Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Study of fuel injection and mixture formation for a gasoline direct injection engine

By T. Reveille

Abstract

Future requirements for lower automotive emissions have lead to the development of new internal combustion (IC) engine technologies. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI), for example, is one of these promising new IC engine concepts. It offers the opportunity of increased efficiency through unthrottled operation. However, the realisation of this concept is critically dependent on the in-cylinder mixture formation, especially in the late injection/lean operation mode. Ideally, this would require a precise stratification of the in-cylinder fuel-air mixture in 3 distinct zones: an ignitable pocket located at the spark plug, surrounded by a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and air, encompassed by air. To enable this stratification, the GDI concept utilises advanced injector technology. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and the combination of PLIF and Mie scattering in the Laser-Sheet Dropsizing (LSD) technique, have been applied to sprays in the past to obtain dropsize information and study the mixture formation process. These new GDI sprays are denser, their droplet sizes are smaller and they evaporate faster, and as such, place us at the limit of the validity of these measurements techniques. The diagnostics were applied to a GDI spray in a pressure vessel for realistic in-cylinder conditions, ranging from supercooled to superheated environments. Tracer evaporation issues in the PLIF technique were resolved by using a dual tracer system. The study showed that the LSD technique provided good quantitative data in low evaporation regimes. In highly evaporating regimes, the technique still gave reliable dropsize data for the early stages of the injection, but was limited afterwards by vapour-phase contribution to the fluorescence signal. Variations between PDA data and LSD results also suggested a deviation of the Mie scattering signal from the assumed d2 dependence. This was further investigated and was found to be true for small droplets (d/?. <0.2). This source of error might be improved by using a different observation angle. High density seriously compromises the accuracy of PDA, whilst its effect through multiple scattering is of second order for the LSD technique. In low evaporating regimes, LSD has the overall advantage of being a 2-D measurement technique, and will yield data with a maximum error of 30% in dense parts of the spray where PDA data is totally unreliable. If the spray evaporates quickly, PLIF by itself is an appropriate tool for following the air-fuel mixture, because short droplet lifetimes limit the 2-phase flow behaviour of the spray. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), the LSD technique and equivalence ratio LIF measurements were applied to a BMW single cylinder optical GDI engine. The early injection operation showed no particular issues. However, the results obtained in the late injection highlighted the poor mixing and inappropriate stratification

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/4288
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1992). 2D Laser induced fluorescence imaging of parent fuel fraction in nonpremixed combustion, doi
  2. 4: 0e 10 iß 3r- 3e 40 dwmm ÜOW oe-w MP 2 Coms c.. ws 3! 60 x- 1 -0 7ms -C- 7ms -1 -ms M:
  3. (1999). A high Power, High Resolution LDAIPDA System Applied to Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays, doi
  4. (1976). A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet andparticle size distribution, doi
  5. (1994). A New Approach of Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence Applied to FuellAir Ratio Measurement doi
  6. (1964). A New Expressionfor the Excess Free
  7. (2005). A new model for light propagation in highly inhomogeneous polydisperse turbid media with applications in spray diagnostics, submitted in Optics Express. doi
  8. (1997). A planar droplet sizing technique for spray characterization, doi
  9. (1997). A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry, doi
  10. (1988). A Study of Flame Development and Engine Performance with Breakdown Ignition Systems in a Visualization Engine, doi
  11. (1996). A study of Mixture Formation in a Lean Burn Research Engine Using Laser Fluorescence Imaging,
  12. (1939). A Study qfAir Flow in an Engine Cylinder,
  13. (2003). A two-tracer LIF strategy for quantitative oxygen imaging in engines applied to study the influence of slap-firing on in-cylinder oxygen contents of an SIDI engine, doi
  14. (1983). Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, Wiley Interscience Publication.
  15. (1996). Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLIF to sprays, doi
  16. (2000). APPENDIX A LIF and Mie Scatter images Average fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scatter images obtained in the Pressure Vessel. For each (Pressure-Temperature) condition, the images at the five times after Start of Injection are illustrated.
  17. (2001). Applicability of different exciplex tracers and model fuels for investigation of mixture formation in direct injection gasoline engines,
  18. (1994). Application of Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Measuring the Thickness of Liquidfilms on Transparent Walls,
  19. (1908). Beitrage zur Optik triiber Medien speziel kolloidaler doi
  20. (2000). bude a)*rimentale de Vinfluence de Vairodynamique sur le comportement et la structure du front de flamme dans les conditions d'un moteur d allumage commandg,
  21. (1994). Chapter in Optical Diagnostics for Flow Processes, doi
  22. (2002). Characterisation of Spray Unsteadiness,
  23. (1993). Comparison of excitation techniques for quantitative fluorescence imaging of reacting flows, doi
  24. (1992). Concept ofLean Combustion by BarrelStratification, doi
  25. (1983). Cycle Resolved Turbulence Measurements in a Ported Engine with and without Swirl, doi
  26. (1992). Cycle-to-Cycle Correlations between Flow Field and Combustion Initiation in a SI-Engine, doi
  27. (1981). Cyclic Dispersion in the Homogeneous-Charge SI-Engine -a Literature Survey, doi
  28. (1921). Cylinder Actions in Gas and Gasoline Engines, doi
  29. (1981). Deconvolution technique for line-of-sight optical scattering measurement in axi-symmetric sprays, doi
  30. (2003). dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption doi
  31. (1994). Development and demonstration of 2-D LIFfor studies of mixture preparation in SI engines, doi
  32. (1999). Development of a Laser Sheet Dropsizing Technique for Sprays, doi
  33. (1992). Development of Engien Lubricant Film Thickness Diagnostics Using Fiber Optics and Laser Fluorescence, doi
  34. (1994). Development of Planar Laser Diagnostic Techniques for Fuel and Soot Imaging in Combustion Applications,
  35. (1984). Development of the phase/Doppler spray analyser for liquid drop size and velocity characterization, doi
  36. (1987). Early Flame Development and Burning Rates in Spark Ignition Engines and their Cyclic Variability, doi
  37. (2000). Effects of fuel composition on Mixture Formation in a firing Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engine: an experimental study using Mie-scattering and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, doi
  38. (1985). Effects of Valve Shrouding and Squish on Combustion in a SI-Engine, doi
  39. (2000). Evaluation of the Planar Droplet Sizing (PDS) Technique, 8`h Int. Conf. On Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. doi
  40. (2003). Evaporation Characteristics of the 3 pentanone/isooctane binary system, doi
  41. (2000). Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous MielLIF techniques, doi
  42. (2002). Examination of Iso-OctanelKetone mixtures for Quantitative LIF Measurements in a DISI Engine, doi
  43. (1984). Excess properties of binary mixtures composed of a polar component and an alkane, doi
  44. (1993). Exciplex-Based VaporlLiquid Visualization Systems Appropriate for Automotive Gasoline, doi
  45. (1991). Experimental investigation of Gaussian beam effects on the accuracy of a droplet sizing method, doi
  46. (1990). Flame Front Imaging in an IC Engine Simulator by Laser Induced Fluorescence of Acetaldehyde, doi
  47. (1993). Fluorescencelscattering imaging technique for particle sizing in unsteady Diesel spray, doi
  48. (1943). Fuel Oil Atomization,
  49. (1992). Gasoline Distribution Measurements with PLIF in a SI-Engine, doi
  50. (2002). Imaging and PDA Analysis of a GDI Spray in the Near Nozzle Region, doi
  51. (1994). In-Cylinder Crank-Angle-Resolved Imaging of Fuel Concentration in a Firing SI Engine Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, doi
  52. (1991). In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution in a PortInjected Model engine using Rayleigh Scattering, Experiments and Fluids, doi
  53. (1997). In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scaterring applied to a mass production SI engine, doi
  54. (1995). Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing: a method for droplet size measurement in sparse dense sprays, doi
  55. (1999). Investigation of Spray Formation of DI Hollow-Cone Injectors Inside a Pressure Chamber and a Glass Ring Engine by Multiple Optical Techniques, doi
  56. (1995). Ketones: Suitable tracer substances for quantitative LIF measurements in high pressure systems,
  57. (1985). Laminar Burning Speed Measurements of lndolene-Air-Diluent Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures, doi
  58. (1975). Laser Doppler measurement in two phase flows,
  59. (1981). Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames, doi
  60. (1957). Light Scattering by Small Particles, doi
  61. (1981). Light Scattering from Droplets in the Geometrical Optics Approximation, doi
  62. (1964). Localized Flow Measurements with He-Ne Laser Spectrometer, doi
  63. (2001). Measurement of Ambient Air motion of D. L Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV, doi
  64. (1997). Measurement of picosecond laser induced fluorescence from gas-phase 3-pentanone and acetone: Implications to combustion diagnostics, doi
  65. (2000). Measurement of Spray Flow by an Improved Interferometric Laser Imaging Droplet Sizing (ILIDS) System, doi
  66. (1974). Measurement of Thin Liquid Films by a Fluorescence Technique, doi
  67. (2002). Measurement ofdroplet size distribution of gasoline direct-injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique, doi
  68. (1980). Method for measuring the size and velocity of spheres by dualbeam light scatter interferometry, doi
  69. (1998). Mixture of Triethylamine (TEA) and Benzene as a New Seeding Materialfor the Quantitative TwoDimensional Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence Imaging of Vapor and Liquid Fuel Inside SI Engines, doi
  70. (1996). Modelling fluorescence collection from single molecules in microspheres: effect of position, orientation andfrequency,
  71. (1992). Modelling Phase Equilibria: 77jermodyamic Background and Practical Tools, doi
  72. (1988). Morphology-dependent resonances, Chapter in &quot;Optical effects associated with small particles&quot;, doi
  73. (1992). Non-linear scattering from liquid droplets, research articles,
  74. (2000). Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluids flows, doi
  75. (2003). Novel Simultaneous Planer Measurement and Application of Droplet Size,
  76. (1996). on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Paper
  77. (1996). On the Fluorescence Behaviour of Ketones at High Temperature, Experiments
  78. (1993). On the Quantitative Application of Exciplex Fluorescence to Engine Sprays, doi
  79. (1998). Optical Diagnostics for In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Measurements doi
  80. (2004). Optimisation of the Droplet Sizing Accuracy of the combined Scattering (Mie)/ Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique, doi
  81. (1995). Particle Image Velocimetry Applied to Internal Combustion Engine In-Cylinder Flows, doi
  82. (1993). PDA system without Gaussian beam defects,
  83. (2001). Piston Fuel Film Observations doi
  84. (2003). Piston Fuel Films as a Source of Smoke and Hydrocarbon Emissions form a Wall-Controlled Spark Ignited Direct-Injection Engine, doi
  85. (2000). Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurements, doi
  86. (1997). Planar Laser Rayleigh Scattering for Quantitative Vapor-Fuel Imaging in a Diesel Jet, doi
  87. (1979). Precombustion FuellAir Distribution in a Stratified charge Engine using Laser Raman Spectroscopy, doi
  88. (1984). Prediction of limiting activity coefficients by a modified separation of cohesive energy density and UNIFAC, doi
  89. (1981). Principles and Practise of Laser Doppler Anemometry, 2&quot;d edition,
  90. (2000). Pulsed laser imaging in practical combustion systems ftom 2D to 4D, doi
  91. (1997). Quantitative 2-D Fuel Distribution Measurements in an SI Engine Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence with Suitable Combination of Fluorescence Tracer and Excitation Wavelength, doi
  92. (1992). Quantitative 2-D measurements of Ait/Fuel Ratios Duing the Intake Stroke in a Transparent SI Engine, doi
  93. (2001). Quantitative Bestimmung desLuftverhältnisses in einem optisch zugänglichen Motor mit Benzindirekteinspritzung,
  94. (1994). Quantitative Imaging of temperature and OH in turbulent di ion flames by using a single laser source, doi
  95. (1993). Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering, doi
  96. (1996). Quantitative In-Cylinder Fluid Composition Measurements Using Broadband Spontaneous Raman Scattering, doi
  97. (2003). Quantitative Measurement of Planar Droplet Sauter Mean Diameter in sprays using Planar Droplet Sizing, doi
  98. (1999). Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines, doi
  99. (1982). Recent Advances in droplet Vaporisation and combustion, doi
  100. (1984). Resonant Spectra of Dielectric Spheres, doi
  101. (2002). Simultaneous LIF and Mie scattering measurements for branch-like spray cluster in industrial oil burner, doi
  102. (2000). Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct injection Stratified Charge Spark Ignition Engine, doi
  103. (1983). Spectrally separated fluorescence emissions for diesel fuel droplets and vapour, doi
  104. (2001). Sulfur poisoning and desulfation of the lean NOx trap, doi
  105. (1949). The Atomization of Liquid Fuels for Combustion, doi
  106. (1992). The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four- Valve Lean Burn Engine, doi
  107. (1991). The Effect of Piston Temperature on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine, doi
  108. (1994). The slit effect in phase Doppler anemometry, doi
  109. (2004). The Spray Guided Concept for the second Generation of Gasoline Direct Injection,
  110. (1996). Thermodynamische Analyse eines direkteinspritzenden Ottomotors,
  111. (1993). Toyota Lean Combustion System - Y'd Generation System, doi
  112. (1992). Trajectory ambiguities in Phase Doppler systems: use of polarizers and additional detectors to suppress the effect,
  113. (1992). Trajectory dependent scattering in phase Dapller interferometry: minimizing and eliminating sizing errors, 6th Int. doi
  114. (1991). Turbulence Characteristics of Tumbling Air Motion in 4- Valve Sl-Engines and their Correlation with Combustion Parameters, doi
  115. (1993). Two-Colour Particle Image Velocimetry doi
  116. (1992). Two-dimensional imaging of sprays with fluorescence, lasing and stimulated Raman scattering, doi
  117. (1988). Two-Dimensional Visualization of the Flame Front in an Internal Combustion Engine Using LaserInduced Fluorescence of OH Radicals, doi
  118. (1985). VaporlLiquid Visualization of Fuel Sprays, doi
  119. (1976). What Limits Lean Operation in SI-Engines - Flame Initiation or Flame Propagation ?, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.