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Carbide Composition Changes in Power Plant Steels as a Method of Remanent Creep Life Prediction

By Rachel Clare Thomson
Publisher: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy
Year: 1992
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Apollo

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  1. (1987). 1 mm (a) tI\ - 0.233 (b) tI\ - 0.468 (c) tI\ - 0.718 (d) tI\ -
  2. (1969). 1,ICEM C Calculate surface concentration in cementite C appropriate for mass balance IF (I .EQ. 1) THEN CEMS = DR*(CFER(l,l)-FERS)+CCEM(l,l) C Reflect at position of symmetry
  3. (1983). 12CrMoV-A status review', Central Electricity Generating Board
  4. (1970). 2.2.1 Morphology and carbide precipitation Bainite consists of non-lamellar aggregates of ferrite and carbides, the ferrite being in the form of thin plates approximately 10 j,tm long and 0.2 j,tm thick, commonly referred to as sheaves (Hehemann,
  5. (1978). 3.3 Equilibrium compositions of cementite and ferrite For many years the equilibrium compositions of the various carbides in alloyed steels were not known. Vengopalan and Kirkaldy
  6. (1989). 3.5 One dimensional modelling A method to enable modelling of the diffusion of substitutional solute elements to cementite, for the case of a symmetric carbide distribution, was developed by Bhadeshia
  7. (1967). 40Table 2.1: A summary of data for the common alloy carbides found in steels,
  8. (1982). 5.3.1 Calculation of the TTT curve and phase diagram A model developed by Bhadeshia
  9. (1987). 5.3.2 Calculations to determine the volume fraction of allotriomorphic ferrite A model has been developed by Bhadeshia
  10. (1969). 9.2 Experimental studies of particle coarsening Early experiments were performed under the conditions for which the Wagner, Lifshitz and Slyozov theories were developed, Le. virtually pure particles in a liquid. This work has been reviewed by Greenwood
  11. (1952). A comparison between the distribution of coarse M23C6 carbides in the ex-service material and in a specimen isothermally heat treated at 700°C for 1173 hours is presented in Figure 7.6. The empirical Larson-Miller (Larson and Miller,
  12. (1975). A similar analysis can be carried out for spherical particles, following Crank
  13. (1982). A Thermodynamic Analysis of Isothermal Transformation Diagrams', doi
  14. (1974). Alloy carbide precipitation and aging during high-temperature isothermal decomposition of an Fe-4Mo-0.2C alloy steel', doi
  15. (1965). An alternative interface controlled coarsening mechanism was proposed by Heckel and De Gregorio
  16. (1964). and that there is a constant volume fraction of precipitate. Oriani
  17. (1969). Another important factor considered by Mukherjee
  18. (1992). APFIM 200 - A refiectron-based atom probe', doi
  19. (1991). APFIM study of multi component M2C carbide precipitation in AF1410 steel', doi
  20. (1976). Assessment of Remaining Creep Life Using Accelerated Stress-Rupture Tests', doi
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  28. (1986). C Calculate the surface concentration in cementite on border C with ferrite A appropriate for mass balance IF (I .EQ.
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  30. (1989). Carbide stability diagrams in 2.25Cr1Mo steels', doi
  31. (1973). Carbide Structure Lattice Parameter /A Formula Units /Cell Density /g
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  37. cl) a) 640°C 15 ~ ...; as "-Cl 10 + 0 •••- as ~ • -
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  39. (1975). Consider a slab of thickness X(J embedded in an infinite matrix of ferrite (and no soft impingement in the ferrite). If the time required for the cementite to reach a concentration c(J is te, then a standard mass balance procedure can be used (e.g. Crank,
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  49. (1985). Diffusional Formation of Ferrite in Iron and its Alloys', doi
  50. (1985). Effect of inadequate heat treatment on creep strength of 12CrMoV steel', doi
  51. (1987). Electrolytic Extraction of Carbide Precipitates from Low Alloy Ferritic Steel Power Plant Components', Central Electricity Generating Board Report
  52. (1982). Enrichment of Mo2C with tempering time It has been observed (Pilling
  53. Ex-service' 12Cr1MoV steel 700°C Fe Cr Mo Mn C Fe Cr Mo Mn C
  54. (1969). Experimental confirmation of the Lifshitz- Wagner theory of particle coarsening', in 'The mechanism of phase transformations in crystalline solids',
  55. (1976). Ferrite morphologies and carbide precipitation in a Cr-Mo-V creep-resisting steel', doi
  56. (1973). Figure 2.11: a) The triangular prism environment of iron atoms around carbon in Fe3C (after
  57. (1987). Figure 2.9: The formation of martensite (Bhadeshia, doi
  58. (1950). Figure 5.34: A self'ctf'd area electron diffraction pattern from thf' rnartensitic region f'xhihiting thf' well known Bagaryatski
  59. Figure 5.37: Carhon ('xtractioll r('plica from sl><,clrncnt('mpN('d for 1048 hours at 565°C showing that t1l<'microstructur(' consists pr('dolllinantly of largc M7C3 and fill(, M2C particles.
  60. (1986). Figure 5.69: Illustration of the dependence of the enrichment of cementite on the particle size calculated at 565°C using the finite difference model. 145CHAPTER 6 !Cr!Mo!
  61. (1982). FIM observation of 2.25Cr1Mo steel', doi
  62. (1979). Fine scale analysis of partitioning in pearlitic steels,' doi
  63. (1988). How much longer? - Remanent life assessment of high temperature components', in 'Central Electricity Generating Board Research',
  64. (1987). In order to prevent surface oxidation and nucleation effects (Strangwood
  65. (1969). In this work intrinsic chemical diffusion coefficients are used from the work of Fridberg et al.
  66. (1978). Interaction solid solution hardeing in 2.25Cr1Mo steel',
  67. (1990). Interparticle Distance Evolution on Steam Pipes of 12Cr1Mo1V Steel during Power Plant Service Times',
  68. (1967). Interpretation of electron diffraction patterns', Publ. Hilger and Watts, doi
  69. (1981). Interscience,
  70. (1977). Isothermal Sections of the Fe-Cr-C system in the Temperature Range of 873-1373K', doi
  71. (1986). Isothermal transformations in hypereutectoid steels', doi
  72. It can be seen in the 15 minute specimen that M7C3 (with a composition of approximately 171a) 90 80 ~ ...,; 70 ~ &quot; 60 g 50 ••••
  73. (1969). Kinetics of coarsening of carbides in chromium steels at 700°C &quot;
  74. (1939). Kinetics of Phase Changes 1', doi
  75. (1952). Lower bainite a. High dislocation density
  76. (1988). M2C precipitation in AP1410 steel',
  77. (1966). M7C3 to MZ3C6 transformation in chromium containing alloys',
  78. (1958). Micro-constituents in Steels; Their Electrolytic Isolation and X-ray Study',
  79. (1983). Microstructural Examination of 1CrO.5MoSteel during Creep', doi
  80. (1989). MTDATA-Metallurgical and Thermochemical Databank,
  81. (1956). No further phase changes will occur as tempering proceeds, however the microstructure and mechanical properties will continue to alter. Hyam and Nutting
  82. (1928). On the structure ofthe iron-chromium-carbon system',
  83. (1972). Oriani's theory of coupled diffusion was then challenged by Bj6rkland
  84. (1964). Ostwald ripening of precipitates in solid matrices', doi
  85. (1969). Particle Coarsening', in 'The mechanism of phase transformations in crystalline solids',
  86. (1977). Particle size /nm Inc. in free energy
  87. (1979). Pearlite Growth Kinetics and Partitioning in a Cr-Mn Eutectoid Steel', doi
  88. (1984). Prediction of Remaining Lifein LowAlloy Steels', Central Electricity Generating
  89. (1986). Present Status of Predictive Methods for Remanent LifeAssessment and Future Developments',
  90. (1968). Quantitative assessment of extraction replicas for particle analysis', doi
  91. (1981). Quantitative Microanalysis with High Spatial Resolution,' (Conf. Proc.), London, The Metals Society.
  92. (1986). Quantitative X-ray analysis' in 'Principles of Analytical Electron Microscopy', doi
  93. (1991). Recent work by Bjarbo
  94. (1987). Remaining Life Prediction of High Temperature Materials', doi
  95. (1987). Remanent Life Assessment of the Ferritic Weld Heat Affected Zones by a Metallographic Measurement of Cavitation Damage-The 'A' Parameter', Central Electricity Generating Board
  96. (1965). Role of Carbides in Low-alloy creep Resisting Steels', doi
  97. s('i('l&quot;1.l'd an'a d ill&quot;racl iOIl pal.! C'rll of M 7(':l' I.h(, '1011(' axis hei IIg [1TGl alld showi IIg chara.(,tNisl.ic str('aks. '---...,._
  98. (1984). Samples were cut from a ~Cr~Mot V reheater drum after 70,000 hours service and machined into specimens for creep testing (Cane and Townsend,
  99. (1956). Single-stage carbon extraction replicas were prepared using the method described by Smith and Nutting
  100. (1981). Solid-solid phase Transformations', Eds. H.I.Aaronson et al., TMS-AIME, Warrendale,
  101. (1987). Solute segregation, oxygen content, and the transformation start temperature of steel welds',
  102. (1992). Some aspects of atom probe analysis of Fe-C and Fe-N systems', doi
  103. (1959). state that nucleation of M7C3 can only occur in the vicinity of cementite or at the cementite/ferrite interface, which is supported by Kuo
  104. (1973). Structure and properties of an isothermally transformed Fe-4Mo-O.2C alloy',
  105. (1968). Structure of Metals and Alloys',
  106. t .I:l 0.008 :I 600 bi .•. c:l • .. ~ 0.006 8- •• a 400 .~ .,
  107. (2000). t) ••• 600 ::l - ftl ••• t) Cl. 8 400 t) E200 o o 1000 2000 3000 4000 Time /s 5000 0.014 ~ 0.012 c:l Cl:! ~ 0.01 ..c:l .•.. till 0.008 c:l t) -t) 0.006 ~ ...• .•..
  108. (1961). Table 1.3: The effect of temperature on rupture life.
  109. Table 6.1: Chemical composition of the ~Cr~Mot V steel in wt.%
  110. (1970). Table 8.2: Measurements of the diffusion of chromium in ferrite and cementite at 486°C. DO'/m2s-1 D8/m2s-1 Bowen and Leak
  111. Tempering Correlation Average Cr Average particle time fHours coefficient cone. fwt.% size fum
  112. (1982). Tempering of 2.25 Pct Cr-1 Pct Mo Low Carbon Steels', doi
  113. (1986). The Assessment of the Remaining Creep Life of Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Power Plant Components',
  114. (1979). The Bainite Transformation in a Silicon Steel', doi
  115. (1970). The bainite transformation',
  116. (1984). The Bainite Transformation', Phase Transformations in Ferrous Alloys, ASM, Metals Park,
  117. (1969). The calculated value of the diffusion coefficients at the three temperatures were then used to calculate the activation energy for the diffusion of Cr in ferrite using the Arhenius relationship
  118. (1975). The composition of eta carbide phase in 2lCrlMo steel', doi
  119. (1990). The development of a novel temperature indicator',
  120. (1972). The effect of alloying elements on the rate of Ostwald ripening of cementite in steel', doi
  121. (1984). The effect of temperature on rupture life is illustrated in Table 1.3. This is based on the 15650
  122. (1987). The element redistribution associated with the Incomplete-Reaction Phenomenon in Bainitic Steels: An atom probe investigation',
  123. (1952). The formation of bainite',
  124. (1957). The Formation of Carbides in Low-Carbon Chromium-Vanadium Steels at 700°C &quot;
  125. (1962). The formation of pearlite', in 'The Decomposition of austenite by diffusional processes',
  126. (1965). The growth and shrinkage rates of second-phase particles of various size distributions',
  127. (1956). The growth of dispersed precipitates in solutions', doi
  128. (1978). The Identification of Second-Phase Particles in Steels using an Analytical Transmission Electron Microscope', in
  129. (1970). The Isothermal Decomposition of Austenite in Fe-Mo-C alloys',
  130. (1961). The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions', doi
  131. (1979). The material described in this chapter has been accepted for publication in Surface Science.
  132. (1992). The material described in this chapter has been published in Materials Science and Engineering A,
  133. (1975). The mathematics of Diffusion', 2nd Edition,
  134. (1990). The newest indicator of thermal history developed by
  135. (1986). The original measurements on the !Cr!MoiV specimens made by Du
  136. (1958). The Pearlite Reaction',
  137. (1960). The physical metallurgy of 12% chromium steels',
  138. (1984). The role of carbon in the bainite transformation The precise role of carbon during the bainite transformation is difficult to determine (Christian and Edmonds,
  139. (1968). The Spheroidization of Some Ferritic Superheater Steels', Central Electricity Generating Board Report
  140. (1961). The Structure and Properties of 1CrO.5MoSteel After Service in Central Electricity Generating Board Power Stations',
  141. (1948). The Structure of Carbides in Alloy Steels',
  142. (1965). The Super 12%Cr Steels', Climax Molybdenum Company. doi
  143. (1959). The tempering of 2.25Cr1Mo Steel after Quenching and Normalizing',
  144. (1957). The Tempering of Low-Alloy Creep-Resistant Steels containing Chromium, Molybdenum, and Vanadium',
  145. (1956). The tempering of plain carbon steels',
  146. The Widmanstatten ferrite type M2C carbides were found to have the orientation relationship (Ol1)a 11 (0001 )Mo2C (100)a 11 (2IIO)Mo2c [lOO]a 11 [2110]Mo2c, which is also that describing the precipitation of M2C in tempered martensite.
  147. (1989). Theoretical Analysis of Changes in Cementite Composition During Tempering of Bainite', doi
  148. (1961). Theorie der Alterung von NiederschHigendurch Umlosen',
  149. (1987). Theory for allotriomorphic ferrite formation in steel weld deposits', Welding metallurgy of structural steels,
  150. (1975). Theory of transformations in metals and alloys', doi
  151. (1966). Thermal Expansion of Cementite and Other Phases',
  152. (1965). Thermodynamics of dilute interstitial solid solutions with dual site occupancy and its applications to the diffusion of carbon in a-iron',
  153. (1966). These compositions are in general agreement with those of Beech and
  154. (1975). Thickening Kinetics of proeutectoid ferrite plates in Fe-C alloys', doi
  155. (1978). This is a Cr-rich carbide with the trigonal structure of Cr7C3, having a solubility of Fe up to 60% (although Titchmarsh
  156. Time /Hours Cr /wt.%
  157. (1971). Time at 700°C Lattice parameter
  158. (1956). Transformation kinetics during continuous cooling', doi
  159. (1987). Worked Examples in the Geometry of Crystals', The Institute of Metals,
  160. (1982). X-ray powder diffraction evidence for the incorporation of Wand Mo into M23C6 extracted from high temperature alloys', doi

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