NoReferences Citations Metrics Reprints & Permissions Get access\ud Abstract\ud This paper presents the observation of lipid residue, identified as beeswax, preserved in the ceramic matrix of a Late Chalcolithic (c. 3700–3000 BC) bevelled-rim bowl (BRB) from the site of Tepe Sofalin on the Tehran Plain. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to separate and identify the lipid constituents preserved in the matrix of a BRB sherd. Lipid biomarkers were recovered including long-chain n-alkanes, n-alkenes, palmitic wax monoesters, fatty acids and n-alcohols characteristic of beeswax. In addition to two disaccharides, cholesterol and β-sitosterol as contaminants were retrieved by solvent soluble extraction from a number of different locations from the ceramic matrix of the analysed sherd
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