(2b) Photo [foutou] photograph [fou -I Wfl (cf. s[foutouveef]) 76Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology In contrast to obligatory reduction, non-obligatory reduction is
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116Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology
130Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology
(1958). 135Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology 3.2.3 Pitch-accent in
1500 + A**** * - *A*** - A C •*A*BB - CCB* - CC*CC 1000 - CC _ --_ _ - A = AH + B = MB - C = DG _ --+ ---_ --_
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199Fry, D. B. (1958). Experiments in the perception of stress. Language and Speech I, 126-152.
2 2000 + A**BB - AA***B - A**BB - **** - A***g g
2 2000 + FF + I = HS - FF F _ - D HF HF _ ********HH HR _ - I********* HR H G -
2.1.3. Neurological factors: critical/sensitive period Lenneberg (1967) formulated the Critical Period Hypothesis in an
2.2.2 How perception is related to production in L2 phonology In reviewing the literature, there are some studies which indicate a dissociation
201Hockett, C. F. (1958). A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan.
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2500 + F + D = K1 - F - E = NH - F FF - F = NT - FF - G = TT f - D**FF - H = HK
3.1.2 The Underspecification theory It has been argued (e.g. Kiparsky 1985; Archiangeli 1984, 1988; Archiangeli & Pullyblank 1994) that feature values that are predictable in a given language remain unspecified
188.8.131.52 The Window Model and underspecified English schwa In her 1990 study, Keating suggested a model which incorporates underspecification into a model of coarticulation. Under this model, the nature of phonetic underspecification is
3.2 Fl and F2 values for each group of speakers 118 4.1 Mean formant values for Japanese vowel [a] 159 4.2 Mean formant values for Japanese vowel [a] and interlanguage [o] 163 4.3 Mean formant values for each data collection period 164 4.4 The
37Chapter 2 The second language acquisition
6 Han (1994:75) argued
63Chapter 2 The second language acquisition of
66Chapter 2 The second language acquisition of phonology It was found that the higher the age of immersion and instruction, the higher
68Chapter 2 The second language acquisition of phonology The new 'foreign language teaching scheme' ('shin kyouiku youkou') for junior/high schools published by the Ministry of Education
97Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology 3.1.5 Variability in Japanese vowels Unlike in English, in a non-stress accented language such as Japanese, with no such contrast between reduced and full vowels observed, all vowels are presumably targeted.
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