Location of Repository

Three steady state combustion models, two turbulence models and a model for tK'6 prediction of NO., were implemented and investigated on a simple backward facing step experiment as well as an experimental lean prevaporised premixed (LPP) combustor. The three combustion models included the simple Eddy Break-up model as well as a presumed probability density function (pdf) model and a form of the BML crossing frequency flamelet model. These models were adapted to consider a variable mixture fraction to account for a non-homogeneous fuel air mixture. The two turbulence models used were the k-e and second moment models. Despite being unable to capture the flame front spreading in the case of the backward facing step, these predictions provided insight into the performance and implementation of the models. All three of the combustion models, after appropriate tuning, worked well for the LPP test combustor. This illustrates that such time averaged models are useful for flows which do not contain large transient coherent structures, such as that of the LPP test combustor and most practical engine combustors designed today. The second moment closure turbulence model was found to have the greatest impact on the flame front through the flow field predictions rather than through counter gradient diffusion. The Eddy Break-up and BML crossing frequency models both performed very well, qualitatively predicting the correct trends. The additional consideration of flame front straining in the BML crossing frequency model did not appear to significantly influence the flame front. This is because the type of model adopted to predict this effect had a relatively uniform influence everywhere in the flow. The presumed pdf model also performed well and was additionally found to self ignite without the existence of hot products when the inlet temperature was high enough. The NO., model faired well for a simple experimental geometry. However, it considerably over predicted the NO., formed within the LIPP test combustor, which was most probably due to poor boundary conditions. Despite this overprediction, the results give insight into how to improve the NQ, emissions for the experimental combustor

Publisher: Cranfield University

Year: 1998

OAI identifier:
oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/3987

Provided by:
Cranfield CERES

Downloaded from
http://hdl.handle.net/1826/3987

- (1993). A Coherent Flame Model of Premixed Turbulent Combustion in a Counterflow Geometry,
- A Comparison of Flamelet Models for Premixed Turbulent Combustion,
- A Comparison of Hybrid and Quad ratic-U pstrea m Differencing in High Reynolds Number Elliptic Flows,
- A Consistently Formulated QUICK Scheme for Fast and Stable Convergence Using Finite-volume Iterative Calculation Procedures,
- A Direct Comparison
- (1989). A Fractal Description of Flamelets, "Turbulent Reactive Flows (Lecture Notes in Engineering 40)",
- A General Purpose Computer Program for Multi-Dimensional Oneand Two-Phase Flow,
- A Local Oscillation-Damping Algorithm for Higher Order Convection Schemes,
- A Low Dispersion and Bounded Convection Scheme,
- A Low-diffusive and Oscillation-free Convective Scheme,
- A Method for Reducing Dispersion in Convective Difference Schemes,
- A Mixed ness-Reactedness Flamelet Model for Turbulent Diffusion Flames,
- A Monte Carlo Method for the PDF Equations of Turbulent Reactive Flow,
- (1993). A New High-Resolution Scheme Based on the Normalized Variable Formulation,
- A New Model of Premixed Wrinkled Flame Propagation Based on a Scalar Dissipation Equation, Combustion and Flame,
- (1996). A NO. Prediction Scheme for Lean-Premixed Gas Turbine Combustion Based on Detailed Chemical Kinetics, Journal for Gas Turbines
- (1980). A Non-Gradient Theory for Premixed Turbulent Flames, "Mechanics Today",
- A Novel Finite-difference Formulation for Differential Expressions Involving Both First and Second Derivatives,
- (1990). A One-Dimensional Model of Ramjet Combustion Instability, AIAA-90-0271,28th Aerospace Sciences Meeting,
- A PDF Method for Turbulent Recirculating Flows, "Turbulent Reactive Flows: Lecture Notes in Engineering 40",
- A Review of Research on Subsonic Turbulent Flow Reattachment,
- A Stable and Accurate Convective Modelling Procedure on Quadratic Upstream Interpolation,
- A Statistical Model of NO Formation
- (1995). A Stoichastic Model for Aircraft Gas Turbine Combustor Emissions,
- A Survey of Finite Differences %vith Upwinding for Numerical Modelling of the Incompressible Convection Diffusion Equation, "Computational Techniques in Transient and Turbulent Flow",
- (1981). A Third Order Accurate Upwind Scheme for Navier Stokes Solutionsin Three Dimensions, "Computers in Flow Prediction and Fluid Dynamics Experiments",
- A Two-Variables Formalism for the Treatment of Chemical Reactions in Turbulent 1-12-Air Diffusion Flames,
- (1974). A Unified Statistical Model of the Premixed Turbulent Flame,
- (1997). An Efficient Computational Model for Premixed Turbulent Combustion at High Reynolds Numbers based on a Turbulent Flame Speed Closure,
- (1983). An Experimental Investigation of the Structure of Turbulent Reattaching Flow Behind a Backward-Facing Step, Report MD42,
- (1981). An Experimental Study of Combustion: The Turbulent Structure of a Reacting Shear Layer Formed at a Rearward-Facing Step, NASA CR-165427,
- Analysis of Effect of Flameholder Characteristics on Lean, Premixed, Partially Vaporized Fuel-Air Mixture Quality and Nitrogen Oxides Emissions,
- Analysis of Two Fast-Chemsitry Combustion Models and Turbulence Modeling
- (1986). Application of a "Presumed p. d. f. " Model of Turbulent Combustion to Reciprocating Engines -
- (1986). Application of a "Presumed p. d. f. " Model of Turbulent Combustion to Reciprocating Engines, 21't Symposium (international) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute,
- Application of a Reynolds Stress, Stretched Flamelet,
- Assumed p-pdf Model for Turbulent Mixing: Validation and Extension to Multiple Scalar Mixing,
- (1992). Brite/Euram Task 4.7: Low Emission Combustor Technology (BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH),
- Calculation Methods for Reacting Turbulent Flows: A Review, Combustion and Flames,
- (1997). Calculation of a Premixed Swirl Combustor using the pdf Method,
- Calculation of Extinction Limits for Premixed Laminar Flames in a Stagnation Point Flow,
- Calculation of the Structure and Extinction Limit of a Methane-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flame in the Forward Stagnation Region of a Porous Cylinder,
- Calculation of turbulent buoyant plumes with a Reynolds stress and heat flux transport closure,
- Characteristic Scale of Wrinkles in Turbulent Premixed Flames,
- (1987). Characteristicas of Dune-Shape Flameholders, AlAA87-2106,
- Chemical Closure Model for Fractal Flamelets, Combustion and Flame,
- (1984). Chemical Kinetic Modelling of Hydrocarbon Combustion,
- Combustion Calculations on a Premixed System with a Bluff Body Flameholder,
- Combustion Efficiency of a Premixed Continuous Flow Combustor,
- Combustion in a Turbulent Mixing Layer Formed at a Rearward-Facing Step,
- Combustion Regimes and the Straining of Turbulent Premixed Flames,
- Combustion Technology for Low-Emissions Gas-Turbines: Some Recent Modeling Results,
- (1980). Combustion, Pollutant, and Stability Characterization of a Premixed, Step Combustor,
- (1987). Combustion: Second Edition",
- Combustor Concepts for Aircraft Gas Turbine Low-Power Emissions Reduction,
- Combustor Development for Automotive I Gas Turbines (Detroit Diesel Allison),
- (1991). Combustor for Automotive Ceramic Gas Turbine -
- Comment on "Review of Flashback Reported in Prevaporizing/Premixing Combustors",
- Comparison of the PISO, SIMPLER and SIMPLEC algorithms for the treatment of the press u re-velocity coupling in steady flow problems,
- (1984). Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer", Hemisphere Publishing,
- (1971). Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations,
- Coupled Lagrangian Monte Carlo pdf-CFD
- (1997). Detailed reaction mechanism for small hydrocarbons combustion. Release 0.3, hftp: //homepaqes.
- (1988). Determination of Time-Mean Flow and Turbulence Properties within Strongly Swirling Jets and Flames using
- Development of a Coherent Flarnelet Model for a SparkIgnited Turbulent Premixed Flame in a Closed Vessel, Combustion and Flame,
- Direct Numerical Simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar,
- Dump Combustor Parametric Investigations,
- Dynamics of Cold and Reacting Flows on Backward Facing Step Geometry, "Turbulent Reactive Flows: Lecture Notes in Engineering 40",
- Dynamics of Stretched Flames,
- Effect of Degree of Fuel Vaporization Upon Emissions for a Premixed Partially Vaporized Combustion System,
- Effect of Fuel Sulfur
- Effect of Fuel-Air-Ratio Nonuniformity on Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides,
- (1975). Effect of Hydrogen Injection on Stability and Emissions of an Experimental,
- Effect of Inlet Temperature and Pressure on Emissions from a Premixing Gas Turbine Primary Zone Combustor,
- Effect of Premixing Quality
- (1975). Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Dwell Time on Exhaust Emissions from an Experimental Premixing Prevaporizing Bumer,
- Effects of Finite Reaction Rate and Molecular Transport in Premixed Turbulent Combustion, Combustion and Flame,
- Effects of Percentage of Blockage and Flameholder Downstream Counterbores;
- (1949). Elliptic Problems in Linear Difference Equations over a Network,
- Emission Combustor Technology Task 5: Selection of Pollution Reduction Methods,
- Emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen from an Experimental PremixedHydrogen Burner,
- Environmental Impacts of Air Traffic,
- Equations des gaz turbulents compressibles,
- (1973). Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactants",
- Evaluation of NO., Mechanisms for Lean Premixed Combustion,
- Exhaust Emissions from a Premixing, Prevaporizing Flame Tube using Liquid Jet A Fuel,
- Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Nitrogen Oxides Production in a Turbulent Premixed Flame,
- Experimental Examination of a Prevaporized Premixed Combustor,
- Experimental Study of Nitrogen Dioxide Formation
- Extinction of Prernixed Flames
- Extinction of Strained Premixed Laminar Flames with
- Fast Nitrogen Dioxide Reactions: Significance during NO Decomposition and N02 Formation,
- Field equation for interface propagation in an unsteady homogeneous flow field,
- (1992). Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion,
- Finite Element Computation of a Turbulent Flow Over a Two-Dimensional Backward-Facing Step,
- First European Test for Combustion Modelling (E.
- (1985). Flame Flashback
- Flame Flashback vAthin Turbulent Streams of Lean Homogeneous Fuel Mixtures and Air,
- Flame Stabilization in Simplified Prevaporizing, Partially Vaporizing, and Conventional Gas Turbine Combustors,
- Flame Stabilization Using Large Flameholders of irregular
- Flamelet Crossing Frequencies and Mean Reaction Rates
- (1973). Flux Corrected Transport 1: SHASTA, A Fluid Transport Algorithm that Works,
- Formation in the Mixing Region of Hot Burned Gas with Cool Air,
- Formation of Nitric Oxide
- FRAM Nonlinear Damping Algorithm for the Continuity Equation,
- Fully Multidimensional Flux-Corrected Transport Algorithms for Fluids,
- (1983). Gas Turbine Combustion",
- Gas Turbine Engine Emissions-Problems Progress and Future,
- High Resolution Application of the OSHER Upwind Scheme for the Euler Equations,
- Impact of Emission Regulations on Future Gas Turbine Engine Combustors, AlAA Paper 73-1277, AIAA/SAE 9"' Propulsion Conference, AlAA,
- (1980). Implications of the Laminar Flamelet Model
- Improved Numerical Methods for Turbulent Viscous Recirculating Flows,
- (1990). in "Recent Advances in Combustion Modeling", World Scientific,
- (1985). in "Recent Advances in the Aerospace Sciences",
- Inflammation et D6veloppement de la Combustion Turbulente clans un Wange Homog6ne Air-M6thane,
- Influences on Exhaust Emissions from Automotive Gas Turbines (Volkswagen),
- (1996). Investigation into Mixing and Combustion in an Optical,
- Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Numbers of Hydrocarbon/Air Flames,
- Laminar Burning Velocities and Transition to Unstable Flames
- Laminar Burning Velocity
- Larninar Burning Velocities of Methanol,
- Lean Premixed Recirculating Flow Combustion for Control of Oxides of Nitrogen,
- Lean Premixed/Prevaporized Combustion,
- (1983). Lean Premixture Combustion on a Coaxial Burner, 19" Symposium (international) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute,
- (1972). Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence",
- (1991). lence in a Bluff Body Stabilized Flame,
- Local Fine Flame Structure and its
- Low Emission Variable Area Combustor for Vehicular Gas Turbines (Solar),
- Low Emissions Combustion for the Regenerative Gas Turbine: Part I- Theoretical and Design Considerations (Ford),
- (1974). Low-Power Turbopropulsion Combustor Exhaust Emissions: Volume 11 Demonstration and Total Emission Analysis and Air Force Aero Prediction (Pratt & Whitney Aircraft), AFAPL-TR-73-36-VOL-2, Propulsion Laboratory,
- (1973). Low-Power Turbopropulsion Combustor Exhaust Emissions: Volume I Theoretical Formulation and Design Assessment (Pratt & Whitney Aircraft), AFAPL-TR-73-36-VOL-1, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory,
- (1974). Low-Power Turbopropulsion Combustor Exhaust Emissions: Volume III Analysis (Pratt & Whitney Aircraft), AFAPL-TR-73-36-VOL-3, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory,
- Mathematical modelling of Fluid-Mechanics, Heat Transfer and Chemical-Reaction processes: a lecture course, Imperial College
- (1985). Measurement of Vortex Frequencies in a Lean, Premixed Precaporized Combustor,
- (1991). Measurements and Modeling of a Bluff Body Stabalized Flame, Combustion and Flame,
- (1981). Measurements of Conditioned Velocities in a Turbulent Premixed Flame,
- Mechanisrn and Modeling of Nitrogen Chemistry
- Model equation for nonhomogeneous turbulence,
- (1979). Model of the Recirculating Flow in a Premixed Combustor,
- (1994). Modeling of Flame Generated Turbulence and Buoyant Scalar Fluxes in High Speed Turbulent Premixed Flames, private communication,
- Modeling of Flame-Generated Turbulence and Buoyant Scalar Fluxes
- Modeling Variable Density Effects in Turbulent Flames -
- Modelling of Flamelet
- (1993). Modelling of Process Heaters Fired by Natural Gas,
- (1979). Models for Turbulent Flows with Variable Density and Combustion, Prediction Methods for Turbulent Flows, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series 1979-2,
- Monte Carlo probability density function method for gas turbine combustor flowfield predictions,
- Multicomponent Spray Computations in a Modified Centrebody Combustor, AIAA-88-0638, AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting,
- N02Formation in the Mixing Region of Hot Bumed Gas Wth Cool Air -Effect of Surrounding Air,
- Nitric Oxide Formation from N2 in Flames: The Importance of "Prompt"
- Nitrogen Oxide Formation in Flames:
- (1998). NO and N02 Formation in a Turbulent Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flame,
- (1993). Non-Equilibrium Effects in Non-Premixed High Intensity Turbulent Flames with
- Normalized Variable and Space Formulation Methodology for High-Resolution Schemes,
- (1988). Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows: Volume 1: Fundamentals of Numerical Discretization",
- (1990). Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows: Volume 2: Computational Methods for Inviscid and Viscous Flows",
- Numerical Examination of a Tube- and Disk-Type Combustor Configuration,
- Numerical Simulation of a Turbulent Flame Stabilized Behind a Rearward-Facing Step,
- Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Reactive Flows,
- (1989). On Laminar Flamelet Modelling of the Mean Reaction Rate in a Premixed Turbulent Flame,
- On the Burning Velocity of Stretched Flames,
- On the Calculation of Turbulent Heat Transport Downstream from an abrupt Pipe Expansion, Numerical Heat Transfer,
- On the computation of turbulent backstep flow,
- On the effects of a gravitational field on the turbulent transport of heat and momentum,
- (1995). On the numerical results of a combustion zone stabilized by a rectangular section cylinder obtained with Hades CFD code, European Test for Combustion Modelling, I' ETCM Workshop,
- On the scales of the fluctuations in turbulent combustion,
- Overall Reaction Rates
- Passage Times and Flamelet Crossing Frequencies
- PDF Methods for Turbulent Reactive FloWs,
- Pollution Control
- (1993). Prediction of Momentum and Scalar Fields in a Jet Cross-Flow using First and Second Order Turbulence Closures, AGARD
- (1973). Prediction of Reaction-Rates in Turbulent Premixed Boundary-Layer Flows, Combustion Institute European Symposium
- (1989). Prediction of the Lower Limits of Combustion of Premixed Gases,
- (1978). Predictions of the Flow Field and Local Gas Composition
- (1987). Preliminary Development of an Ultra-Low No. Gas Turbine Combustor,
- Preliminary Studies of Autoignition and Flashback in a Premixing-Prevaporizing Flame Tube Using Jet-A Fuel at Lean Equivalence Ratios,
- Prernixed Flames in Stagnating Turbulence: Part 1. The General Formulation for Counterflowing Streams and Gradient Models for Turbulent Transport, Combustion
- Prevaporization and Premixing to Obtain Low Oxides of Nitrogen
- Prevaporized Combustion for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines,
- (1986). Principles of Combustion",
- (1993). private communication,
- Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure,
- Reaction Rate Modelling for Premixed Turbulent Methane-Air Flames,
- Renormalization Group for Modelling of Turbulent Flows and Turbulent Combustion,
- Reply to Comments by
- Resolution Schemes and the Entropy - Condition,
- Response and Flamelet Structure of Stretched Premixed Methane-Air Flames,
- Review of Flashback Reported
- Second-Generation Low-Emission Combustor for ABB Gas Turbines: Burner Development and Tests at Atmospheric Pressure.,
- Second-moment closure: present ... and future?,
- SENKIN: A Fortran Program for Predicting Homogeneous Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics with Sensitivity Analysis,
- Simple High-Accuracy Resolution Program for Convective Modelling of Discontinuities,
- (1988). Simulation of Stretched Premixed CH4 - Air and C31-18 - Air Flames with Detailed Chemistry, CUED/A-THERMO/TR20,
- Simulations of Bluff Body Stabilized Flames, First European Test for Combustion Modelling (E.
- Simultaneous Measurements of Concentration and Velocity in an Open Premixed Turbulent Flame,
- Solution of the Continuity Equation by the Method of Flux Corrected Transport,
- Solvers, the Entropy Condition and Difference Approximations,
- Some Practical Aspects of Staged Premixed, Low Emissions Combustion (Rolls-Royce,
- Soot Formation, Progress in Energy and
- (1991). Spring Meeting Technical Program, The Combustion Institute,
- (1969). Statistical Equations of Turbulent Gases, Problems of Hydrodynamics and Continuum Mechanics,
- Statistical hydromechanics and functional calculus,
- Strained Laminar Flamelet Calculations of Premixed Turbulent Combustion in a Closed Vessel, 22dSymposium (international) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute,
- Structure of Flamelets in Turbulent Reacting Flows and Influence of r Combustion on Turbulence Fields, "Turbulent Reactive Flows (Lecture Notes in Engineering 40)",
- (1990). Studies of the Turbulent Burning Velocity,
- Superequilibriurn and Thermal Nitric Oxide Formation in Turbulent Diffusion Flames, Combustion and Flame,
- (1980). Temperature and Ionization Measurements in Turbulent Premixed Flames, AIAA 18'h Aerospace Sciences Meeting,
- The Burning Velocity
- The Calculation of Some Laminar Flows Using Various Discretization Schemes,
- The Determination of Burning Velocities of Slow Flames,
- The Effect of Initial Conditions on the Propagation of a Premixed Flame in a Mixing Layer, Combustion
- The Effect of Turbulence on
- (1989). The Interaction Between Turbulence and Chemistry in Premixed Turbulent Flames, "Turbulent Reactive Flows (Lecture Notes in Engineering 40)",
- The Low Emission Gas Turbine Car - What Does the Future Hold?,
- The mathematical modelling of premixed turbulent combustion,
- The Mechanism of High Temperature
- The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows,
- The Prediction of Larninarization with a TwoEquation Model of Turbulence,
- The Prediction of the Fluctuations in the Porperties of Free Round-Jet, Turbulent, Diffusion Flames,
- The Premixed Turbulent Flame in the Limit of a Large Activation Energy,
- The probability density function approach to reacting turbulent flows, "Turbulent Reacting Flows: Topics in Applied Physics 44",
- The Ratio N02/NO in Fuel-Lean Flames,
- The statistical theory of turbulent flames,
- The Straining of Premixed Turbulent Flames,
- Theoretical Predictions of a High Velocity, Premixed, Turbulent Flame,
- Theory of Normal Premixed Turbulent Flames Revisited,
- Time-Resolved Scalar Measurements in a Confined Turbulent Premixed Flame, 17"'
- Towards the Ultimate Conservative Difference Scheme 1. The Quest of Monotonicity, "Lecture Notes in Physics",
- Towards the Ultimate Conservative Difference Scheme Monotonicity and Conservation Combined in a Second-order Scheme,
- Towards the Ultimate Conservative Difference Scheme V. A Second Order Sequel to Gadunov's Method,
- Transport equations for the joint probability density function of velocity and scalars in turbulent flow,
- Transport of Turbulence Energy Decay Rate, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
- Turbulent Combustion in a Premixed Flow,
- Turbulent Combustion Modelling,
- Turbulent Combustion of Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion Flows,
- Turbulent Flame Development in a High Velocity Premixed Flow,
- Turbulent Mass Transfer and Rates of Combustion
- Turbulent Non-Premixed Combustion
- Turbulent Premixed Combustion: A Flamelet Formulation and Spectral Analysis
- Turbulent Premixed, SvArlingý Combustion: Direct Stress,
- Turbulent Transport in a Confined Premixed Flame,
- Turbulent Transport in Premixed Flames, "Convective Transport and Instability Phenomena",
- (1985). UCombustion Theory: Fundamental Theory of Chemically Reacting Flow Systems
- Unified Modeling Approach for Premixed Turbulent Combustion - Part 1: General Formulation,
- (1990). Use of a Flame Front Model for Numerical Prediction of Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine,
- (1984). Weak Extinction and Turbulent Burning Velocity for Grid Stabilized Premixed Flames,
- Weak Limits of Premixed Gases, Transactions of the ASME:

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.