10.3390/en9020086

Electric vehicles in logistics and transportation: a survey on emerging environmental, strategic, and operational challenges

Abstract

Incluye correcciones [Energies 2016, 9(7), 546; doi:10.3390/en9070546]Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a) environmental-related issues; and (b) strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems.This work has been partially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (TRA2013-48180-C3-P and TRA2015-71883-REDT), FEDER, and the CYTED Program (CYTED2014-515RT0489). Likewise, we want to acknowledge the support received by the Catalan Government (2014-CTP-00001) and the CAN Foundation (CAN2014-3758 and CAN2015-70473)

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oai:academica-e.unavarra.es:2454/26144Last time updated on 12/2/2017View original full text link

This paper was published in Academica-e.

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