Mobile computing is becoming increasingly important, due to the rise in the number of\ud portable computers and the desire to have continuous network connectivity to the\ud Internet, irrespective of the physical location of the node. We have also seen a steady\ud growth of the market for wireless communication devices. Such devices can only have\ud the effect of increasing the options for making connections to the global Internet. The\ud Internet infrastructure is built on top of a collection of protocols called the TCP/IP\ud protocol suite. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are the\ud core protocols in this suite. There are currently two standards: one to support the current\ud IPv4 and one for the upcoming IPv6 . IP requires the location of any node connected\ud to the Internet to be uniquely identified by an assigned IP address. This raises one of the\ud most important issues in mobility because, when a node moves to another physical\ud location, it has to change its IP address. However, the higher-level protocols require the\ud IP address of a node to be fixed for identifying connections.\ud The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP) is an extension to the Internet Protocol\ud proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that addresses this issue. It\ud enables mobile devices to stay connected to the Internet regardless of their locations,\ud without changing their IP addresses and, therefore, an ongoing IP session will not be\ud interrupted [2, 3, 4]. More precisely, Mobile IP is a standard protocol that builds on the Internet Protocol by making mobility transparent to applications and higher-level\ud protocols like TCP. However, before Mobile IP can be broadly deployed, there are still\ud several technical barriers, such as long handover periods and packet loss that have to be\ud overcome, in addition to other technical obstacles, including handover performance,\ud security issues and routing efficiency .\ud This study presents an investigation into developing new handover mechanisms based on\ud link layer information in Mobile IP and fast handover in Mobile IPv6 environments. The\ud main goal of the developed mechanisms is to improve the overall IP mobility\ud performance by reducing packet loss, minimizing signalling overheads and reducing the\ud handover processing time. These models include the development of a cross-layer\ud handover scheme using link layer information and Mobile Node (MN) location\ud information to improve the performance of the communication system by reducing\ud transmission delay, packet loss and registration signalling overheads.\ud Finally, the new schemes are developed, tested and validated through a set of\ud experiments to demonstrate the relative merits and capabilities of these schemes
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