A double case study applying action research methodology was conducted in two\ud pharmaceutical preparation manufacturers in the Netherlands to improve their\ud manufacturing systems by implementing time-based manufacturing (TBM) practices.\ud Following the diagnosis phase, the situation of each Company was analysed and\ud suitable improvement interventions were selected for implementation in the Case\ud Companies. At the end of the action research project, semi-structured interviews were\ud taken in each Company a year later, and the achieved results of the improvement\ud programmes were collected and analysed. This research extends the existing theory of\ud time-based competition and demonstrates that TBM practices apply also in the\ud pharmaceutical preparation manufacturing industry. Furthermore, this study shows how\ud to improve TBM practices and reduce the throughput time by providing the route for\ud improvement and implementation. Although the first Case Company did not improve\ud the core TBM practices and manufacturing performance, its infrastructure improved\ud through the implementation of an ERP system and further enhancement of its quality\ud management system, illustrating that the design of the infrastructure is a key factor to\ud become a time-based competitor. The second Case Company succeeded to improve the\ud 2\ud TBM practices and throughput processes resulting in the reduction of the order cycle\ud time and increase of the delivery dependability. Based on the data of the two Case\ud Companies, this study demonstrated the relationship between these two manufacturing\ud performance parameters, which indicates that manufacturers may strive for both\ud delivery speed and delivery reliability using the same improvement plan. Adopting\ud TBM is a long journey of many years and needs a continuous improvement\ud infrastructure
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