (2009). Joint Doctrine Publication 3-40 (JDP 3-40) Security and Stabilisation: The Military Contribution ",
  205. (1997). Joint Task Force Commander's Handbook for Peace Operations."
  206. (2001). Joint Warfare Publication 3-0 (JWP 3-0) Operations."
  207. (1998). Joint Warfare Publication 3-50 (JWP 3-50) Peace Support Operations."
  208. (2004). Joint Warfare Publication 3-50 2nd Edition (JWP 3-50) The Military Contribution to Peace Support Operations."
  209. (2010). Kai Eide Lashes Out."
  210. (2010). Karzai to push for removing up to 50 ex-Taliban officials from U.N. blacklist."
  211. (1963). Keeping the Peace, Code Number 9800."
  212. (2000). KFOR: The Inside Story."
  213. KLA To KPC The Transformation Must Go On."
  214. (2000). Kosovo Facts and figures."
  215. (2000). Kosovo One Year On."
  216. (2001). Kosovo Under International Adminstration."
  217. Kosovo: Peace Support Operation or Counterinsurgency?"
  218. (2000). Kosovo:army medical supply services in an operational area."
  219. (2005). Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All -
  220. (2010). Launch of the Peace Report
  221. (2005). Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam. Chicago:
  222. (2007). Learning, adapting, applying US counter-insurgency doctrine and practice "
  223. (1915). Learning: The Marine Corps Development of Small Wars Doctrine,
  224. (2009). Leaving the civilians behind: The "soldier-diplomat" in Afghanistan and Iraq"."
  225. (2004). Lectures by Lt Gen Satish Nambiar and Dr William Durch."
  226. (2001). Lessons Learned as Commander KFOR in Kosovo." In Peace Support Operations Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives, edited by Thomas Bernauer,
  227. (2000). Lessons not learned: The Use of Force in "Peace operations" in the 1990s."
  228. (2007). Letter about values." Baghdad: Multinational Force-Iraq,
  229. (1957). Letter for Maj Gen P St Clair Ford re lecture at Staff College."
  230. (2007). Letter to the Iraqi people." Baghdad: Multinational Force-Iraq,
  231. (1990). LIC (Low Intensity Clausewitz)."
  232. (2001). Lieutenant Colonel, (Former Kosovar Liaison Officer
  233. (2008). Lieutenant Colonel, (former member Strategic Advisory Group HQ ISAF Jun-Dec
  234. (2001). Lieutenant Colonel, (former Officer Commanding
  235. (2006). Lieutenant General US Army "Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldiering In Iraq." Military Review
  236. (2006). Lieutenant General, (Commander ACE Rapid Reaction Corps, Former Commander ISAF
  237. (2008). Lieutenant General, (former Deputy Commander ISAF
  238. (2009). Lieutenant General, (former Deputy Commander MNF-I and Senior British Military Representative-Iraq 2006-7).
  239. (2007). Lieutenant General, Email to author: "Your MPhil Questions." 6
  240. (2003). Like it or not, America is becoming an imperial power "
  241. (2003). Literature Survey on Effects Based Operations. A PHD study on measuring military effects and effectiveness."
  242. (2010). Lloyd Austin to face different mission when he returns to Iraq as U.S. commander."
  243. (1993). Low Intensity Conflict: The British Experience." Conflict Quarterly XIII,
  244. (2010). Lt Col Allen W. "Effects-Based Operations for Joint Warfighters." US Army Professional Writing Collection featured article (2003), Accessed 27
  245. (1994). Lt Col CWG. "Wider PeaceKeeping An Approach to Peacekeeping Post Cold War." Army Doctrine and Training News,.
  246. (2000). Lt Col, former Kosovar Liaison Officer
  247. (2008). Lt Gen GCM. "JV08 CJTF Observations."
  248. (2000). Lynchpin: Overcoming Division in Mitrovica."
  249. (2010). Map of Afghanistan." Central Intelligence Agency,
  250. (2010). Map of Iraq." Central Intelligence Agency,
  251. (2010). Map of Kosovo." Central Intelligence Agency,
  252. (2009). Marine Corps Association Annual Dinner Keynote Speech."
  253. (2010). McChrystal paves the way out."
  254. (2010). McChrystal puts Obama in quandary: War commander ordered to the White House after mocking senior US figures in Rolling Stone magazine"
  255. (2008). Measuring Progress In Conflict Environments (Mpice) - A Metrics Framework For Assessing Conflict Transformation And Stabilization." USIP,
  256. (2008). Memorandum for US Joint Forces Command: Assessment of Effects Based Operations."
  257. (2001). Military Command: Compression of the levels and diversification of functions."
  258. (1997). Military Doctrine - Peace Support Operations." Swedish Armed Forces,
  259. (1996). Military Doctrine." Royal Netherlands Army,
  260. (2006). Military force and European strategy."
  261. (2005). Military Intervention After the Cold War: The Evolution of Theory and Practice:
  262. (2001). Military Intervention and Peacekeeping: the Reality.
  263. (2000). Military Police Functions in Kosovo." IWS - The Information Warfare Site
  264. (2007). Military Reporters and Editors Luncheon Address."
  265. (2003). Ministerial Statements. Iraq. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr. Jack Straw)."
  266. (2003). Ministry of Defence "Operations in Iraq: First Reflections."
  267. (2003). MOD "Joint Doctrine Disk, JDD 05."
  268. (2003). MOD Joint Doctrine and Concepts Centre. "Joint Doctrine Disk, JDD 05."
  269. (2001). Modern Insurgencies And Counter-Insurgencies: Guerillas and their opponents since 1750. London and
  270. (2007). More than half of Afghanistan 'under Taliban' "
  271. (2009). More troops will just mean more targets."
  272. (2008). Multi-National Force-Iraq Commander's Counterinsurgency Guidance." Military Review September-October
  273. (2006). My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope Edited by Malcolm McConnell: Simon
  274. (2002). Nation-Building Lite: The Warlords."
  275. (2003). Nation-Building The Inescapable Responsibility of the World‘s Only Superpower."
  276. (2000). Nations and European Union Support to Peace and Reconstruction: A Year and a Half in Kosovo (Author's copy)." Pristina: Economic Policy Office, Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General,
  277. (2006). Nations Integrated Missions Planning Process (IMPP) Guidelines Endorsed by the Secretary-General on XX
  278. (2001). Nations Peace Operations: The Brahimi Report in Context." In Peace Support Operations Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives, edited by Thomas Bernauer,
  279. (2008). Nations Peacekeeping Operations Principles and Guidelines.
  280. (1999). Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (Kosovo) adopted by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting on 10
  281. (1999). Nations Security Council Resolution 1272 (East Timor) adopted by the Security Council at its 4057th meeting on 25 October1999. ."
  282. (2001). Nations Security Council Resolution 1386 (Afghanistan) adopted by the Security Council at its 4443rd meeting,
  283. (2003). Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 (2003) adopted by the Security Council at its 4761st meeting on 22
  284. (2003). Nations Security Council Resolution 1511 (Iraq and Kuwait) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4844th meeting,
  285. (2003). NATO and Peace Support Operations 1991–1999: Policies and Doctrines.
  286. (1991). NATO and Peace Support Operations,
  287. (2009). NATO at 60: Towards a new Strategic Concept (Speech by UK Defence Secretary) ",
  288. (2002). NATO Peace Support Operations Course."
  289. (2008). Nato to attack Afghan opium labs."
  290. (2010). NATO's role in Kosovo."
  291. (2010). NATO‘s role in Afghanistan."
  292. (2001). New and Old Wars.
  293. (2009). Newspaper Articles --. "A general's marching orders."
  294. (2001). Notes on Anglo/Indian PSO Seminar at UK JDCC (authors copy)."
  295. (1934). Notes on Imperial Policing."
  296. (2010). Obama carries on up the Khyber." The Sunday Times,
  297. (2007). Occupational Hazards Picador:
  298. (2009). Occupying Iraq : a history of the Coalition Provisional Authority.
  299. (2003). of Defense, -- "Effects Based Operations Briefing."
  300. (2007). of the Army, and United States. Marine Corps. The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency
  301. (1994). of the United States Army. "Field Manual 100-23 Peace Operations."
  302. (1949). Office. "Imperial Policing and Duties in Aid of the Civil Power."
  303. (2008). Officer Briefing at Brussels.
  304. (1999). On the Establishment of the Kosovo Protection Force." edited by UNMIK,
  305. (2008). Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress." Washington DC:
  306. (2003). Operation Telic – RM Rolling Brief (3) As At 121030AApr03, DRM/OD1/03D/04/15 03 (Author‘s copy).",
  307. (1999). Operations and Intrastate Conflict The Sword or the Olive Branch? Westport Praeger,
  308. (2003). Operations in Iraq: Lessons for the Future." UK Ministry of Defence,
  309. (1956). Operations in the Troodos Sub Area Cyprus."
  310. (2004). Operations Joint Operating Concept."
  311. (1977). Operations Volume III Counter-Revolutionary Operations. Part 1 -General Principles. Army Code 70516 (Part 1).": Ministry of Defence,
  312. (2007). Opium Survey." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,
  313. (1951). Organisation for Dealing with Emergency Matters." Director of Operations Papers held
  314. (2006). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and. "Whole of Government Approaches to Fragile States" OECD,
  315. (2004). Overview of the financing of the United Nations peacekeeping operations: budget performance for the period from 1
  316. (2000). Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction Aldershot Ashgate,
  317. (2006). Peace Operations 2010")." United Nations General Assembly,
  318. (2005). Peace Operations Literature Review." 33: Center on International Cooperation,
  319. (2006). Peace Operations Seen From Below.
  320. (1997). Peace Support Operations doctrine - fatally flawed."
  321. (1996). Peace Support Operations Doctrine."
  322. (2005). Peacebuilding in Postconflict Societies: Strategy and Process.
  323. (1995). Peacekeeping - How Wide of the Mark?"
  324. (2004). Peacekeeping and critical theory."
  325. (1998). Peacekeeping in Africa - Trends and Responses."
  326. (2009). Peacekeeping in an era of Strategic Uncertainty - Report submitted to the UN Departments of Peacekeeping Operations and Field Support For the ‗New Horizons‘ Project."
  327. (1996). Peacekeeping Institute, Centre for Strategic Leadership U.S.
  328. (1994). Peacekeeping: Army Field
  329. (2008). Petraeus report to Congress – upbeat but still a long way to go."
  330. (2003). Picking Up the Peaces: The UN's Evolving Post Conflict Roles." The Washington Quarterly Autumn
  331. (2001). Planning Considerations for International Involvement in Post-Taleban Afhghanistan." US Army Peacekeeping Institute in collaboration with the Thomas
  332. (2005). Planning post-conflict reconstruction in Iraq: what can we learn?"
  333. (2003). Play to Win: Final Report of the bi-partisan Commission on Post-Conflict Reconstruction." Washington DC:
  334. (2006). Policy Action Group PowerPoint Briefing." Authors copy, 28
  335. (2010). Policy: Civil-Military Coordination in UN Integrated Peacekeeping Missions (UN-CIMIC). Ref 2010.2."
  336. (2001). Presentation: "Command and Control of MNB(C) in Kosovo Feb-Aug 00" delivered to Anglo-Indian PSO seminar at JDCC,
  337. (2007). Primary Sources Interviews Alderson,
  338. (2006). Principles, Imperatives and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency." Military Review (March-April
  339. (1998). Providing Military Security in Peace Maintenance."
  340. (2010). Publication 3-07 Stability Operations (Final Coordination Draft)."
  341. (2001). Publication AJP 3.4.1, Peace Support Operations."
  342. (2005). Pursuing security in the post-conflict phase: Implications for current and future peace operations Report on a workshop held at the Geneva centre for security policy."
  343. (1955). Red Shadow over Malaya: Blackwood,
  344. (1993). Reinventing the Round Wheel: Insurgency, Counter-Insurgency, and Peacekeeping Post Cold War."
  345. (2007). Release: Remarks by U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan C. Crocker at His Swearing-In Ceremony."
  346. (2007). Release: The New Way Forward In Iraq."
  347. (2008). Remarks, MNC-I Transfer of Authority Ceremony." Baghdad: Multinational Force-Iraq,
  348. (2004). Renewing the Atlantic Partnership - Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations." New York: Council on Foreign Relations,
  349. (2003). Report of the Independent Panel on the Safety and Security of the UN Personnel in Iraq"
  350. (2000). Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (―The Brahimi Report‖), A55/305, S2000/809 ": United Nations,
  351. (2007). Report of the Secretary-General on The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security A/61/799-S/2007/152." General Assembly and Security Council,
  352. (1999). Report of the Secretary-General On the United Nations Interim Mission in Kosovo S/1999/779."
  353. (2005). Report on Integrated Missions: Practical Perspectives and Recommendations": Independent Study for the Expanded UN ECHA Core Group,
  354. (2007). Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq." Baghdad: Multinational ForceIraq,
  355. (2007). Rethinking Counterinsurgency."
  356. (1986). Revolutionary War." In Makers of Modern Strategy, edited by Peter Paret,
  357. (2007). Rolling Brief ": UK MOD (unclassified but unpublished),
  358. (2007). RUSI Interview with General David Richards."
  359. (2007). Sadr calls six-month ceasefire to prevent civil war."
  360. (1957). Scientific Progress and Political Science."
  361. (2001). Script for After Action Briefing on 1999 Kosovo Deployment as MNB(C) (author's copy)." 27
  362. (2007). Script of RUSI speech Future Army: Challenges in the Modern Environment [author's copy]."
  363. (2004). Secretary of State for Defence, "Delivering Security in a Changing World." The Stationary Office,
  364. (2004). Secretary of State for Defence, "Organisation and Efficiency, Fact Sheet 3 (issued with Cm 6269 "Delivering Security in a Changing World")." The Stationary Office,
  365. (2005). Securing a Viable Peace." In The Quest for Viable Peace: International Intervention and Strategies for Conflict Transformation, edited by Jock Covey, Michael Dziedzic
  366. (2002). Securing Afghanistan: The Need For More International Action."
  367. (2007). Security and Unending War Governing the World of Peoples:
  368. (2002). Security in Afghanistan: The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)." The Henry L Stimson Center,
  369. (1981). Self Destruction: The Disintegration and Decay of the US Army during the Vietnam War.
  370. Senate Committee on Armed Services. The Situation
  371. (1998). Sharpening the Weapons of Peace The Development of a Common Military Doctrine for Peace Support Operations." British Army Review
  372. (2009). Sheet: The Way Forward in Afghanistan and Pakistan." Washington DC:
  373. Sierra Leone — 'Pregnant with lessons?"
  374. (1992). Sir John KCB CBE ADC Gen. "Kermit Roosevelt Lecture. TDRC Reference 10202." 35,
  375. (1990). Sir Robert Thompson: A lifetime of counter-insurgency."
  376. (2002). SO1 Peace Support Operations Visit Report -
  377. (1962). Special Operations in Malaya."
  378. (1999). Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head, United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). "Statement at a press conference following agreement on demilitarization and transformation of the Kosovo Liberation Army,
  379. (1998). Spiral Through Time: Beyond Conflict Intensity "
  380. (2010). Stabilisation Unit."
  381. (2008). Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq Progress Report: Some Gains Made, Updated Strategy Needed. GAO-08-1021T." United States Government Accountability Office,
  382. (1999). Starting from Scratch in Kosovo: the honeymoon is over."
  383. (2004). State Building: Governance and the World Order in the Twenty-First Century. London: Profile Books,
  384. (2005). State-building in Southern Iraq."
  385. (2010). Statement by President Karzai at International Kabul Conference." Islamic Republic of
  386. (2006). Statement by Secretary of State for Defence to the House of Commons."
  387. (2009). States Government Integrated Civilian-Military Campaign Plan For Support to Afghanistan." 10
  388. (1940). States Marine Corps Small Wars Manual (reprint).
  389. (2000). Stephanie, (former UNMIK Municipal Administrator January -
  390. (2010). Strategic Trends Programme: Global Strategic Trends - Out to 2040 (Fourth Edition)."
  391. (2003). Strategic Trends: Methodology, Key Findings and Shocks."
  392. (1991). Strategy: the indirect approach.
  393. (2007). Stumbling into Chaos: Afhganistan on the Brink."
  394. (2010). Suicide note" of a drowning man let Obama seal his general's fate."
  395. (2006). Taking the fight to the Taliban."
  396. (2010). Telephone discussion with author, 4
  397. (2008). Tell me how this ends : General David Petraeus and the search for a way out of Iraq. 1st ed.
  398. (1985). Templer: Tiger of Malaya.
  399. (2009). The Accidental Guerilla. London: Hurst and Company,
  400. (2010). The Afghan War: A Campaign Overview [metrics slides] ".
  401. (2010). The Afghan War: A Campaign Overview [online article]."
  402. (2008). The American Future: A History.
  403. (2010). The Army Brain."
  404. (1966). The Art of Counter-Revolutionary War, The Strategy of Counterinsurgency.
  405. (1993). The Art of War.
  406. (2002). The Bases of French Peace Operations Doctrine:
  407. (2003). The Brahimi Report and the Future of UN Peace Operations Wasghington DC: The Henry L. Stimson Center,
  408. (2003). The British Way of Warfare. Presentation to Chief of Army's Conference
  409. (2003). The can-do general for war and peace."
  410. (2001). The Challenge of Civil-military Relations in International Peace Operations."
  411. (2007). The Civil-Military Gap in the United States: Does it exist, Why, and Does it Matter? Santa Monica: Rand Corporation,
  412. (1993). The Clash of Civilisations." Foreign Affairs Summer
  413. (1994). The Collected Poems of Rudyard Kipling.
  414. (1994). The Coming Anarchy." The Atlantic
  415. (2010). The Comprehensive Approach: the point of war is not just to win but to make a better peace." London: The Stationary Office,
  416. (1952). The Conduct of Anti-Terrorist Operations in Malaya (reprinted in 1955 and 1958)." Director of Operations,
  417. (2003). The CPA-CJTF Partnership "
  418. (2005). The Custodian of the Peace Process." In The Quest for a Viable Peace, edited by Covey, Dzeidzic and Hawley.
  419. (2002). The Day After: The Army in a PostConflict Iraq." In Center for Strategic Leadership Issue Paper,
  420. (1995). The Development of Doctrine for Counter Insurgency - The British Experience."
  421. (2001). The Development of Doctrine for Peace Support Operations."
  422. (1956). The Emergency Operations Council Directive No 1. The Control of Operations Against Communist Terrorists."
  423. (2000). The Emerging Concensus on Grey Area Peace Operations Doctrine: Will it Last and Enhance Operational Effectiveness?"
  424. (2002). The Evolution of Peace Operations Doctrine." Joint Force Quarterly Washington DC,
  425. (2009). The fourth star: four generals and the epic struggle for the future of the United States Army. 1st ed.
  426. (1997). The Future of Peace Support Operations: Strategic Peacekeeping and Success."
  427. (2009). The Gamble: General Petraeus and the untold story of the American surge in Iraq.
  428. (2002). The Heart of War: On Power,
  429. (2003). The Inescapable Responsibility of the World‘s Only Superpower Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations."
  430. (2009). The Insurgent Archipelago.
  431. (1999). The Internal Security Challenge in Kosovo. Paper prepared for UNA-USA/IAI Conference on "Kosovo's Final Status"."
  432. (2010). The Iraq Enquiry "
  433. (2003). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot).
  434. (2010). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot). General Sir John McColl - Transcript of Oral Evidence to The Iraq Enquiry,
  435. (2009). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot). Lt Gen Graeme Lamb - Transcript of Oral Evidence to The Iraq Enquiry,
  436. (2009). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot). Lt Gen Sir Robert Fry - Transcript of Oral Evidence to The Iraq Enquiry,
  437. (2009). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot). Notes provided by Lieutenant General (Retired) Sir Freddie Viggers to The Iraq Enquiry,
  438. (2009). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot). Sir Jeremy Greenstock - Transcript of Oral Evidence to The Iraq Enquiry,
  439. (2010). The Iraq Inqiry (Chilcot). Statement by Ambassador Bremer provided to The Iraq Enquiry,
  440. (2000). The job is not yet done: assessing remaining challenges [in Kosovo]."
  441. (1949). The jungle is neutral. [1st ed.]
  442. (2010). The last post: McChrystal's bleak outlook."
  443. (2007). The Left-Hand Side of the Spectrum Ambassadors and Advisors in Future U.S. Strategy." In The Future of the US Military. Washington DC: Center for a New American Security,
  444. (2000). The Lesson of the 1990's - The Need for a Long-Term Strategy for the Balkans."
  445. (2006). The London Conference and the Afghanistan Compact."
  446. (1966). The Long, Long War, Counterinsurgency in Malaya and Vietnam.
  447. (2006). The Lost Year In Iraq. L Paul Bremmer III."
  448. (2003). The Marines' Three-Block War in Iraq." Center for Defence Information,
  449. (2005). The military and negotiation: the role of the soldier-diplomat: Routledge,
  450. (2007). The new American way of war : military culture and the political utility of force, LSE international studies.
  451. (2006). The New Clausewitz? War, Force, Art and Utility - Rupert Smith on 21st Century Strategy, Operations and Tactics in a Comprehensive Context."
  452. (2005). The New Western Way of War.
  453. (2002). The Operational Art of Civil-Military Operations: Promoting Unity of Effort."
  454. (1992). The Operational Level of War in Low Intensity Conflict." Camberley:
  455. (1990). The origins of British counter-insurgency."
  456. (2004). the people : the United Nations, transitional administration, and state-building, A project of the International Peace Academy.
  457. (1997). The Politics of the British Army.
  458. (2005). The Quest for Viable Peace - Conclusion." In The Quest for Viable Peace: International Intervention and Strategies for Conflict Transformation edited by Covey, Dzeidzic and Hawley, 368. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace,
  459. (2001). The Responsibility to Protect, Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty."
  460. (2001). The Responsibility to Protect.
  461. (2009). The Road to Self-Rule: International Administration and the Devolution of Authority in Kosovo." PhD,
  462. The Roots of Counter Insurgency: Armies and guerrilla warfare,
  463. (2010). The Runaway General." Rolling Stone (online),
  464. (1991). The Savage Wars of Peace: Soldiers’ voices 1945-1989 London and Sydney: Futura,
  465. (1950). The Second World War - Volume 3 The Grand Alliance.
  466. (1984). The Sources of Military Doctrine:
  467. (1955). The Special Air Service Regiment."
  468. (1999). The Strategic Corporal: Leadership in the Three Block War."
  469. (2009). The strongest tribe : war, politics, and the endgame
  470. (1990). The Study of Counter-Insurgency: A British Perspective."
  471. (2010). The Taliban Beyond the Pashtuns." In The Afghanistan Papers No 5.
  472. (1994). The Tenets of Manoeuvre Warfare and their Application to Low Intensity Conflict." British Army Review
  473. (2008). The Thin Blue Line: How Humanitarianism went to War.
  474. (2007). The Transformation of Peace.
  475. (2007). The Tripartite Commission." Ace Rapid Reaction Corps Journal Spring
  476. (2001). The UK Joint Vision." edited by MOD Joint Doctrine and Concepts Centre,
  477. (1996). The UN and Collective Use of Force: Whither or Whether?"
  478. (2008). The US Army Stability Operations Manual ( forewords by Lt Gen Willam B Caldwell IV, Michele Flournoy and Shawn Brimley, introduction by Janine Davidson). Ann Arbor:
  479. (2005). The Utility of Force, the art of war in the Modern World.
  480. (2009). The Validity of British Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine After The War in Iraq 2003-2009." PhD,
  481. (2010). The War in Afghanistan: Bombs and baksheesh."
  482. (2010). The war in Afghanistan: How to end it . Speech by Rt Hon David Miliband MP Foreign Secretary on Afghanistan delivered as part of the eminent Compton lecture series. ."
  483. (2005). The War That Dare Not Speak Its Name " The Journal of International Security Affairs,no.
  484. (2005). The War That Dare Not Speak Its Name."
  485. (1998). The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience. London: Chatto & Windus,
  486. (1899). The White Man‘s Burden." McClure's Magazine,
  487. (1976). Their Principles and Practice.
  488. (2008). Then and Now: Understanding the Spectrum of Complex Peace Operations." Ottawa: Pearson Peacekeeping Centre,
  489. (2010). This country can't resist a man in uniform."
  490. (2009). Thoughts on ―Hybrid‖ Conflict." March-April
  491. (1999). Transcript of interview by Len Hawley of Jock Covey former Principal Deputy SRSG
  492. (2007). Transcript: General Petraeus on the way ahead in Iraq." Military Review March-April
  493. (2005). Transformation of Military Operations on the Cusp." Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security
  494. (1976). Translated by Michael & Paret Howard, Peter. Edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret.
  495. Trip Report - US Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership Post Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop
  496. (2006). Twenty-First-Century Peace Operations. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace and The Henry L. Stimson Center,
  497. (2007). U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker On-the-Record Briefing."
  498. (2010). UK Permanent Representative to NATO, Keynote speech at Oberammergau Defence Planning Symposium
  499. (2008). UK Permanent Representive to NATO Speech at NATO School Oberammergau - NATO: Bridging the Gaps."
  500. (2007). UNAMA Policy Action Group Backgrounder." Authors copy, 1
  501. (2001). Underwriting Peace: Empowering the United Nations?" University of Cambridge,
  502. (2010). Unified Action Handbook Series. Handbook for Military Support to Governance, Elections, and Media."
  503. (2009). Unity of Effort: Key to Success in Afghanistan."
  504. (2010). Unpublished Papers --. "NATO Publication AJP 3.4.4 Doctrine for Counterinsurgency (COIN) (Ratification Draft 2) Unpublished.",
  505. (2000). Violence Erupts Anew in Torn Kosovo City."
  506. (1999). Violence in Kosovo: who's killing whom?"
  507. (2000). Virtual War. London: Chatto and Windus,
  508. (2001). Waging Modern War.
  509. (1999). Waiting For UNMIK: Local Administration in Kosovo."
  510. (2003). War and the Art of Governance."
  511. (2001). War Diaries 1939-1945 Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
  512. (2009). War planning for wicked problems: Where joint doctrine fails."
  513. (2008). War Without Consequences: Iraq's Insurgency and the Spectre of Strategic Defeat.
  514. (1995). Warrior or worrier: Is the British army producing the right man to command its troops on operations?"
  515. (2007). Washington's war:: from independence to Iraq.
  516. (2006). We desperately need peacemakers, not peacekeepers."
  517. (2002). We don‘t do Mountains."
  518. (1965). We won a war: The campaign in Oman,
  519. (2001). Weaving The Strands Of The Rope: A Comprehensive Approach to Building A Self-Sustaining Peace in Kosovo."
  520. (2002). Weaving The Strands Of The Rope: A Comprehensive Approach To Building Peace In Kosovo.
  521. (2004). What we owe Iraq : war and the ethics of nation building.
  522. (2009). What‘s New in the Strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan." The White House,
  523. (2003). Where is the Lone Ranger When We Need Him?: America's Search for a Postconflict Stability Force. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press
  524. (2006). Who should Keep the Peace? Washington DC: The Henry L.Stimson Center,
  525. (2008). Why Did Violence Plummet? It Wasn't Just the Surge."
  526. (2003). Why troops must still work closely with Iraqis."
  527. (1996). Wider Peacekeeping - A Developing Role?", 28: Higher Command and Staff Course, The Staff College, Camberley,
  528. (2005). Winning the Peace: The Requirement for Full-Spectrum Operations." Military Review, July-August
  529. (2000). Working with the UNHCR and NGOs: Reflections from the 1999 Kosovo Refugee Crisis." Royal College of Defence Studies,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.