A fraction of pyrolytic oils (PyO) – obtained by fast pyrolysis of alder (Alnus incana), ash-tree (Fraxinus excelsior) and aspen (Populus tremula) in a laboratory scale reactor – was precipitated in water. This hydrophobic moiety of PyO is called pyrolytic lignin (PyL). The composition of the volatile monomeric compounds of PyO and the PyL fraction was determined by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). It has been found that PyL has a high content of phenolic products (between 75% and 83%), which varies depending on the wood species. The antioxidant properties of the PyL fraction were studied and it was demonstrated that the antioxidant activity determined in different tests exceeded the corresponding activity of alkali lignin. The antioxidant properties of PyL are on the same level as those of the widely used antioxidants, such as rutin, trolox, curcumine, and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). A new method was developed for the extraction of a monomeric phenol fraction (Py-monPh) from PyO by means of the organic solvent methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The Py-monPh can be considered as a promising source of antioxidants
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