Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The phonological development of adult Japanese learners of English : a longitudinal study of perception and production.

By Mamiko Akita
Topics: Linguistics
Year: 2001
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles


  1. (15) Ran no ka ya Cho - no tsubasa
  2. (2b) Photo [foutou] photograph [fou -I Wfl (cf. s[foutouveef]) 76Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology In contrast to obligatory reduction, non-obligatory reduction is
  3. (4) Comparison
  4. 0 Connor, J. D. (1965). The perception of time intervals. Progress Report: Phonetics Laboratory. University College London 2: 11-15.
  5. 116Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology
  6. 122Chapter
  7. 130Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology
  8. (1958). 135Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology 3.2.3 Pitch-accent in doi
  9. 1500 + A**** * - *A*** - A C •*A*BB - CCB* - CC*CC 1000 - CC _ --_ _ - A = AH + B = MB - C = DG _ --+ ---_ --_
  10. 197Dtf§kovi, L. (1969). On sources of errors in foreign language learning. International Review of Applied Linguistics 7, 11-36.
  11. 199Fry, D. B. (1958). Experiments in the perception of stress. Language and Speech I, 126-152.
  12. 2 2000 + A**BB - AA***B - A**BB - **** - A***g g doi
  13. 2 2000 + FF + I = HS - FF F _ - D HF HF _ ********HH HR _ - I********* HR H G -
  14. 2.1.3. Neurological factors: critical/sensitive period Lenneberg (1967) formulated the Critical Period Hypothesis in an
  15. 2.2.2 How perception is related to production in L2 phonology In reviewing the literature, there are some studies which indicate a dissociation
  16. 201Hockett, C. F. (1958). A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan.
  17. 204Kuhl, P. K. (1987). Perception of speech and sound in early infancy. In Salapatek, P. & Cohen, L (eds.) Handbook of infant perception 2. New York: Academic Press.
  18. 208Michaels, D. (1973). Sinhalese sound replacement and feature hierarchies. Linguistics 170, 12-22. doi
  19. 209O'Connor, J. D. (1973). Phonetics. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books. doi
  20. 213Scovel, T. (1969). Foreign accents, language acquisition, and cerebral dominance. Language Learning 19, 245-253. doi
  21. 2500 + F + D = K1 - F - E = NH - F FF - F = NT - FF - G = TT f - D**FF - H = HK
  22. 3 doi
  23. 3.1.2 The Underspecification theory It has been argued (e.g. Kiparsky 1985; Archiangeli 1984, 1988; Archiangeli & Pullyblank 1994) that feature values that are predictable in a given language remain unspecified
  24. The Window Model and underspecified English schwa In her 1990 study, Keating suggested a model which incorporates underspecification into a model of coarticulation. Under this model, the nature of phonetic underspecification is
  25. 3.2 Fl and F2 values for each group of speakers 118 4.1 Mean formant values for Japanese vowel [a] 159 4.2 Mean formant values for Japanese vowel [a] and interlanguage [o] 163 4.3 Mean formant values for each data collection period 164 4.4 The
  26. 37Chapter 2 The second language acquisition doi
  27. 6 Han (1994:75) argued
  28. 63Chapter 2 The second language acquisition of doi
  29. 66Chapter 2 The second language acquisition of phonology It was found that the higher the age of immersion and instruction, the higher
  30. 68Chapter 2 The second language acquisition of phonology The new 'foreign language teaching scheme' ('shin kyouiku youkou') for junior/high schools published by the Ministry of Education
  31. 97Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology 3.1.5 Variability in Japanese vowels Unlike in English, in a non-stress accented language such as Japanese, with no such contrast between reduced and full vowels observed, all vowels are presumably targeted.
  32. Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.
  33. accent'. She claimed that stress accent (as in English) differs phonetically from non-stress doi
  34. Adams, C. (1979). English speech rhythm and foreign learners. The Haugue: Mouton. doi
  35. Allen, G. D. (1975). Speech rhythm: its relation to performance universals and articulatory timing. Journal of Phonetics 3, 75-86.
  36. Although Browman & Goldstein (1992b) and Bergem (1994) reached different 82Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology conclusions with regard to the targetlessness of schwa, it seems valid to at least conclude that both sets of data found little evidence
  37. Anderson-Hsieh, J., Johnson, R. & Koehler, K. (1992). The effects of foreign accent and speaking rate on native judgements of non-native pronunciation and deviance in segmentals, prosody and syllable structure. Language learning 42, 529-555. doi
  38. Anderson-Hsieh, Johnson & Koehler (1992) reported that prosodic characteristics may be more important than other features in the perception of foreign accent. Cutler and her colleagues
  39. Archangeli, D. (1984). Underspecification in Yawelmani Phonology and Morphology. Ph.D. thesis. MIT. Published 1988, New York: Garland.
  40. Archangeli, D. (1988). Aspects of underspecification theory. Phonology 5, 183-207. doi
  41. Archangeli, D. & Pullyblank, D. (1994). The content and structure of phonological representations. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  42. Archibald, J. (1992). Transfer of L2 parameter settings: some empirical evidence from Polish metrics. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 37, 301-339.
  43. Archibald, J. (1993). Language learnability and L2 phonology: the acquisition of metrical parameters. Dordrecht: Kluwer. doi
  44. Archibald, J. (1994). A formal model of learning L2 prosodic phonology. Second 191Language Research 10, 211-243. doi
  45. Archibald, J. (1995a). Phonological acquisition and phonological theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. doi
  46. Archibald, J. (1995b). A longitudinal study of the acquisition of English stress. Calgary Working Papers in Linguistics 17, 1-10. The University of Calgary, Canada.
  47. As was the case in F2, the full range in Fl values for schwa did not cover the maximum frequency
  48. Asher, J. J. & Garcia, R. (1969). The optical age to learn a foreign language. Modern Language Journal 53, 334-342. doi
  49. Aslin, R. N., Pisoni, D. B., Hennessy, B. L & Perey, A. J. (1981). Discrimination of voice onset time by human infants: new findings and implications for the effect of early experience. Child Development 52, 1135-1145. doi
  50. Atal, B. & Hanauer, S. (1971). Speech analysis and synthesis by linear prediction of the speech wave. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 50, 637-655. doi
  51. Au, S. Y. (1988). A critical appraisal of Gardner' s social-psychological theory of second-language (L2) learning. Language Learning 38 (1), 75-100. doi
  52. Barry, W. (1992) Comments on chapter 2. In Cocherty, G. J. & Ladd, D. R. (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, Segments, Prosody. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 65-67. doi
  53. Bates, S. A. R. (1995). Towards a definition of schwa: an acoustic investigation of vowel reduction in English. Ph.D. thesis. University of Edinburgh.
  54. (1986). Beckman doi
  55. Beckman, E. M. (1986). Stress and non-stress accent. Dordrecht, Holland: Fortis Publications. doi
  56. Beckman, M. (1982). Segment duration and the ' mora' in Japanese. Phonetica 19239, 113-135. doi
  57. Beckman, M. & Pierrehumbert, J. (1986). Intonational structure in Japanese and English. Phonology Yearbook 3, 255-309. doi
  58. Beckman, M. E. (1986). Stress and non-stress accents. Dordrecht: Fortis. Netherlands Phonetic Archives 7.
  59. Beebe, L. M. (1985). Input: choosing the right stuff. In Gass, S. M. & Madden, C. G. (eds.) Input in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Newbury House, 404-414.
  60. (1994). Bergem
  61. Bergem, D. R. van. (1993). Acoustic vowel reduction as a function of sentence accent, word stress and word class. Speech communication 12, 1-23. doi
  62. Bergem, D. R. van. (1994). A model of coarticulatory effects on schwa. Speech Communication 14, 143-162. doi
  63. Bertinetto, P. M. (1988). Reflections on the dichotomy ' stress ' vs. ' syllabletiming ' . In Vayra, M. (ed.) Quaderni del Laboratorio de Linguistica 2. Scuola Normale Superiore Pisa.
  64. Berwick, R. (1985). The acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. doi
  65. Bever, T. (1981). Normal acquisition processes explain the critical period for language learning. In Diller, K. (ed.) Individual differences and universals in 193language learning aptitude. Rowley: Newbury House, 176-198. doi
  66. Birdsong, D. (1999). Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. doi
  67. Bley-Vroman, R., Felix, S. & Ioup, G. (1988). The accessibility of universal grammar in adult language learning. Second Language Research 4 (1), 1-32. doi
  68. Bloch, B. (1942). Studies in colloquial Japanese IV: phonemics. Language 26, 86-125. doi
  69. Bolinger, D. (1958). A theory of pitch accent in English. Word 14, 110-149.
  70. Bolinger, D. (1975). Aspects of Language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovch. doi
  71. Bolinger, D. (1985). Two views of accent. Journal of Linguistics 21, 79-123. doi
  72. Bongaerts, T. (1999). Ultimate attainment in L2 pronunciation: the case of very advanced late L2 learners. In Birdsong, D. (ed.) Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 133-159.
  73. Bongaerts, T. Summeren, C. van, Planken B. & Schils, E. (1997). Age and ultimate attainment in the production of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19, 447-465. doi
  74. Borzone de Manrique, A. M., Signorini, A. & Massone, M. I. (1982). Rasgos proscidicos: el acento. Fonoloaudiologica 28, 19-36.
  75. Bradlow, A., Posoni, D., Yamada, R. & Tohkura, Y. (1996). Training Japanese listeners to identify English In and Ill: some effects of perceptual learning on speech production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101, 2299-2310 . doi
  76. Broselow, E. & Park, H-B. (1995). Mora conservation in second language prosody. In Archibald, J. (ed.) Phonological Acquisition and phonological theory. 194Hove: Erlbaum, 151-168.
  77. Browman, C. P. & Goldstein, L. (1992a). Articulatory phonology. An overview. Phonetica 49, 166-180. doi
  78. Browman, C. P. & Goldstein, L. (1992b). Targetless schwa: an articulatory analysis. In Cocherty, G. J. & Ladd, D. R. (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, Segments, Prosody. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 26-56.
  79. Brown, C. (2000). The interrelation between speech perception and phonological acquisition from infant to adult. In Archibald, J. (ed.) Second language acquisition and linguistic theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 4-63.
  80. Brown, C. & Matthews, J. (1993). The acquisition of segmental structure. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics 9, 46-76.
  81. Brown, C. & Matthews, J. (1997). The role of feature geometry in the development of phonemic contrasts. In Hannahs, S. J. & Young-Scholten, M. (eds.) Generative studies in the acquisition of phonology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 67-112.
  82. Catford, J. C. (1977). Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  83. Chamot, A. U. (1978). Grammatical problems in learning English as a third language. In Hatch, E. (ed.) Second language acquisition: a book of readings. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, 176-189. doi
  84. Champagne-Muzar, C., Schneiderman, E. I. & Bourdages, J. S. (1988). Second 195language accent: the role of pedagogical environment. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 31(2), 143-160.
  85. Chao, Y. R. (1930). A system of tone letters. Le Maltre Phonetique, troise'me sine 30, 24-7. Reprinted in Fangyan (1980).
  86. Chapter doi
  87. Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology - _ _ _ 2500 + + _ _ _ -200 600 1000 400 800 1200 Figure 3.2 Native speakers' schwa 109_ _ _ Chapter 3 English vs. Japanese phonology - -
  88. Chihara, T. & Oiler, J. W. (1978). Attitudes and attained proficiency in EFL: a sociolinguistic study of adult Japanese speakers. Language Learning 28, 55-68. doi
  89. Choi, J. D. (1995). An acoustic-phonetic underspecification account of Marshallese vowel allophony. Journal of Phonetics 23, 323-347. doi
  90. Chun, D. (1988). The neglected role of intonation in communicative competence and proficiency. Modern Language Journal 72, 295-303. doi
  91. Clahsen, H. & Muysken, P. (1986). The availability of universal grammar to adult and child learners: a study of the acquisition of German word order. Second Language Research 2 (2), 93-119. doi
  92. Class, A. (1939). The rhythm of English prose. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  93. Clement, R., Gardner, R. C. & Smythe, P. C. (1977). Attitudes and attained proficiency in EFL: a socio-linguistic study of adult Japanese speakers. Language Learning 28, 55-68. doi
  94. Clements, G. N. (1985). The geometry of phonological features. Phonology Yearbook 2, 223-250. doi
  95. Clements, G. N. (1987). Toward a substantive theory of feature specification. Paper presented at the UCLA Symposium on Segment Structure.
  96. Cohn, A. C. (1993). Nasalisation in English: phonology or phonetics. Phonology 19, 43-81. doi
  97. Corder, S. P. (1973). Introducing applied linguistics. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: 196Penguin.
  98. Crystal, D. (1985). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford: Blackwell. doi
  99. Current studies on schwa in English, Catalan
  100. Cutler, A. (1976) Phoneme-monitoring reaction time as a function of preceding intonation contour. Perception and Psychophysics 20, 55-60. doi
  101. Cutler, A. & Norris, D. (1988). The role of strong syllables in segmentation for lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 14, 110-121. doi
  102. Dalby, R. M. (1984). Phonetic Structure of Fast Speech Processes in American English. Ph.D. thesis. Indiana University.
  103. Dauer, R. M. (1983). Stress-timing and syllable-timing reanalyzed. Journal of Phonetics 11, 51-62.
  104. De Bot, K. & Mailfert, K. (1982). The teaching of intonation: fundamental research and classroom applications. TESOL Quarterly 16, 71-77. doi
  105. Delattre, P. (1969). An acoustic and articulatory study of vowel reduction in four languages. International Review of Applied Linguistics VII /4, 295-325. doi
  106. Dennis, J. & Scott, J. (1975). Creole formation and reorganization. Paper presented at the International Congress on Pidgins and Creoles, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  107. Dresher, B. & Larkins, J. (1980). Non-semantic auditory discrimination: foundation for second language learning. Modern Language Journal 56, 227-230. doi
  108. Dresher, B. E & Kaye, J (1990). A computational learning model for metrical phonology. Cognition 34, 137-195. doi
  109. Dulay, H. & Burt, M. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning 24, 37-53. doi
  110. Durand, J. (1990). Generative and Non-linear Phonology. London: Longman. doi
  111. e doi
  112. Eckman, F. (1977). Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Language Learning 27, 315-330. doi
  113. Eilers, R. E., Gavin, W. J. & Oiler, D. K. (1982). Cross-linguistic perception in infancy: early effects of linguistic experience. Journal of Child Language 9, 289-302. doi
  114. Elias-Olivares, L (1976). Ways of speaking in a Chicago community: a sociolinguistic approach. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of Texas at Austin.
  115. Elliott, A. (1995). Field independence/dependence, hemispheric specialization, and attitude in relation to pronunciation accuracy in Spanish as a foreign language. Modern Language Journal 79, 356-371. doi
  116. English vs. Japanese phonology 3.2.1 Syllable structure of English and
  117. Engstrand, 0. (1988). Articulatory correlates of stress and speaking rate in Swedish vcv utterances. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 83, 1863-1875. doi
  118. et doi
  119. Felix, S. (1980). Interference, interlanguage and related issues. In Felix, S. (ed.) Second language development. Tubingen: Gunter Narr, 93-107.
  120. Flege & Schmidt (1995) and Schmidt & Flege (1995) examined the voice onset time (VOT) dimension in production and perception of word-initial English stop consonants. They examined forty native speakers of Spanish doi
  121. Flege, Bohn & Jang (1997) obtained similar results in
  122. Flege, J. E. (1981). The phonological basis of foreign accent. TESOL Quarterly 15, 443-455. doi
  123. Flege, J. E. (1987). A critical period for learning to produce a foreign language? 198Applied Linguistics 8, 162-177. doi
  124. Flege, J. E. (1991). Age of learning affects the authenticity of Voice-Onset Time (VOT) in stop consonants produced in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 395-411. doi
  125. Flege, J. E. (1992). Speech learning in a second language. In Ferguson, L. M. & Stoel-Gammon, C. (eds.) Phonological Development: models, research and implications. Timonium, MD: York Press, 565-604. doi
  126. Flege, J. E. (1993). Production and perception of a novel, second-language phonetic contrast. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 93, 1589-1608. doi
  127. Flege, J. E. (1995). Second language speech learning: theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W. (ed.) Speech perception and linguistic experience: issues in cross-language science 171: 303-306.
  128. Flege, J. E. (1999). Age of learning and second language speech. In Birdsong, D. (ed.) Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. doi
  129. Flege, J. E. & Hillenbrand, J. (1984). Limits on phonetic accuracy in foreign language speech production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 76 (3), 708-721. doi
  130. Flege, J. E. & Schmidt, A. M. (1995). Native speakers of Spanish show ratedependent processing of English stop consonants. Phonetica 52, 90-111. doi
  131. Flege, J. E., Munro, M. & Fox, R. (1992). The interlingual identification of Spanish and English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128-143. doi
  132. For English native speakers' data, the extent of variation of F2 in schwa was found to be very
  133. For measuring vowel formants, to determine the quality of vowels, Peterson & Barney (1952) cited in Kent & Read (1992) (Figure 4.4) was used for English values. To obtain the higher female voice pitch, values increased by 20% were calculated.
  134. For previous studies on the acquisition of the English accentuation system using this framework, see Archibald (1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995a, b) and Pater (1993, 1997).
  135. Fowler, C. A. (1981). Production and perception of coarticulation among stressed and unstressed vowels. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 24, 127-139. doi
  136. Fowler, C. A. & Best, C. T. & McRoberts, G. W. (1990). Young infants' perception of liquid coarticulatory influences on following stop consonants. Perception and Psychophysics 48, 559-570. doi
  137. Gardner, R. C. (1980). On the validity of affective variables in second language acquisition: conceptual, contextual, and statistical considerations. Language Learning 30 (2), 255-270. doi
  138. Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in secondlanguage learning Rowley, MA.: Newbury House.
  139. Gardner, R. C., Clement, R., Smythe, P. C. & Smythe, C. L. (1979). Attitudes and motivation test battery — revised manual. Research Bulletin No. 15, Language Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario.
  140. Gay, T. (1978). A cinefluographic study of vowel production. Journal of Phonetics 2, 255-266.
  141. Gimson, A. C. (1980). An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold. doi
  142. Gottfried, T. & Beddor, P. (1988). Perception of temporal and spectral information in French vowels. Language and Speech 31, 57-75.
  143. Guiora, A. Z. (1972). Construct validity and transpositional research: toward an empirical study of psychoanalytic concepts. Comprehensive Psychiatry 13, 139-150. doi
  144. Guiora, A. Z., Beit-Hallahmi, B., Brannon, R. C. L., Dull, C. Y. & Scoval, T. (1972). The effects of experimentally induced changes in ego states on pronunciation ability in a second language: an exploratory study. Comprehensive Psychiatry 13, 421-428. doi
  145. Halle, M & Vergnaud, J. R (1987) An essay on stress. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. doi
  146. Halle, M. & Vergnaud, J. R. (1987). Stress and the cycle. Paper presented at the 200colloquium Phonologie Pluri-liniaire, Lyon.
  147. Hamayan, E., Genesee, F. & Tucker, G. R. (1977). Affective factors and language experience in second language learning. Language Learning: a Journal of Applied Linguistics 27, 225-241. doi
  148. Han, M. S. (1962). The feature of duration in Japanese. Study Sounds 10, 65-80.
  149. Han, M. S. (1994). Acoustic manifestations of mora timing in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96 (1), 73-82. doi
  150. Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1994a). Phonological transfer in second language perception and production. Ph.D. thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  151. Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1994b). Segment transfer: a consequence of a dynamic systems. Second Language Research 10(3), 241-269. doi
  152. Hanke, W. L. (1966). Dynamic Articulatory Model of Speech Production Using Computer Simulation. Ph.D. dissertation. MIT.
  153. Haraguchi, S. (1977). The tone pattern of Japanese: an autosegmental theory of tonology. Tokyo: Kaitakusha. doi
  154. Haraguchi, S. (1994). Oninron: gendai no eigogaku shiriizu 3. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.
  155. Hatch, E. (1978). Second language acquisition: a book of readings. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. doi
  156. Hill, J. (1970). Foreign accents, language acquisition and cerebral dominance revisited. Language Learning 20, 237-248. doi
  157. Hirayama, T. (1985). Zen Nihon no hatsuon to akusento. Tokyo: The Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK).
  158. Hockett, C. (1955). A manual of phonology. Memoir 11 (Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics, Bloomington; Bloomington 1955; University of Chicago 1974).
  159. Hoequist, Jr. C. (1983). Syllable durations in stress-, syllable, and mora-timed languages. Phonetica 40, 203-237. doi
  160. Homma, y (1981). Durational relationship between Japanese stops and vowels. Journal of Phonetics 9, 273-281.
  161. Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal 70, 125-132. doi
  162. Hulst, van dur H. & Weijer, van de, J. (1995). Vowel harmony. In Goldsmith, J. (ed.) The handbook of phonological theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 495-534.
  163. Hutchinson, S. P. (1973). An objective index of the English-Spanish pronunciation dimension. Unpublished Masters thesis. University of Texas at Austin.
  164. Hyltenstam, K. (1977). Implicational patterns in interlanguage syntax variation. Language Learning 27 (2), 383-411. doi
  165. i/ 'stomach', b. CV e.g. /ki/ 'tree' c. First
  166. Imaishi, K. (1980). Onseigakuteki hikaku. Nichieigo hikaku kouza 1: onsei to keitai. Tokyo: Taishuukan, 18-67.
  167. In
  168. In addition, Moyer (1999) found a significant relationship between outcome and type of phonological feedback received: those who were given both suprasegmental
  169. In first language acquisition, Vihman (1992) and Werker & Pegg
  170. In sum, Kondo (1995) found clear evidence that schwa is contextually dependent in its F2 trajectories and the contrast of targetedness between full and reduced vowels seems to be an important feature of the stress-timed language English.
  171. into doi
  172. Ioup, G. (1987) Is there a structural foreign accent? A comparison of syntactic and phonological errors in second language acquisition. Language Learning 34 (2), 1-17. doi
  173. Ioup, G., Boustagui, E., Tigi, M. E. & Moselle, M. (1994) Reexamining the critical period hypothesis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16, 99-112. doi
  174. Ito, J. (1986). Syllable theory in prosodic phonology Ph.D. thesis. University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Circulated by the Graduate Linguistic Student Association. Published by Garland, New York, 1988.
  175. Johnson, J. S. & Newport, E. L. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of the maturation state on the acquisition of English as a 202second language. Cognitive Psychology 21, 60-99. doi
  176. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 81, 1574-1564. doi
  177. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 81, 1574-1585. doi
  178. Jun, S-A. & Beckman, M. E. (1993). A gestural overlap analysis of vowel devoicing in Japanese and Korean. Paper presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of The Linguistic Society of America, Los Angeles, California.
  179. Jusczyk, P. W. (1985). On characterizing the development of speech perception. In Mehler, J. & Fox, R. (eds.) Neonate cognition: beyond the blooming buzzing confusion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  180. Jusczyk, P. W. (1992). Developing phonological categories from the speech signal. In Ferguson, L. M. & Stoel-Gammon, C. (eds.) Phonological Development: models, research and implications. Timonium, MD: York Press, 17-64. doi
  181. Keating, P. A. (1988). Underspecification in phonetics. Phonology, 5 275-292. doi
  182. Keating, P. A. (1990). The window model of coarticulation. In Kingston, J. and Beckman, M. E. (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: between the grammar and physics of speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 451-470. doi
  183. Keating, P. A. & Huffman, M. K. (1984). Vowel variation in Japanese. Phonetica 59, 50-61. doi
  184. Kent, R. & Read, C. (1992). The acoustic analysis of speech. San Diego: Singular.
  185. Kenworthy, J. (1987). Teaching English pronunciation. New York: Longman. doi
  186. Kenyon, J. S. (1946). American Pronunciation. Michigan: Ann Arbor.
  187. Kindaichi, H. (1954). Haneru on, tsumaru on. [References are to the version in Kindaichi 1967: 154-167].
  188. Kindaichi, H. (1967). Nihongo onin no kenkyuu. Tokyo: Tokyodo.
  189. Kingston, J. (1992) Comments on Chapter 2. In Cocherty, G. J. & Ladd, D. R. (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, Segments, Prosody. 203Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 60-65.
  190. Kiparsky, P. (1985). Some consequences of lexical phonology. Phonology 2, 85-138. doi
  191. Kondo, Y. (1995). Production of schwa by Japanese speakers of English: a crosslinguistic study of coarticulatory strategies. Ph.D. thesis. University of Edinburgh.
  192. Koopmans-van Beinum, F. (1994). What' s in the schwa? Phonetica 51, 68-79. doi
  193. Koopmans-van Beinum, F. J. (1980). Vowel contrast reduction: an acoustic and perceptual study of Dutch vowels in various speech conditions. Ph.D. thesis. University of Amsterdam.
  194. Krashen, S. D. (1973). Lateralization, language learning, and the critical period: some new evidence. Language Learning 23, 63-74. doi
  195. Krull, D. (1989). Second formant locus patterns and consonant-vowel coarticulation in spontaneous speech. Phonetic Experimental Research. Institute of Linguistics, University of Stockholm (PERIUS) X, 87-108.
  196. Kubota, R. (1987). Analysis of the learning problems experienced by Japanese LEP students and suggestions for global bilingual assessment. MAT Thesis, School for International Training.
  197. Kubozono, H. (1989). The mora and syllable structure in Japanese: evidence from speech errors. Language and Speech 32, 249-278.
  198. Kubozono, H. (1989). The mora and syllable structure in Japanese: evidence from speech errors. Language and Speech 32(3), 249-278.
  199. Kuhl, P. K. (1979). Speech perception in early infancy: perceptual constancy for spectrally dissimilar vowel categories. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 66, 1168-1179. doi
  200. Kuhl, P. K. (1993). Early linguistic experience and phonetic perception: implications for theories of developmental speech perception. Journal of Phonetics, 125-139.
  201. Kuhl, P. K., Williams, K. A. Lacerda, F., Stevens, K. N. & Lindblom, B. (1992). Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science 255, 606-608. doi
  202. Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. doi
  203. Ladefoged, P. (1975). Three areas of experimental phonetics. London: Oxford University Press.
  204. Ladefoged, P. (1982). A course in Phonetics. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. doi
  205. Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures. Ann Arbor, Michigan.: University of Michigan Press.
  206. Lamendella, J. T. (1977) General principles of neurofunctional organization and their manifestation in primary and nonprimary language acquisition. Language Learning 27, No. 1, 155-196. doi
  207. Lea, W. A. (1977). Acoustic correlates of stress and juncture. In Hyman, L. M. (ed.) Studies in stress and accent. Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics 4, 83-119.
  208. Leather, J. (1983). Second-language pronunciation learning and teaching. Language Teaching Abstracts 16, 198-219. doi
  209. Leather, J. & James, A. (1991). The acquisition of second language speech. 205Studies in Second Language Acquisition 13, 305-341. doi
  210. Lehiste, I. (1970). Suprasegmentals. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  211. Lehiste, I. (1977). Isochrony reconsidered. Journal of Phonetics 5, 253-263.
  212. Lehn, W. & Slager, W. (1959). A contrastive study of Egyptian Arabic and American English. The segmental phonemes. Language Learning 9, 25-33. doi
  213. Lenneberg , E. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Willey. doi
  214. Levitt, A., Jusczyk, P. W., Murray, J. & Carden, G. (1988). Context effects in twomonth-old infants' perception of labiodental/interdental fricative contrasts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 14, 361-368. doi
  215. Lieberman, 0. (1960). Some acoustic correlates of word stress in American English. JASA 32, 451-454. doi
  216. Lieberman, M. & Pierrehumbert, J. (1984). Intonational invariance under changes in pitch range and length. In Arnoff, M. & Oehrle, R. T. (eds.) Language sound structure. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 157-233.
  217. Lightbown, P. (1983). Exploring relationships between developmental and instructional sequences in L2 acquisition. In Seliger, H. & Long, M (eds.) Classroom-oriented research in second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 217-243.
  218. Lindblom, B. (1963). Spectrographic study of vowel reduction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35, 1773-1781. doi
  219. Lindblom, B. (1988). Phonetic universals in the consonant system. In Hyman and 206Li, C. (eds.) Language, speech and mind. Studies in honour of Victora A. Fromkin. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  220. Lindblom, B. (1990). Explaining phonetic variation: a sketch of the H and H theory. In Hardcastle, W. J. & Marchal, A. (eds.) Speech Production and Speech Modelling Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 403-439. doi
  221. Lindblom, B. & Moon, S. J. (1988). Formant undershoot in clear and citation form speech. Phonetic Experimental Research. Institute of Linguistics, University of Stockholm (PERILUS) 8, 21-33.
  222. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 101-131 Flege, J. E., Bohn, 0-S. & Jang, S. (1997). Effects of experience on non-native speakers' production and perception of English vowels. Journal of Phonetics 25, 437-470. doi
  223. Long, M. (1985). Input and second language acquisition theory. In Gass, S. & Madden, C. (eds.) Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 377-393. doi
  224. Long, M. (1990). Maturational constraints on language development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12, 25-285. doi
  225. Luanghongkum, T. (1977). Rhythm in standard Thai. Ph.D. thesis. University of Edinburgh.
  226. Lukmani, Y. M (1972). Motivation to learn and language proficiency. Language Learning 22, 261-273. doi
  227. Maassen, B. & Povel, D. J. (1985). The effect of segmental and suprasegmental corrections on the intelligibility of deaf speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 78, 877-886. doi
  228. MacIntyre, P. D. & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second-language learning. Toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning 39, 251-275. doi
  229. MacIntyre, P. D. & Gardner, R. C. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning 44 (2), 283-305. doi
  230. Maeda
  231. Magan, H. (1984). Vowel-to-vowel coarticulation in English and Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 75, Supp1.1:S11. doi
  232. Magan, H. (1989). An acoustic study of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation in English. 207Ph.D. thesis. Yale University.
  233. Magan, H. S. (1998). The perception of foreign-accented speech. Journal of Phonetics, 381-400. doi
  234. Magen (1984) reported in her pilot study on Japanese VCV utterances that the magnitude of coarticulation in VbV sequences with the vowels /i/ and /a/ was observed to
  235. Major, R. C. (1981). Stress-timing in Brazilian Portuguese. Journal of Phonetics 9, 343-351.
  236. Major, R. C. (1987) Foreign accent: recent research and theory. International Review of Applied Linguistics XXV/3, 185-202. doi
  237. Major, R. C. (1987). Phonological similarity, markedness, and rate of Ll acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 9, 63-82. doi
  238. Manuel, S. & Krakow, R. A. (1984). Universal and language particular aspects of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research SR-77/78, 69-78.
  239. McCawley (1987). What is a tone language? In Fromkin, V. A. (ed.) Tone: a linguistic survey. New York: Academic Press, 113-131.
  240. McCawley, J. D. (1968). The phonological component of a grammar of Japanese. The Hague: Mouton. doi
  241. Meador, D., Flege, J. E. & MacKay, I. R. A. (1997). Native Italian speakers' perception of English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 (A), 2973-2987. doi
  242. Mehler, J. (1985). Language related dispositions in early infancy. In Mehler, J. & Fox, R. (eds.) Neonate cognition: beyond the blooming, buzzing confusion. Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.
  243. Menzerath, P. & Lacerda, A. (1933). Koartikulation, Steuerung und Lautabgrenzung: Eine experiemntelle Untersuchung. Berlin and Bonn: Gerd. Diimmler.
  244. Miyawaki, K., Strange, W., Verbrugge, R., Liberman, A. M., Jenkins, J. J. & Fujimura, 0. (1975). An effect of linguistic experience: the discrimination of [r] and [I] by native speakers of Japanese and English. Perception and Psychophysics 18, 331-340. doi
  245. Moyer, A. (1999). Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology The critical factors of age, motivation and instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21, 81-108. doi
  246. Nakatani, H. H., 0 ' Connor, K. D. & Aston, C. H. (1981). Prosodic aspects of American English speech rhythm. Phonetica 38, 84-106. doi
  247. native doi
  248. Nelson, C. (1982). Intelligibility and non-native varieties of English. The other tongue: English across cultures 15, 58-73.
  249. Neufeld, G. (1978). On the acquisition of prosodic and articulatory features in adult language learning. Canadian Modern Language Review 34 (2), 163-174.
  250. Newport, E. (1984). Constraints on learning: studies in the acquisition of American Sign Language. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development 23, 1-22.
  251. No examples of test words were given in Ohman's paper. Results from this American English experiment showed similar coarticulatory effects with the two Swedish experiments. He observed the effect of the first vowel at the onset of the second vowel and the
  252. Nosofsky, R. M. (1986). Attention, similarity, and the identification-categorization relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115, 39-57.
  253. Nosofsky, R. M. (1988). Exemplar-based accounts of relations between classification, recognition, and typicality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14, 700-708. doi
  254. of
  255. Ohman (1966) reported similar V-to-V coarticulatory relations among nonadjacent segments,
  256. Ohman, S. E. G. (1966). Coarticulation in VCV utterances: spectrographic measurements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 39, 151-168. doi
  257. Oiler, J. W. & Perkins, K. (1978). Intelligence and language proficiency as sources of variance in self-reported affective variables. Language Learning 28, 85-97. doi
  258. Oiler, J., Hadson, A. J.& Liu, P. F. (1977). Attitudes and attained proficiency in ESL: a sociolinguistic study of native speakers of Chinese in the United States. Language Learning 27 (1), 1-27. doi
  259. one of the fluent non-natives,
  260. onsei to keitai. Tokyo: Taishuukan. Reprinted in Sugito, M. (1996).
  261. Osberger, M. J. & Levitt, H. (1979). The effect of timing errors on the intelligibility of deaf children' s speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 66, 1316-1324. doi
  262. Oyama, S. (1973). A sensitive period for the acquisition of a second language. Ph.D. thesis. Harvard University.
  263. Oyama, S. (1976). A sensitive period of the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 5 (3), 261-283. doi
  264. Oyama, S. (1982a). A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system. In Krashen, S., Scarcella, R. & Long, M. (eds.) Childadult differences in second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, 20-38.
  265. Oyama, S. (1982b). The sensitive period for the comprehension of speech. In Krashen, S., Scarcella, R. & Long, M. (eds.) Child-adult differences in second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, 39-51.
  266. Parrondo-Rodriguez, A. E. (1999). The L2 acquisition of syllable structure and stress in Spanish. Ph.D. thesis. University of Durham.
  267. Pater, J. (1993). Theory and methodology in the study of metrical parameter 210(re)setting. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics 9, 211-244.
  268. Pater, J. (1997). Metrical parameter missetting in second language acquisition. In Hannahs, S. J. & Young-Scholten, M. (eds.). Focus on phonological Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 245-261. doi
  269. Patkowski, M. S. (1980). The sensitive period for the acquisition of syntax in a second language. Language Learning 30 (2), 449-472. doi
  270. Patkowski, M. S. (1990). Age and accent in a second language: a reply to James Emil Flege. Applied Linguistics 22, 73-89. doi
  271. Paulston, C. B. (1975). Ethnic relations and bilingual education: accounting for contradictory data. Working Papers in Bilingualism 6, 1-44.
  272. Pennington & Ellis (2000) examined the performance of advanced Cantonese speakers of English on recognition memory for English sentences in which prosody was the feature discriminating otherwise identical sentence pairs. Although speakers' memory
  273. Pennington, M. (1989). Teaching pronunciation from the top down. RELC Journal 20, 207-225. doi
  274. Pennington, M. & Richards, J. (1986). Pronunciation revisited. TESOL Quarterly 20, 207-225. doi
  275. Pennington, M. C. (1998). The teachability of phonology in adulthood: a reexamination. International Review of Applied Linguistics 36, 323-341. doi
  276. Pennington, M. C. & Ellis, N. C. (2000). Cantonese speakers' memory for English sentences with prosodic cues. Modern Language Journal 84 (3), 372-389. doi
  277. Peterson, G. E. & Lehiste, I. (1960). Duration of syllable nuclei in English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 32, 693-703. doi
  278. Pierrehumbert, J. & Beckman, M. E. (1988). Japanese Tone Structure. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. doi
  279. Pike, K. L. (1946). The intonation of American English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  280. Pimsleur, P. (1963). Discrimination training in the teaching of French pronunciation. 211Modern Language Journal 47, 199-203. doi
  281. PLACE PLACE continuant 1 I labial labial /f/ /v/ ROOT ROOT [continuant] PLACE continuant [voice] voice PLACE continuant 1 I labial labial (e) /s/ /0/ ROOT
  282. Plann, R. (1977). Acquiring a second language in an immersion situation. In Brown, H., Yorio, C. & Crymes, R. (eds.) TESOL' 77, TESOL, Washington. D. C., 213-123.
  283. Port, R. F., Al-Ani, S. & Maeda, S. (1980). Temporal compensation and universal phonetics. Phonetica 37, 235-252. doi
  284. Port, R. F., Dalby, J. & O'Dell, M. (1987). Evidence for mora timing in Japanese.
  285. Pulleyblank, D. (1988). Vocalic underspecification in Yoruba. Linguistic Inquiry 19, 233-270.
  286. Purcell, E. T. & Suter, R. W. (1980). Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: a reexamination. Language Learning 30 (2), 271-287. doi
  287. Rabiner, L. R., Rosenberg, A. E. & Levinson, S. E. (1978). Considerations in dynamic time warping algorithms for discrete word recognition. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics. Speech and Signal Processing 26, 575-582. doi
  288. Recasens, D. (1984). V-to-V coarticulation in Catalan VCV sequences: an articulatory and acoustical study. Journal of Phonetics 12, 61-73. doi
  289. Recasens, D. (1986). An acoustic analysis of V-to-C and V-to-V coarticulatory 212effects on Catalan and Spanish VCV sequences. Status Report on Speech Research. Sr-86/87. Haskins Laboratories.
  290. Recasens, D. (1991). An electropalatographic and acoustic study of consonant-tovowel coarticulation. Journal of Phonetics 19, 177-192.
  291. Richie, W. (1968). On the explanation of phonic interference. Language Learning 18, 183-197. doi
  292. Rochet, B. (1995). Perception and production of L2 speech sounds by adults. In Strange, W. (ed.) Speech perception and linguistic experience: theoretical and methodological issues. Timonium, MD: York Press, 379-410.
  293. Rosansky, E. (1975). The critical period for the acquisition of language: some cognitive developmental considerations. Working Papers on Bilingualism 6, 92-102.
  294. Sagey, E. (1986). The representation of features and relations in non-linear phonology. Ph.D. thesis. MIT.
  295. Schein, B. & Steriade, D. (1986). On geminates. Linguistic Inquiry 17, 691-744.
  296. Schermerhorn, R. A. (1970). Comparative ethnic relations: a framework for theory and research. New York: Random House. doi
  297. Schmidt, A. M. & Flege, J. E. (1995). Effects of speaking rate changes on native and non-native production. Phonetica 52, 45-51. doi
  298. Schmidt, R. W. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 11, 129-158. doi
  299. Schumann, J. H. (1975). Affective factors and the problem of age in second language acquisition. Language Learning 25 (2), 209-235. doi
  300. Schumann, J. H. (1976). Social distance as a factor in second language acquisition. Language Learning 26 (1), 135-143. doi
  301. Seliger, H. (1978). Implications of the multiple critical periods hypothesis for second language learning. In Ritchie, W. (ed.) Second language acquisition research. New York : Academic Press, 11-19.
  302. Selkirk, E. (1980). The role of prosodic categories in English word stress. Linguistic Inquiry 11, 563-605.
  303. Sheldon, A. & Strange, W. (1982). The acquisition of /r/ and /1/ by Japanese learners of English: evidence that speech production can precede speech perception. Applied Psycholinguistics 3, 243-61. doi
  304. Shen, Y. & Peterson, G. G. (1962). Isochronism in English. Occasional Papers 9. University of Buffalo, Studies in Linguistics, 1-36.
  305. Shibatani, M.(1990). The Languages of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi
  306. Shuy, R., Wolfram, W. & Riley, W. (1967). Linguistic correlates of social stratification in Detroit speech. East Lansing: Michigan State University.
  307. some have
  308. Steriade, D. (1987). Redundant values. In Bosch, A., Need, B. & Schiller, E. 214(eds.) Papers from the parasession on autosegmental and metrical phonology Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society 23, 339-362.
  309. Stockwell, R. & Bowen, J. (1965). The sounds of English Spanish. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. doi
  310. Stockwell, R., Bowen, J. & Martin, J. (1965). The grammatical structures of English and Spanish. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. doi
  311. Suenobu, M., Kanzaki, K. & Yamane, S. (1992). An experimental study of the intelligibility of Japanese English. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 30, 146-156. doi
  312. Sugito, M. (1969). Doutaisokutei ni yoru nihongo no akusento no kenkyuu. Gengo kenkyuu 55.
  313. Sugito, M. (1980). Akusento, intoneeshon no hikaku II, Nichiei hikaku kouza I.
  314. Sugito, M. (1996). Nihonjin no eigo. Nihongo onsei no kenkyuu 2. Tokyo: Izumi Shoin, 111-138.
  315. Suter, R. W. (1976). Predictors of pronunciation accuracy in second language learning. Language Learning 26 (2), 233-253. doi
  316. Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible in its development. In Gass, S. M. & Madden, C. G. (eds.) Input in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Newbury House Publishers.
  317. (1659). Table 3.2 doi
  318. Tahta, S. (1980). An investigation into second language learning. M.Phil thesis. City University, London.
  319. Tahta, S., Wood, M. & Lowenthal, K. (1981). Foreign accents: factors relating to transfer of accent from the first language to a second language. Language and 215Speech 24 (3), 265-272.
  320. Tajima, K. Port, R. & Dalby, J. (1997). Effects of temporal correction on the intelligibility of foreign-accented English. Journal of Phonetics, 25 1-24. doi
  321. Takefuta, Y & Black, J. W. (1977). Some acoustic correlates of foreign accent in the word accentuation of Japanese English and American Japanese. Language Laboratory 14. The Language Laboratory Association of Japan.
  322. Taylor, B. (1974) Toward a theory of language acquisition. Language Learning 24, 23-45. doi
  323. Terbeek, D. A. (1977). A cross-language multi-dimensional scaling study of vowel perception. Working Papers in Phonetics 37. University of California at Los Angeles.
  324. that doi
  325. the doi
  326. (1985). The extent of vowel devoicing is held to vary from dialect to dialect. For example, the phenomenon is quite wide-spread in the Tokyo dialect, while in the Kansai area (e.g. Kyoto, Osaka), it is not
  327. The Japanese counterpart is taken mostly from Haraguchi (1994).
  328. The main effect of consonantal contexts was significant though small for
  329. the patten of the pitch contours in the two languages,
  330. There are two major theories of underspecification. Radical Underspecification is promoted by Kiparsky (1985), Archiangeli (1984) and Pulleyblank (1988) and Contrastive Specification is promoted by Clements (1987) and Steriade (1987),
  331. Therefore, we can say that anticipatory V-to-V coarticulation in Swahili is free enough to extend into the steady portion of each of the vowels. A similar experiment was carried out with Shona, another five-vowel
  332. These disappointing findings led to the suggestion by Wardhaugh (1970), of a weak version of the CA hypothesis which involved examination of the observed learners' errors and in order determine the source of errors by taking
  333. Tiffany, W. R. (1959). Nonrandom sources of variation in vowel quality. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 2, 305-317. doi
  334. Tiffen, B. (1992). A study of intelligibility of Nigerian English. In van Essen, A. & Burkart, E. I. (eds.) Homage to W R. Lee: essays in English as a foreign or second language. Berlin: Fortis, 255-259.
  335. Tuller, B., Harris, K. S. & Scott-Kelso, J. A. (1982). Stress and rate: differential transformation of articulation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 71 (6), 1534-1543. doi
  336. Vance, J. V. (1987). An introduction to Japanese phonology. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  337. Wardhaugh, R. (1970). The contrastive analysis hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly 4, 123-130. doi
  338. Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. doi
  339. Weinreich, U. (1953). Language in contact. Linguistic Circle of New York.
  340. Werker, J. F. (1989). Becoming a native listener. American Scientist 77, 54-59.
  341. Werker, J. F. (1993). The contribution of the relation between vocal production and perception to a developing phonological system. Journal of Phonetics 21, 177-180.
  342. Werker, J. F. & Lalonde, C. E. (1988). Cross-language speech perception: initial capabilities and developmental change. Developmental Psychology 24, 672-683. doi
  343. Werker, J. F. & Pegg, J. E. (1992). Infant speech perception and phonological acquisition. In Ferguson, L. M. & Stoel-Gammon, C. (eds.) Phonological Development: models, research and implications. Timonium, MD: York Press, 393-422. doi
  344. Werker, J. F. & Polka, L. (1993). Developmental changes in speech perception: new challenges and new directions. Journal of Phonetics 21, 83-101.
  345. Werker, J. F. & Tees, R. C. (1984). Cross-language speech perception: evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behaviour and Development 7, 49-63. doi
  346. which differentiates English and Japanese is that while in Japanese there are words without an accent as seen in (4), in
  347. While there doi
  348. Whittaker, H., Bub, D. & Laventer, S. (1981). Eurolinguistic aspects of language acquisition and bilingualism. In Winitz, H. (ed.) Native language and foreign language acquisition. Annals of the New York Academic of Sciences 379, 59-21774.
  349. Wieden, W. & Nemser, W. (1991) The pronunciation of English in Austria. Tubingen: Gunter Nan.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.