Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Design methodology for wing trailing edge device mechanisms

By Rui Miguel Martins Pires


Over the last few decades the design of high lift devices has become a very important part of the total aircraft design process. Reviews of the design process are performed on a regular basis, with the intent to improve and optimize the design process. This thesis describes a new and innovative methodology for the design and evaluation of mechanisms for Trailing Edge High-Lift devices. The initial research reviewed existing High-Lift device design methodologies and current flap systems used on existing commercial transport aircraft. This revealed the need for a design methodology that could improve the design process of High-Lift devices, moving away from the conventional "trial and error" design approach, and cover a wider range of design attributes. This new methodology includes the use of the innovative design tool called SYNAMEC. This is a state-of-the-art engineering design tool for the synthesis and optimizations of aeronautical mechanisms. The new multidisciplinary design methodology also looks into issues not usually associated with the initial stages of the design process, such as Maintainability, Reliability, Weight and Cost. The availability of the SYNAMEC design tool and its ability to perform Synthesis and Optimization of mechanisms led to it being used as an important module in the development of the new design methodology. The SYNAMEC tool allows designers to assess more mechanisms in a given time than the traditional design methodologies. A validation of the new methodology was performed and showed that creditable results were achieved. A case study was performed on the ATRA - Advance Transport Regional Aircraft, a Cranfield University design project, to apply the design methodology and select from within a group of viable solutions the most suitable type of mechanism for the Variable Camber Wing concept initially defined for the aircraft. The results show that the most appropriate mechanism type for the ATRA Variable Camber Wing is the Link /Track Mechanism. It also demonstrated how a wide range of design attributes can now be considered at a much earlier stage of the design

Topics: High-Lift device, flap, mechanism, aircraft, maintainability, reliability, cost estimation, weight estimation, fairing drag, design methodology, variable camber
Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles


  1. 2 Dimensional Computational Analysis of a Transport High-Lift System and Comparison with Flight-Test Results". doi
  2. (1993). A Feasibility Study on the Application of Variable Camber Flaps on a Military Tactical Transport Aircraft". MSc Thesis,
  3. A New Structural Approach to Variable Camber Wing Technology of Transport Aircraft". doi
  4. A Review of the Low Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aircraft with Powered-Lift Systems". AGARD LS - 67 "Prediction Methods for Aircraft Aerodynamic Characteristics".
  5. (1978). A Review of the Theory of Trailing Edge Noise". doi
  6. (1995). A-94 Red Aircraft Variable Camber Flap Design". MSc Thesis,
  7. (1986). A85 Project Design - Trailing Edge Flap System'. MSc Thesis,
  8. (1998). A97 Project Design - Trailing Edge Flap". MSc Thesis,
  9. Advanced Topics on Aerodynamics" Website http: //aerodyn. org/
  10. (2002). Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic Effects of Flap Tip Fences". doi
  11. Aerodynamic design and technology concepts for a new ultra high capacity aircraft'.
  12. (1990). Aerodynamic Design for a New Regional Aircraft". In:
  13. Aerodynamic Issues in the Design of High-Lift Systems for Transport Aircraft".
  14. (2003). Aerodynamic Noise Sources on High Lift Slats and Flaps'. doi
  15. Aerodynamic Prediction Methods for Aircraft at Low Speeds with Mechanical High-Lift Devices'. AGARD LS - 67 "Prediction Methods for Aircraft Aerodynamic Characteristics".
  16. Aerodynamics of High-Lift Airfoil Systems'. doi
  17. Aerodynamics of Mechanical High-Lift Devices". AGARD LS - 43 "Assessment of Lift Augmentation Devices".
  18. Aerodynamics of Pneumatic High-Lift Devices".
  19. AeroMechanical Design of High-Lift Systems". doi
  20. (2000). Aircraft conceptual design synthesis", doi
  21. (1999). Aircraft Design: A conceptual Approach'. 3rd Edition. AIAA Education Series. doi
  22. Aircraft Performance Consideration for Noise Reduction".
  23. Aircraft Structures', doi
  24. (1988). Aircraft Wing Weight Prediction". MSc Thesis,
  25. (1989). Airfoil Self-Noise and Prediction". doi
  26. Airfoil Variable Cambering Device and Method".
  27. (1979). Airframe Noise Component Interaction Studies". doi
  28. (1998). Airframe Noise Studies on Wings with Deployed High-Lift Devices". doi
  29. (1991). Airframe Structural Design". Hong Kong:
  30. (1986). Airplane Design - Part III".
  31. (1993). An Experimental Study of a Variable Camber Wing (VCW)".
  32. (1995). An overview of the Boeing 777 high-lift aerodynamic design".
  33. Analysis of Advanced Variable Camber Concepts'. AGARD CP-241 'Fighter Aircraft Design".
  34. (1977). Analysis of Advanced Variable Camber Concepts". In: AGARD Conference on "Fighter Aircraft Design",
  35. Analytical investigation of variable camber concepts (Aerodynamic characteristics of two dimensional airfoils with variable camber and performance of Whitcomb supercritical airfoil).
  36. Aspect of Wing Design for Transonic and Supersonic Combat Aircraft'.
  37. (2007). Certification Specifications for Large Aeroplanes CS-25. Amendment 4. European Aviation Safety Agency.
  38. (1997). Cited in 'Aerospace Technology Innovation",
  39. Component-Based Empirical Model for High-Lift System Noise Prediction". doi
  40. (1996). Computer Aided Conceptual Aircraft Design (CACAD) for Transport Aircraft".
  41. (1996). Conceptual Design Modelling Incorporating Reliability and Maintainability Predictions'. PhD Thesis.
  42. (2000). Design Aspects of the Adaptive Wing - the Elastic Trailing Edge and the Local Spoiler Bump".
  43. (2000). Design Investigation of Variable Camber Flaps for High Subsonic Airliners'. In:
  44. (2000). Design Investigation of Variable Camber Flaps for High-Subsonic Airliners. ICAS
  45. (1996). Design Methodology for High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Aircraft". In: doi
  46. Design Methodology for Multi-Element High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Civil Transport Aircraft (Final Report)". doi
  47. (2000). Design of Auxiliary Surfaces".
  48. (2000). Design Requirements and Construction Methods". DAeT 9573 Lecture Note. College of Aeronautics,
  49. (2001). Design-oriented high-lift methodology for general aviation and civil transport aircraft". doi
  50. (1988). Determination of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Mission Adaptive Wing". In: doi
  51. (2001). Development of a Design Methodology for Transport Aircraft Variable Camber Flaps Suitable for Cruise and Low-Speed Operations'.
  52. (1980). Development of a Mission Adaptive Wing System for a Tactical Aircraft". doi
  53. (1985). Development of a Reliability and Maintainability Prediction Methodology for the Aircraft Conceptual Design Process'. MSc THESIS, doi
  54. (2004). Development of the SYNAMEC -A Design Tool for Aeronautical Mechanisms Applied to Leading Edge Devices".
  55. Estimated Benefits of Variable-Geometry Wing Camber Control for Transport Aircraft".
  56. (2005). Evaluation of CFD Methods for Transport Aircraft High Lift Systems'.
  57. (1999). Flight Test of an Adaptive Configuration Optimization System for Transport Aircraft. NASA/TM-1999-206569, doi
  58. General Technical Introduction". AGARD LS - 67 "Prediction Methods for Aircraft Aerodynamic Characteristics".
  59. (1989). High Lift Aerodynamics for Transport Aircraft by Interactive Experimental and Theoretical Tool Development". In: doi
  60. (2000). High Lift Devices-Aerodynamic Design".
  61. (2003). High Lift Lecture'. BAe Systems.
  62. (1980). High lift research and its application to aircraft design". In:
  63. (1993). High-lift design for large civil aircraft".
  64. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners'.
  65. (1997). Information on the use of Data Items on High-Lift Devices".
  66. Integrated Software: SYNAMEC Validator".
  67. Integration of a Variable Wing Camber Function into an EFCS of a Transport Aircraft".
  68. (1997). Introduction to aeronautics: A design perspective'.
  69. (2000). Introduction to Aircraft Design". Cambridge: doi
  70. (2005). Introduction to Stress Analysis".
  71. (2003). Investigation into a novel Flap and Slot Mechanism Concept". MSc Thesis,
  72. (1998). Investigation of the Application of Hybrid Laminar Flow Control and Variable Camber Wing Design for Regional Aircraft".
  73. (1982). Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines', 2nd Edition.
  74. Kinematics and Dynamics of Rigid and Flexible Mechanisms using Finite Elements and Quaternion Algebra'. doi
  75. (1967). Kinematics of Mechanisms".
  76. Leading Edge - Trailing Edge Airfoil Interactions". doi
  77. (1966). Maintainability Prediction'. Department of Defence, Washingthon
  78. (2000). Mass Prediction - Structural Components" - DAeT 9317 Lecture Note. College of Aeronautics,
  79. (1967). Mechanical Design of High-Lift Systems for High Aspect Ratio Swept Wings'.
  80. Mechanization and Utilization of Variable Camber in Fighter and Attack Airplanes". BOEING - Dl 80-15377-1. [1181 . "Parts Count' Reliability Prediction' - AVD 0405, Lecture Note.
  81. (2006). Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of Wing Leading and Trailing Edge Devices".
  82. Noise Characteristics of Aircraft High Lift Systems'. doi
  83. Noise Impact of Advanced High Lift Systems".
  84. (1994). Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data. RAC - Reliability Analysis Center,
  85. (2000). Numerical optimisation of adaptive transonic airfoils with variable camber". doi
  86. (2000). Numerical Optimization of Adaptive Transonic Airfoils with Variable Camber".
  87. Numerical Study of a Trapezoidal Wing High-Lift Configuration". doi
  88. of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering - University of Sidney "hftp:
  89. (1981). On the Generation of Side-Edge Flap Noise'. doi
  90. On the Use of Controls for Subsonic Transport Performance Improvement: Overview and Future Directions". doi
  91. (2004). Overview on Drag Reduction Technologies for Civil Transport Aircraft".
  92. Prediction Methods for Use in Aircraft Design"
  93. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft" doi
  94. Realization of a Shape Variable Fowler Flap for Transport Aircraft". doi
  95. Recent Progress on Development and Understanding of High-Lift Systems". AGARD CP-365 "Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance Through Boundary Layer Control and High-Lift Systems".
  96. (1996). Reliability, Maintainability and Development Cost Implications of Variable Camber Wings".
  97. Rethinking the Airplane Design Process - An Early 21st Century Perspective". doi
  98. Software for Type Synthesis and Initial Sizing of Mechanisms'.
  99. (1980). Some Particular Configuration Effects on a Thin Supercritical Variable Camber Wing". In: AGARD Congress on `Subsonic/Transonic Configuration Aerodynamics',
  100. (1999). Stressing Data Sheets".
  101. (1992). Structural and Mechanical Feasibility Study of a Variable Camber Wing (VCW) for a Transport Aircraft".
  102. (1949). Summary of Section Data on Trailing Edge High Lift Devices".
  103. (1982). Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design". Delft: doi
  104. (2004). Synthesis Tool for Aeronautical Mechanism Design. Final Report.
  105. (2003). Synthesis Tool for Aeronautical Mechanisms Design (SYNAMEC European Project)",
  106. (1992). The Aerodynamic and Structural Design of a Variable Camber Wing". In:
  107. (2002). The Aerodynamic Design of Multi-Element High-Lift Systems for Transport Aircraft". doi
  108. (1990). The Development and Design Integration of a Variable Camber Wing for a Long/Medium Range Aircraft".
  109. (1984). The Effect of a Variable Camber and Twist Wing at Transonic Mach Numbers".
  110. The intelligent Wing -Aerodynamic Developments for Future Transport Aircraft". doi
  111. (1988). The Potential of Using Variable Camber Across the Span of an Aircraft'.
  112. (1992). The Use of Variable Camber to Reduce Drag, Weight and Costs of Transport Aircraft".
  113. Tip Fence for Reduction of Lift-Generated Airframe Noise'. NASA nr 1999000858.1999.
  114. Trailing Edge Airframe Noise Source Studies on Aircraft Wings'. doi
  115. TwoDimensional Aircraft High Lift System Design and Optimisation". doi
  116. Validation by Simulation on Generic Models'.
  117. (1984). Variable Camber Control for Civil Transport Aircraft". In:
  118. Variable Camber for Transport Aircraft". doi
  119. (1992). Variable Camber Geometry for Transport Aircraft Wings". In:
  120. (1989). Variable Camber Wings for Transport Aircraft".
  121. WIKIPEDIA Website "hftp: //www.
  122. Wing with Extendable Flap and Variable Camber".

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.