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The role of the Ikhwan under 'Abdul-'Aziz Al Sa'ud 1916-1934.

By Talal Sha'yfan Muslat Al-Azma'
Topics: History Political science Public administration
Year: 1999
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:1472
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

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Citations

  1. (1960), doi
  2. (1961),
  3. (1970), The Ikhwan Movement of Najd: Its Rise, Development, and Decline, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, Michigan, U.S.A,
  4. (1988),
  5. (1989), 'Asir Fl Al-'Alqat Al-Si
  6. (1989), The Ikhwan Movement of
  7. (1991),
  8. (1991), Shibih Al-Jazirah Fi 'Ahid Al-Malik 'Abdul-'Aziz (Arabian
  9. (1992),
  10. (1993), Kanz Al-Ansab Wa Mujama Al-Adab (The Treasure of Descents and the Collection of Arts), Matb'at Safir, Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,
  11. (1995), 'Asir Fl 'AhidAl-Malik Abdul-'Aziz ('Asir During King 'Abdul-'Aziz Era), King Sa'ud University, Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, p 21.
  12. (381) The British government encouraged the Arab revolution against the Turks at that time and so they supported the Sharif of Makkah so generously that Sharif Husayn called himself the King of
  13. 1 D•° LU 155 doi
  14. 1. Secondary Sources I have used secondary sources in the form of Arabic books, English books, and doctoral theses. I have found difficulties with all of these sources because they do not recognise the role played by the tribes
  15. 1. THE INVASION OF doi
  16. 1. THE MUTAYR TRIBE doi
  17. 1.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The Mutayr tribe
  18. 10. THE BAN! KHALID TRIBE
  19. 10.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The Bani Khalid tribe was divided into seven clans: the Al-'Amayr, the Al-Subay'h, the Bani Fand, the Al-Miqdam, the Al-Mahashiyr, the Al-Jubur, and the AlHimayd.(308)
  20. 10.2. THE HIJAR OF THE BAN! KHALID TRIBE The Bani Khalid tribe established two hijrah before the end of 1928. These hjar were the following (See Appendix Figure
  21. 103-104.
  22. 11,
  23. 11, op. cit, and see
  24. 11, op. cit.
  25. 11. THE BAN! HAJIR TRIBE
  26. 11.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The Barn Hajir tribe was divided into two parts: the Al-Makhadhabah and the AlMuhammad parts. The Al-Makhadhabah was further subdivided into seventeen clans: the Al-Dubaysah, the Al-Fihayd, the
  27. 11.2. THE HIJAR OF THE BANI HAJIR TRIBE The Bani Hajir tribe founded four hijrah before the end of 1928. These hi/ar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  28. 12. THE AL-DAWASIR TRIBE doi
  29. 12.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The Al-Dawasir tribe
  30. 12.2. THE HIJAR OF THE AL-DAWASIR TRIBE The Al-Dawasir tribe founded four hijrah before the end of 1928. These hijar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  31. 126-127.
  32. 13. THE AL-MURRAH TRIBE
  33. 13.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The Al-Murrah tribe was divided into two parts: the Al-'Ali and the
  34. 13.2. THE HIJAR OF THE AL-MURRAH TRIBE The Al-Murrah tribe founded four hi/rah before the end of 1928. These hijar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  35. 14.2. THE HIJAR OF THE AL-ZAFIYR TRIBE The Al-Zaflyr tribe established one hzjrah before the end of 1928. This hUrah was the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  36. 149.
  37. 15. TilE HITAYM TRIBE
  38. 15.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The Hitaym tribe was not connected to any phratry; so,
  39. 15.2. THE HIJAR OF TIlE IIITAYM TRIBE The Hitaym tribe founded three hijrah before the end of 1928. These hijar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  40. 159.
  41. 16. THE AL-'AWAZIM TRIBE
  42. 168.
  43. 19.
  44. 1927.
  45. 2. FROM 1906 TO 1910: After the death of 'Abdul-'Aziz Al-Rashiyd who was from the Al-'Abdallah section of the Al-Rashiyd family, a conflict started between two sections of the A1-Rashiyd family who were the AI-'Abdallah and the Al-'Ibayd. Sultan
  46. 2. THE 'UTAYBAH TRIBE
  47. 2. The Documents I spent a period of time in the Public
  48. 2. THE ENTRY INTO MAKKAH The Ikhwan did not face any resistance when they arrived in Makkah
  49. 2. THE WAR OF YEMEN The lkhwan became powerful alter
  50. 2.1. THE BATTLE OF RIDHA The battle of Ridha was between the rebels of the !khwan, who were led by Naif ibn Hithlayn and Farhan ibn Mashur, and the Al-'Awazim tribe. The battle took place in the territory of the A1-'Awazim tribe
  51. 2.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The 'Utaybah tribe was divided to two parts: the Barqa and the Al-Ruqah. Shaykh Sultan ibn Bijad
  52. 2.2. THE HIJAR OF THE 'UTAYBAH TRIBE The tribe achieved sixteen hijrah before the end of 1928. These hijar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  53. 208-209.
  54. 208,
  55. 208, op. cit.
  56. 225-226.
  57. 227.
  58. 27,
  59. 27, 1929.
  60. 27.
  61. 3. Newspapers The newspaper Umm Al-Qura is considered the official newspaper of the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and it represents the views of the Saudi government. The headquarters of the newspaper is in Makkah, and I spent a
  62. 3. THE QAHF AN TRIBE
  63. 3.2. THE HIJAR OF THE QAHTAN OF NAil) TRIBE The Qahtan of Najd founded eight hijrah before the end of 1928. These hijar were the followings (See Appendix Figure 2):
  64. 302.
  65. 305.
  66. 306.
  67. 319.
  68. 323-324. doi
  69. 330, and interview with Wilayd ibn
  70. 330. doi
  71. 332-333,
  72. 335,
  73. 335.
  74. 338.
  75. 344.
  76. 345-346.
  77. 359, and interview with Husayn
  78. 376-377.
  79. 4. The Interviews Interviews constituted a crucial method for me in understanding the !khwan and their role in the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  80. 4. THE SUBAY' OF NAJD TRIBE
  81. 4.1. The Limitations of the Interviews I did not find difficulties in conducting the interviews with the bedouin tribesmen of
  82. 4.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The tribal divisions of the Subay' of Najd tribe (the Subay' Al-'Aridh tribe) were mentioned in much detail in Chapter One.(159)
  83. 4.1994.
  84. 4.2. The Sample Most of my interviews were with bedouin tribesmen who had personal knowledge of the Jkhwan
  85. 40. doi
  86. 416-417.
  87. 448.
  88. 493.
  89. 5. THE AL-SUHUL TRIBE
  90. 5.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The tribal divisions of the Al-Suhul tribe were mentioned in much detail in Chapter One.( 168)
  91. 5.2. THE HIJAR OF THE AL-SUHUL TRIBE The Al-Suhul tribe established three hzjrah before the end of 1928. These hijar were the followings (See Appendix Figure 2):
  92. 52-53, and interview with Husayn ibn Luai,
  93. 545.
  94. 590.
  95. 6. THE HARB TRIBE doi
  96. 671-673.
  97. 7. THE 'ANIZAH TRIBE doi
  98. 7.1. TRIBAL DIVISIONS The 'Anizah tribe was divided into three parts:
  99. 7.1994. Interview with Fanaytil ibn Mudhihi Al-Qasimi in A1-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 13. 7. 1994. Interview with Faysal ibn Muhammad ibn Minhah in A1-Riyadh, the Kingdom of
  100. 7.1994. Interview with Hamad ibn Jabir
  101. 8. TilE SHAMMAR TRIBE
  102. 8.2.
  103. 863-864.
  104. 9.2. THE HIJAR OF THE AL-'AJMAN TRIBE The Al-'Ajman tribe founded fourteen hUrah before the end of 1928. These hjar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  105. 90.
  106. A force would be sent out to enforce those decisions while King 'Abdul-'Aziz was in Shi'ara, which would be within ten days.
  107. A general amnesty for all civil and military personnel, ashraf (members of the Sharifian family), and Hejaz Government supporters;
  108. a Shaykh of the Bani Salim part of the Harb of Najd tribe.(200)
  109. A1-'Uthaymin,
  110. A1-'Uthaymin, 'Abdullah (1990), Buhuth Wa Ta 'liqat Fi
  111. A1-'Uthaymin, 'Abdullah, op.
  112. A1-'Uthaymin, 'Abdullah, op. cit,
  113. A1-Azma',
  114. A1-Jazirah
  115. A1-Khuraysi
  116. A1-Saiyd, 'Isam (1989),
  117. A1-Saiyd, 'Isam, op. cit, pSI.
  118. A1-Zilfah,
  119. A1-Zilfah, Muhammad.
  120. Abdul-'Aziz
  121. Abdul-'Aziz (1997), Li Surrat Al-Layl HatafAl-Sahah (Moving at the Night Welcoming on the Morning), Riad El-Rayyes Books, Beirut, Lebanon, p 359.
  122. Abdul-'Aziz,
  123. Abdul-'Aziz, Mudhi, op. cit, p 146.
  124. Abdul-'Aziz, Mudhi, op. cit, pp 143-145.
  125. Abdullah (1978) 'Ulama Najd (The Scholars of Najd), Matabat AlNandhah Al-I-ladithah, Makkah, the Kingdom of Saudi
  126. Abdullah Abu Dirayb Al-Suba'i who was from the Al-Jimaliyn clan of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' Al-'Aridh tribe.
  127. Abdullah ibn Mar'iyd Al-Suba'i who was from the Al-Jimaliyn clan of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' Al- 'Arid/i tribe.
  128. Abdullah ibn Rihan.(219) 'Abdullah was the Shaykh of the Al-Minjal clan of the Al-Suhul tribe and his nickname was Al-Danuq.(220)
  129. Abis
  130. Abu
  131. Abu 'Alayah, 'Abdul-Fatah (1991), Tarikh Al-Dawlah Al Sa'udyah Al-Than yah (The History of the Second
  132. Abu 'Alayah, 'Abdul-Fatah (1993), Muhadharat Fi
  133. Agent in Kuwait to the
  134. Ahad
  135. Ahmad (1977), Saqir Al-Jazirah
  136. Ahmad, doi
  137. AI-SinIai,
  138. Aighaythi
  139. Al doi
  140. (1991). Al-'Alam doi
  141. Al-'Uqayli, Muhammad, op.
  142. Al-'Uthaymin,
  143. Al-'Uthaymin, 'Abdullah,
  144. Al-'Uthaymin, 'Abdullah, op. cit, p 230.
  145. Al-'Uthaymin, 'Abdullah, op. cit, p21.
  146. Al-Azma',
  147. Al-Azma', op. cit.
  148. Al-Basam,
  149. Al-Basam, 'Abdullah, op. cit, volume one,
  150. Al-Himayl,
  151. Al-Himayl, Khalid, op.
  152. Al-Himayl, Khalid, op. cit, 167.
  153. Al-Himayl, Khalid, op. cit, pp 238-239.
  154. Al-Jab'a,
  155. Al-Jasir,
  156. Al-Jasir, Hamad (1980), Mujaina'
  157. Al-Jasir, Hamad, volume
  158. Al-Jazeera, op. cit.
  159. Al-Marik, Fahad (1978), Mm Shaym Al-Malik 'Abdul-'Aziz (From 'Abdul-'Aziz Manners), Wuzarat
  160. Al-Mughani,
  161. Al-Mukhtar, Salah-Aldin,
  162. Al-Mukhtar, Salah-Aldin, op. cit,
  163. Al-Mukhtar, Salah-Aldin, op. cit, pp 50-51.
  164. Al-Qura,
  165. Al-Qura, July 11, op. cit.
  166. Al-Qura, No. 208, op. cit.
  167. Al-Qura, September 27, op. cit.
  168. Al-Rasheed, Madawi (1991), doi
  169. Al-Rasheed, Madawi, op. cit, doi
  170. Al-Ribani, Amin, op. cit, pp 318-319.
  171. Al-Rihani,
  172. Al-Rihani, Amin, op, cit, 316.
  173. Al-Rihani, Amin, op.
  174. Al-Rihani, Amin, op. cit, p
  175. Al-Rihani, Amin, op. cit, p 307.
  176. Al-Rihani, Amin, op. cit, pp 103-106.
  177. Al-Rihani, Amin, op. cit, pp 39-40.
  178. Al-Rihani. Amin, op.
  179. Al-Riyadh, doi
  180. Al-Ruaydah:
  181. Al-Shaykh, 'Abdul-Rahman (1972), Mashahir 'Ulama
  182. Al-Shuhail, 'Abdullah (1987), Fatrat Tasiys
  183. Al-Sinafi,
  184. Al-Tuwaijri,
  185. Al-Tuwaijri, 'Abdul-'Aziz, op cit, p 235.
  186. Al-Tuwaijri, 'Abdul-'Aziz, op. cit, p 299.
  187. Al-Tuwaijri, 'Abdul-'Aziz, op. cit, pp 207-208.
  188. Al-Zarkali,
  189. Al-Zarkali, Khir-AI din, op. cit, p 346.
  190. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin,
  191. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. doi
  192. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. cit,
  193. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. cit, p
  194. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. cit, p 298.
  195. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. cit, p330
  196. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. cit, pp 294-295. 189CHAPTER FOUR THE CONFLICT BETWEEN 'ABDUL-'AZIZ AL SA'UD AND IllS ALLIES IN THE IKHWAN AGAINST THE DISSIDENTS AND THE REBELS OF THE IKIIWA N 1926-1934
  197. Al-Zarkali, Khir-Aldin, op. cit, pp 338-339.
  198. Al-Zilfah,
  199. Al-Zilfah, Muhammad, Dirasaat
  200. Al-Zughaybi and the headmen of the hjrah were 'Abdullah Al-Zughaybi and Ghanim AlZughaybi.(189) 'Ubayd was one of the shaykhs of Bani Salim part
  201. Alayah,
  202. AlHidijah,
  203. All of those who participated in the rebellion and who were still alive would be judged according to the shari'ah.
  204. All the financial and military resources, such as camels, horses, and rifles, of the participants in the rebellion would be confiscated, so that not one
  205. Almana,
  206. Almana, Mohammed (1980), Arabia Unified, Hutchinson Benham Ltd, London, U.K, p 96.
  207. Almana, Mohammed, op.
  208. Almana, Mohammed, op. cit, p 126, and see also Umm Al-Qura,
  209. Almana, Muhammad, op. cit, pp 134-135.
  210. also
  211. also chapter one. doi
  212. also chapter two.
  213. Amir of that hijrah was Sa'ad ibn Jilban.( 151) Sa'ad was the Shaykh
  214. Amir of that hj/rah Ghazi Al-Tum.(224)
  215. and doi
  216. and interview with Husayn ibn
  217. Any punishment he might award would be tempered with kindness and mercy, though he reserved the right to recover from the rebels any loot they might have taken from others.
  218. Arabia,
  219. Arabia's doi
  220. Atar,
  221. Atar, Ahmad (1997), Saqir
  222. (1066). Atar, Ahmad, op. cit,
  223. Atar, Ahmad, op. cit, p
  224. Atar, Ahmad, op. cit, pp 851-854.
  225. August
  226. August 1, 1930. doi
  227. Badi
  228. Badir
  229. Badir Al-Shidadi in Al-Riyadh, the
  230. Benoist-Mechin, Jacques (Translated from French by Denis Weaver in 1957), Arabian Destiny, Elek Books Limited, London, U.K, p 126.
  231. Busais,
  232. (1919). Cairo,
  233. cit,
  234. cit, p 167.
  235. cit, p 338.
  236. cit, p 421.
  237. cit, p 741. doi
  238. cit, p31 1.
  239. cit, p341.
  240. cit, p347.
  241. cit, pp 378-379.
  242. cit, see also Hadhlul, Sa'ud (1961), Tarikh Muluk Al Sa'ud (The History
  243. cit.
  244. Cl) U) 0 I 2841 I I t. I S doi
  245. Colonel doi
  246. CONQUERING 'ASIR Historically, 'Asir was divided into two parts: The first part was the Surat 'Asir, the centre of which region was Abha. The second part was the Tuhamat 'Asir, the centre of which region was Jizan. (1)
  247. Darwish, Madihah, op. cit, p 80.
  248. December
  249. December 18, 1928. doi
  250. Dickson,
  251. Dickson, H,
  252. Dickson, H, op. cit, p 295.
  253. Dickson, H, op. cit, p 315, and interview with Kumaykh Al-Muraykhi, op. cit.
  254. Dirasaat Mm Tarikh 'Asir
  255. Doctoral theses which have written about King 'Abdul-'Aziz and the Ikhwan of Naj d.
  256. Every hzjrah of the hijar of the Ikhwan in which the rebels of the !khwan formed a majority would be disbanded, and the fighters from such hijar would not be allowed to congregate in one hijrah.
  257. Faiz
  258. Falih ibn Al-Fuayjih Al-Suba'i who was from the Al-Smalah clan of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' Al-'Aridh tribe.
  259. Faysal ibn Lihayan.(213) Faysal was the Shaykh of the Al-Barazat clan of the AlSuhul tribe.(214)
  260. Faysal ibn Mijfil.(204) Faysal was the Shaykh of the Al-Sanilah clan of the AlKhidran of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' A1-'Aridh tribe.(205)
  261. Fi
  262. Fl 'AhidAl-Malik 'Abdul-'Aziz, op. cit, p 29.
  263. for doi
  264. Foreign writers, mainly English writers. doi
  265. from
  266. From 1902 to 1906. doi
  267. From 1906 to 1910. doi
  268. From 1910 to 1916. doi
  269. Ghuzah, op. cit, p 210, and interview
  270. Glubb hated the Ikhwan of Najd for their attacks in Southern Iraq and he wrote prejudiciously about the Ikhwan. He concentrated on the disloyal Ikhwan and he ignored the main role of
  271. Glubb, John (1960),
  272. Government functionaries should retain their positions;
  273. Habib, John, The doi
  274. Habib, John, The Ikhwan Movement of Najd, op. cit, p 178, and see also Habib, John, Ibn Sa'ud
  275. Habib, John, The Ikhwan Movement of Najd, op. cit, p 226, and see also
  276. Habib, John, The Ikhwan Movement of Najd, op. cit, pp 195-196, and see also Habib, John, lbn Sa'ud Warriors of Islam, op. cit, p 107. 141CHAPTER ThREE THE ROLE OF THE IKHWAN IN 'ABDUL-'AZIZ AL SA'UD'S CONQUESTS 1920-1926
  277. Hadhlul, Sa'ud, op.
  278. Hafiz
  279. Hamad doi
  280. Hamad,
  281. Hamzah, Fuad
  282. Hata
  283. He agreed to pay 10,000 pounds, as compensation to tribes in Iraq and Kuwait, in anticipation of a final settlement of accounts.
  284. He promised to settle in the same manner all past claims made by Iraq and Kuwait, provided that all 'Ajman and Mutayr now in the hand of the Royal Air Force were returned, with their followers and property, to Najd territory.
  285. Hejaz,
  286. her doi
  287. Hidayb.(191) Huthul was a Shaykh of the A1-Furadah clan of the Masruh part of the Harb tribe.( 192)
  288. hijrah
  289. hijrah of Al-Safra: the Amir of that hijrah was Mighaylith ibn Jarallah.(247) Mighaylith was a Shaykh of the Al-Mas'ud clan of the Al-Aslam part of the Shammar tnbe.(248)
  290. Hindi A1-Dhuaybi: the Amir of the brigade of the hijrah of Al-Shibaykiyah.(136) Hindi was a Shaykh of the Bani 'Amru shaykhs of the Masruh part of the Harb tribe.( 137)
  291. Hinzab, op. cit.
  292. hjrah of A1-Ajfar: the Amir of that hrah was Nida ibn
  293. HUAR OF THE AL-A WAZIM TRIBE The A1-'Awazim tribe established two hijrah before the end of 1928. These two hjrah were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  294. Humud
  295. hUrah
  296. Husayn
  297. hzjrah of Al-Jirdhawayah: the Amir of that hzjrah was 'Aqab ibn Khirays.(274) 'Aqab was a Shaykh of the Bani 'Auf of the Masruh part of the Harb tribe.(275)
  298. hzjrah of Qutun: the Amir of that hUrah was 'Abayd Al-Dayri. Shidayd AlDayri used to be the Amir of that hUrah and 'Abayd became the Amir of the hjrah.(269)
  299. I-Iamzah, Fuad,
  300. Ibid
  301. Ibid,
  302. Ibid, 146.
  303. Ibid, and see also doi
  304. Ibid, and see also Al-Zarkali Khir-Aldin, op. cit, p 255.
  305. Ibid, p
  306. Ibid, p 52, and interview with
  307. Ibid, p 56. doi
  308. Ibid, p 761.
  309. Ibid, pp
  310. Ibid, pp 271-272. 74CHAPTER TWO 'ABDUL-'AZIZ AL SA'UD AND THE FORMATION OF THE IKHWAN MOVEMENT 1916-1920
  311. Ibid, pp 378-379.
  312. Ibid, pp 652-653. doi
  313. Ibid, see also chapter two.
  314. Ibid, volume two, op. cit. p 483.
  315. Ibid.
  316. Ibid. '40. Interview with Sultan
  317. Ibid. p 29, and
  318. Ibid. pSi.
  319. ibn
  320. ibn Fihayd ibn Shawyah in Shawyah, the Kingdom of
  321. ibn Hanydhil A1-Muraykhi in Jirab, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 8.4.1994.
  322. ibn Luaysh, op.
  323. ibn Salim Al-Shafi in AI-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 9.7.1994, and see also chapter two.
  324. ibn Samhan and a headman of the hijrah was Madhkar ibn Samhan.(98)
  325. ibn Sha'af, op. cit.
  326. ibn Shawyah, op. cit.
  327. Ibrahim, 'Abdul-'Aziz (1992), Sira' Al-Umaraa (The conflict of Princes), Dar Al-Saqi, London, U.K.
  328. Ibrahim, 'Abdul-'Aziz, doi
  329. Ibrahim, 'Abdul-'Aziz, Najdayun Wara Al-Hudud, op. cit,
  330. in
  331. in AI-Riyadh, the Kingdom of
  332. in the late twenties.(42) The Al-Rayn area belonged to the Qahtan of Najd tribe. The head of that tribe in the late twenties was Khalil ibn Nasir ibn 'Umar ibn Qarmalah who was from Al-Shamah
  333. Interview
  334. Interview with
  335. Interview with Al-Ash'al
  336. Interview with Badi ibn Fayhan AI-Withaylah
  337. Interview with Bandar Al-Shidadi, op. cit.
  338. Interview with Fahad ibn
  339. Interview with Fahad ibn Naif
  340. Interview with Faiz
  341. Interview with Fanaytil ibn
  342. Interview with Fans doi
  343. Interview with Fans Al-Ayda, op. cit.
  344. Interview with Fans ibn Muhammad Al-Ayda in A1-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 9.7.1994, and see also chapter two.
  345. Interview with Faysal doi
  346. Interview with Faysal ibn doi
  347. Interview with Faysal ibn Munaykhir, op.
  348. Interview with Faysal ibn Munaykhir, op. cit.
  349. Interview with Fihayd
  350. Interview with Fihayd ibn Habas,
  351. Interview with Humud ibn
  352. Interview with Humud ibn Luaysh, op.
  353. Interview with Humud ibn Luaysh, op. cit,
  354. Interview with Humud ibn Luaysh, op. cit, and see also chapter two.
  355. Interview with Humud ibn Luaysh, op. cit.
  356. Interview with Humud ibn Luysh,
  357. Interview with Humud ibn Zayd ibn Luaysh
  358. Interview with Husayn doi
  359. Interview with Husayn ibn doi
  360. Interview with Husayn ibn Luai , op.
  361. Interview with Husayn ibn Luai, op.
  362. Interview with Husayn ibn Luai, op. cit.
  363. Interview with Kumaykh
  364. Interview with Kumaykh Al-Muraykhi, op. cit, and see also chapter two.
  365. Interview with Kumaykh Al-Muraykhi, op. cit.
  366. Interview with lurid
  367. Interview with lurid ibn Ruby'an, op.
  368. Interview with Marzuq
  369. Interview with Marzuq Al-S
  370. Interview with Marzuq Al-Sinafi, op.
  371. Interview with Marzuq Al-Sinafi, op. cit.
  372. Interview with Marzuq ibn Sari Al-Sinafi in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi
  373. Interview with Marzuq ibn Sari Al-Sinafi in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 4.7.1994, and see also chapter two.
  374. Interview with Mishari ibn Busais, op. cit.
  375. Interview with Muhammad doi
  376. Interview with Muhammad Al-Humudi, op. cit.
  377. Interview with Muhammad Al-Mughani,
  378. Interview with Muhammad Al-Mughani, op. cit.
  379. Interview with Muhammad ibn doi
  380. Interview with Muhammad ibn Fahad ibn Munaykhir in Hiyt, the Kingdom
  381. Interview with Muhammad ibn Munaykhir, op. cit.
  382. Interview with Muhammad ibn Salim Al-Humudi in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi
  383. Interview with Muhammad ibn Thifnan Al-Mughani in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2.7.1994.
  384. Interview with Nasir ibn
  385. Interview with Nasir ibn Muhammad ibn Sha'af in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 22.1.1996, and see
  386. Interview with Nasir ibn Sha'af,
  387. Interview with Rashid A1-'Aluay,
  388. Interview with Rashid ibn
  389. Interview with Rashid ibn Alghaythi Al-'Aluay in Qibah, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 7.4.1994, and see also chapter two.
  390. Interview with Sa'dan ibn doi
  391. Interview with Sultan A1-Azma',
  392. Interview with Sultan A1-Azma', op. cit.
  393. Interview with Sultan AI-Azma', op.
  394. Interview with Sultan Al-Azma',
  395. Interview with Sultan Al-Azma', op.
  396. Interview with Sultan Al-Azma', op. cit, and see also chapter one.
  397. Interview with Sultan Al-Azma', op. cit.
  398. Interview with Turd ibn Ruby'an, op.
  399. Interview with Turki ibn 'Umar ibn Ruby'an in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 9.7.1994, and see also chapter two.
  400. Interview with Turki ibn Ruby'an, op.
  401. Interview with Wilayd
  402. Interview with Wilayd ibn
  403. Interview with Wilayd ibn Shawyab, op. cit, and see also Al-Huqail, Hamad (1993), Kanz Al-Ansab Wa Mujama Al-Adab (The Treasure of Descents and the Collection of
  404. Interview with Wilayd ibn Shawyah,
  405. Interview with Wilayd ibn Shawyah, op.
  406. Interview with Wilayd ibn Shawyah, op. cit, and see also Al-Mukhtar, SalahAldin, op. cit, pp 439-440.
  407. Interview with Wilayd ibn Shawyah, op. cit, and see also chapter two.
  408. Interview with Wilayd ibn Shawyah, op. cit.
  409. Interviews with Muhammad ibn Fahad ibn Munaykhir in Hiyt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 3.7.1994, and
  410. Interviews with with Sultan Al-Azma' and Wilayd
  411. into
  412. Isam,
  413. Isam, op. cit, p 53.
  414. Isam, op. cit, pp 239-240.
  415. Jasir ibn Lami.(94) Jasir was the Shaykh of the Al-Jiblan clan of the 'Ulwa part of the Mutayr tribe.(95)
  416. John,
  417. John, The Ikhwan Movement of Najd, op. cit, p 227, see also
  418. July
  419. July 11, op. cit, and see
  420. June 6, 1930. doi
  421. Khalid
  422. Khalid, doi
  423. Khir-Aldin
  424. Khir-Aldin,
  425. King 'Abdul-'Aziz would allow the loyal !khwan to keep what they had taken from the rebel Ikhwan so that they could strengthen themselves.
  426. King 'Abdul-'Aziz would spare the lives of the leaders and their followers.
  427. Kingdom doi
  428. Kumaykh
  429. Kumaykh A1-Muraykhi , op. cit.
  430. Kumaykh A1-Muraykhi, op. cit.
  431. Kumaykh Al-Muraykhi, op. cit.
  432. Kushik, Muhammad (1982), Al-Sa'udaywn Wa Al-Hall Al-Islami (The doi
  433. Kushik, Muhammad, op. cit, p 668.
  434. Lacey, Robert (1981), The Kingdom: Arabia & The House of Sa'ud, Avon Books, U.S.A, p 313.
  435. Leatherdale,
  436. Leatherdale, Clive, op. cit, 64.
  437. Leatherdale, Clive, op. cit, p
  438. Leatherrdale,
  439. Letter
  440. Letter from the Political Agent in Kuwait to the Hon'ble
  441. Luai,
  442. Luaysh
  443. Luaysh,
  444. lurid
  445. Majid
  446. Majid ibn Mar'iyd Al-Suba'i who was from the Al-Jimaliyn clan of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' Al- 'Arid/i tribe.
  447. Marzuq
  448. May doi
  449. Mcloughlin, Leslie (1993), doi
  450. Mcloughlin, Leslie, op. cit, pp 89-90.
  451. Misalam ibn Mijfil Al-Suba'i who was the Shaykh of Al-Smalah clan and he was from the Al-Mijfil family, the shaykhs of the AI-Smalah clan of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' Al-'Aridh tribe.
  452. Mishari
  453. (1986). Moscow, Russia, p 305.
  454. Movement
  455. Muhammad
  456. Muhammad,
  457. Muhammad.
  458. Mujam Qabail A1-A1-Hijaz (The Dictionary
  459. Mutlaq ibn Fadhil.(217) Mutlaq was the Shaykh of the Al-Mahanyah clan of the Al-Suhul tribe.(2 18)
  460. Mutlaq ibn Jaffal Al-Suba'i who was from the Al-izah clan of the Bani 'Umar part of the Subay' Al-'Aridh tribe.
  461. Naif doi
  462. Naif ibn Mihaya in Leeds, U.K.
  463. Najd, doi
  464. Najd),
  465. Najdi tribes were varied from two thousand
  466. Niblock, doi
  467. Niblock, Tim (1982), State, doi
  468. Niblock, Tim (1982), State, Society and Economy in doi
  469. Niblock, Tim, op. cit, p 32.
  470. Niblock, Tim, op. cit, p 44.
  471. No.
  472. No. 208, op. cit.
  473. November 7, 1930. doi
  474. October
  475. October 31, 1930. doi
  476. of doi
  477. of a Kingdom, The Macmillan Press LTD, U.K, p 45. doi
  478. of Misidah: the Amir of that hijrah was Khalid ibn Jami' and the headman of the hijrah was Mitrik ibn Jami'.(l 15) Khalid was the Shaykh of the AlRusan clan of the Barqa part of the 'Utaybah tribe and Mitrik was his brother and he became the Amir
  479. of Najd, op. cit, p 195, and see also Habib, John, Ibn Sa'ud Warriors of Islam, op. cit, p 106.
  480. of Saudi Arabia, 11.4.1994. doi
  481. of that hijrah was Faysal ibn Hashar and the headmen of the hijrah were
  482. of that hijrah was Finays ibn Huayl.(149) Finays was the Shaykh of the
  483. of the hijrah of Al-Bida'.( 132) Muhammad was the Shaykh of the A1-Dhuran clan of the Al-Suhul tribe.(133)
  484. of the Muzaynah clan of the Barn Salim part of the Harb tribe.(214)
  485. one,
  486. one. doi
  487. op cit.
  488. op.
  489. op. cit
  490. op. cit, and see also
  491. op. cit, and see also chapter two.
  492. op. cit, p 1015.
  493. op. cit, p 164.
  494. op. cit, p 223.
  495. op. cit, p 225.
  496. op. cit, p 407.
  497. op. cit, p 44.
  498. op. cit, p 50.
  499. op. cit, p 94.
  500. op. cit, pp 490-491.
  501. op. cit, pp 86-88.
  502. op. cit.
  503. Oxford doi
  504. p doi
  505. p 119.
  506. p 236.
  507. p 401.
  508. p.590,
  509. p319.
  510. p3l9.
  511. Peterson, John (1993), Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia, The Scarecrow
  512. Philby, John (1955), Saudi Arabia, Ernest Benn Limited, London, U.K, p271.
  513. Philby, John,
  514. Philby, John, op. cit, p 278.
  515. Philby, John, op. cit, pp 271-272.
  516. pp
  517. pp 193-194, and interview with doi
  518. pp 194-195.
  519. Raif, doi
  520. Rashid
  521. Rashid ibn Aighaythi Al-'Aluay in
  522. Ruby'an,
  523. Sa'iyd Al-Dhikri: the Amir of the brigade of the hjrah of Miskah.(130) Sa'iyd was a Shaykh of the 'Auf shaykhs of
  524. Sa'ud to King Hussein, 9 July 1922, Public
  525. Sa'ud,
  526. Sa'ud, op. cit, p 85.
  527. Sa'yid, Amin, op. cit, pp 142-143.
  528. Salah-Aldin
  529. Salah-Aldin, op. cit, p 55.
  530. Salih ibn Sha'mal.(215) Salih was the Shaykh of the Al-Mishash section of the AlMihaymiyd clan of the Al-Suhul tribe.(216)
  531. Saudi Arabia 1925-1939, Frank Gass, London, doi
  532. see doi
  533. September 23, 1998.
  534. Shawyah,
  535. Shawyah, op. cit.
  536. Shaykh doi
  537. Shaykh 'Abdul-'Aziz Al-'Inqiri: Shaykh 'Abdul-'Aziz was one of the 'ulama of Najd was involved with the Ikhwan and he taught them to form a brotherhood between them. He taught the mutaw'ah and worked with the Ikhwan from the beginning until 1930.(28)
  538. Shaykh 'Abdul-'Aziz ibn 'Abdullatif: Shaykh 'Abdul-'Aziz was one of the 'u/ama of
  539. Shaykh 'Abdul-'Aziz ibn Hamad ibn 'Atiq: Shaykh 'Abdul-'Aziz used to be a qadhi and participated in all of 'Abdul-'Aziz's conferences in the late twenties and in the thirties.(24) The Shaykh became the qadhi of Al-Aflaj in the late twenties.(25)
  540. Shaykh 'Abdul-Rahman ibn 'Abdullatif Al-Shaykh: Shaykh 'Abdul-Rahman was one
  541. Shaykh 'Abdul-Rahman ibn Salim: Shaykh 'Abdul-Rahman was the qadhi of Al -Kharj in the late twenties.(39)
  542. Shaykh 'Abdullah
  543. Shaykh 'Abdullah Al-'lnqiri: Shaykh 'Abdullah had a great influence in the Ikhwan from their creation until 1930. He was one of the 'ulama of Najd who issued many legal opinions during the Ikhwan
  544. Shaykh 'Abdullah ibn Faysal: Shaykh 'Abdullah was the qadhi of Al-Sha'iyb and Al-Mihmal in the late twenties.(40)
  545. Shaykh 'Abdullah ibn Hamad ibn 'Atiq: Shaykh 'Abdullah was sent to the hUrah of Al-Ghatghat to Sultan ibn Bijad (the Shaykh of the 'Utaybah tribe). He stayed in the hUrah of Al-Ghatghat and he taught and guided the people of that hijrah which was the
  546. Shaykh 'Abdullah ibn Hasan AI-Shaykh: Shaykh 'Abdullah was the imam (the doi
  547. Shaykh 'Abdullah ibn Hasan: Shaykh 'Abdullah was the qadhi of the hjrah of Al-Sarrar in the late twenties.(54) Dhaydan ibn Hithlayn was the Amir of the hijrah of Al-Sarrar and the Shaykh of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(55)
  548. Shaykh 'Abdullah ibn Jil'ud: Shaykh 'Abdullah was one of the 'ulaina
  549. Shaykh 'Au ibn Zaydan Al-Ghilan: Shaykh 'Au was the qadhi of the hjrah of AlFuruthi in the late twenties. The Amir of the hijrah of Al-Furuthi was Mishari ibn Busais and he was a Shaykh of the Harb of Najd tribe.(56)
  550. Shaykh 'Umar ibn 'Abdullatif: Shaykh 'Umar was one of the 'ulama of Najd in
  551. Shaykh 'Umar ibn Khalifah: Shaykh 'Umar was the qadhi of the hijrah of AlThamrriyah in
  552. Shaykh Falih ibn 'Uthman: Shaykh Falih was the qadhi of Al-Zilfi in the late twenties.(47)
  553. Shaykh Hamad ibn Mazyad: Shaykh Hamad was the qadhi of the hjrah of Qibah in the
  554. Shaykh Ibrahim ibn Salih ibn 'isa: Shaykh Ibrahim was one of the 'u/ama of Najd and was died at the beginning of the twenties.(30)
  555. Shaykh lshaq ibn Hamad ibn 'Atiq: Shaykh Ishaq
  556. Shaykh Mubarak ibn Baz: Shaykh Mubarak was the qadhi of Al-Harriq and AlHulwah in the late twenties.(44)
  557. Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdullatif: Shaykh Muhammad was the son doi
  558. Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Abdullatif: Shaykh Muhammad was doi
  559. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn 'Abdullatif: Shaykh Muhammad was one of the 'u/ama of Najd in the late twenties.(34)
  560. Shaykh Sa'ad ibn Sa'ud Al-Miflih: Shaykh Sa'ad was the qadhi of Wadi AlDawasir in the late
  561. Shaykh Sa'ud ibn Marshad: Shaykh Saud was one of the 'ulama of Najd and was sent to 'Asir in the late twenties. He guided the
  562. Shaykh Salih ibn 'Abdul-'Aziz: Shaykh Salih was the second qadhi in Al-Riyadh in the
  563. Shaykh Sulayman ibn Jimhur: Shaykh Sulayman was one of the 'ulama of Najd and was sent to the 'Ajman
  564. Shaykh Sulayman ibn Sihman: Shaykh Sulayman was one
  565. Si'dun ibn Shikhaytil.(221) Si'dun was the Shaykh of the Al-Qibabnah clan of the Al-Suhul tribe.(222) 229King 'Abdul-'Aziz gained support from the hUar and the Amirs of the 'Utaybah tribe and those hijar and Amirs were the following:
  566. Solution),
  567. Sultan
  568. Surat Al-'Umran, line 103.
  569. Table of raids against Najd-Hijaz tribesmen by Transjordan subjects from March 1926 until January 1930, Public Record Office, FO 967/34
  570. Talal ibn 'Ajarash Abu Thinayn who was from the Abu Thinayn family, the shaykhs of
  571. Tarikh
  572. Tarikh Al-Dawlah Al Sa 'udyah Al-Thanyah,
  573. Tarikh Najd Al-Hadith (The History of Modern Najd), Dar Al-Jil, Beirut, Lebanon, pp 332-333, and
  574. The doi
  575. The A/il Hilban, the fighters
  576. The A/il Sajir, the fighters of the hjrah of Sajir: the Amir of the fighters of that hzjrah was 'Aqab ibn Mihaya.(89) 'Aqab was the Shaykh of Al-Hanatiysh clan of the Al-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(90)
  577. The A1-Mihaymiyd clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the Al-Jil'ud family.
  578. The Ahi 'Isaylah, the fighters of the hijrah of 'Isaylah: the Amir of the fighters of that hijrah was Nalil ibn Tawayq.(95) Nalil was the Shaykh of the Al-Jihfan section of the Al-Hifah clan of the AI-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(96)
  579. The Ahi Al-Rayn Al-'IIya, the fighters
  580. The Ahi Al-Rayn Al-Sifla, the fighters of the hijrah of the Al-Rayn Al-Sifla: the Amir of the fighters of that hujrah was Hadhal ibn Su'aydan.(85) Hadhal was the Shaykh of the Al-'Atif clan of the Qahtan of Najd tribe.(86)
  581. The Ahi Al-Rudhah, the fighters of the hijrah of Al-Rudhah: the Amir of the fighters of that hijrah was Majid ibn Fihayd.(81) Majid was the Shaykh of the AlShiyabiyn clan of the Barqa part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(82)
  582. The Ahi Sabha, the fighters of the hzjrah of Sabha: the Amir of the fighters of that hzjrah was Hizam Al-Himaydani.(91) Hizam was a headman of the Al-Hibab clan of the Qahtan of Najd tribe.(92)
  583. The Al-Barazat clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the AlLihayan Family.
  584. The Al-Dhuran clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the AlMi'dil family.
  585. The Al-Mahalaf clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the AlRihan family.
  586. The Al-Mahanyah clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the AlFadhil family.
  587. The Al-Minjal clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the AlRihan family.
  588. THE AL-SUHUL TRIBE Most of the Al-Suhul tribe were descended from the Subay' tribe, with a few clans were descended from other tribes. (See Appendix Figure 1). The tribe was divided into the following:
  589. The Al-Zaqa'in clan, under the leadership of their shaykh who was from the AlRawaydhan family.
  590. The evacuation of all officers and soldiers who had come from other Arab countries plus their travel expenses and 5,000 sovereigns to spread amongest them;
  591. THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCES 'Abdul-'Aziz and the Ikhwan had dealt with external influences as well as the internal influences. 'Abdul-'Aziz and the
  592. (1915). THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCES 'Abdul-'Aziz and the lkhwan became more involved with the issues relating to external influences during that time. After the conquest of Al-Hijaz, the British government agreed to discuss the Saudi treaty
  593. THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCES External influences played a role in the doi
  594. The h,/rah of Ghunwah: the Amir of that
  595. The h:jrah of Al-Qurayn: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Abdul-Mun'im ibn Naqi
  596. The h]rah of Al-'Amair: the Amir of that hijrah was Shakir ibn Qu'bub.(358) The name of Shakir was Sakir and he was the Shaykh of the AI-Qa'abiyb clan of the AlRashaydah tribe.(359)
  597. The h{jrah of A1-Khushaybi: the Amir of that hzjrah was 'Ubayd AlZughaybi.(254)
  598. The h/rah of Al-Dahnah: the Amir of that hijrah Ghazi Al-Baraq and 'Umar ibn Ruby'an
  599. The h/rah of Al-Dilaymiyah: the Amir of that h/rah was Zabin ibn Juday'.(278)
  600. The h/rah of Al-Hisi: the Amir of that hijrah was Fudghush ibn Shawyah.(194)
  601. The h/rah of Al-Taim: the Amir of that hijrah was Firayh Al-Hamzi.(255) Firayh was a Shaykh of the Al-Sawid clan shaykhs of the Sinjarah of the Shammar tribe.(256)
  602. The h/rah of Ghisil: the Amir of that hi/rah was Habis ibn Silayman.(245) Habis was the Shaykh of the Al-Hananyah clan of the Bani Salim part of the Harb tribe.(276)
  603. The h/rah of Kabshan: the Amir of that hi/rah was Sultan Abu Khashiym.(245)
  604. The hi:jrah of Liban: the Amir
  605. The hi/rah of Abu Mughiyr: the Amir of that hijrah was Sa'ad ibn Rubayq.(197) Sa'ad was a Shaykh
  606. The hi/rah of Al-'Uqlah: the
  607. The hi/rah of Al-Sauh: the Amir of that hjrah was Sultan Al-Gharbi.(250) 231King 'Abdul-'Aziz gained support from the hijar and the Amirs of the Harb tribe and those hijar and Amirs were the following:
  608. The hijrah
  609. The hijrah of doi
  610. The hijrah of 'Arja: the Amir of that hrah was Qitiym Al-Hibayl.(225)
  611. The hijrah of 'Ayndar: the Amir of that hijrah was Muhammad ibn Nasir ibn Khalifah and the headmen of the hUrah were 'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifah and Muhammad ibn Mubarak ibn Khalifah.(3 doi
  612. The hijrah of 'Iray'rah: the Amir of that hrah was Mani' ibn Jim'ah.(296) Mani' was the Shaykh of the Al-Dha'in clan of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(297)
  613. The hijrah of 'Uqiat Al-Suqur: the Amir of that hj/rah was Sinhat
  614. The hijrah of A1-'Azaym: the Amir of that hijrah was Jizayl ibn Lighaysim and the headmen of the hzjrah were 'Adhayb ibn Lighaysim and Shabiyb
  615. The hijrah of A1-Bilaziyah: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Abdul-Rahman ibn Mi'aytiq.(240) 'Abdul-Rahman was a Shaykh of the Al-Shamlan section of the AlSaiqa clan of the Dhana 'Ubayd part of the 'Anizah tribe.(241)
  616. The hijrah of A1-Dahnah: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Umar ibn Ruby'an and the headmen of the hijrah were Nayif and Khalid Al-Hallaj, Majid Al-Barraq, Badir
  617. The hijrah of A1-Khibah: the Amir of that hjrah was Firayh A1-Hirbiyd.(257) Firayh was a Shaykh of the Al-Sawid clan of the Sinjarah part of the Shammar tribe.(258)
  618. The hijrah of A1-Nimirayah: the Amir of that hUrah was Muhammad ibn Thuab.(280) Muhammad was a Shaykh of the Al-Hananyah clan of the Bani Salim part of the Harb tribe.(281)
  619. The hijrah of Abu Jilal: the Amir of that htjrah Mihmas A1-Shaghar.(234) Mihmas was the Shaykh of the Al-'Idhayan section of the A1-Damasiyn clan of the 'Utaybah tn be. (235)
  620. The hijrah of Al-'Ayaynah: the Amir of that hrah was Naif ibn Hithlayn.(283) Naif was from the Al-Hithlayn family who were the shaykhs of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(284)
  621. The hijrah of Al-Ba'ayth: the Amir of that hzjrah was Ribah ibn Mutlaq.(260)
  622. The hijrah of Al-Bida': the Amir of that hrah was Hilwan Al-Balhi.(225) Hilwan was a Shaykh of the Walid Silaym clan of the Bani Salim part of the Harb tribe.(226)
  623. The hijrah of Al-Bida': the Amir of that hzjrah was Suar ibn Mi'dil.(173) Suar was the Shaykh of Al-Dhuran clan of the Al-Suhul tribe.(174)
  624. The hijrah of Al-Burud: the Amir of that hUrah was Naif ibn Mudhayyan.(258)
  625. The hijrah of Al-Dath: the Amir of that hUrah was Dir' ibn Tiraysin.(272)
  626. The hijrah of Al-Dhibiyah: the Amir of that htjrah was Tu'aymiys ibn Muraykhan and the headman of the hjrah was Nasir ibn Muraykhan.(221) Tu'aymiys was a Shaykh of the Al-Jimalah clan of the Bani Salim part of the Harb tribe.(222)
  627. The hijrah of Al-Dilaymiyah: the Amir of that hijrah was Zabin ibn Juday' and the headmen of the hijrah were Du'ayj ibn Juday' and Dhawi ibn Juday'.(215) Zabin was the Shaykh of the Al-Hananyah clan of the Bani Salim part of the Harb tribe.(2 16)
  628. The hijrah of Al-Faydah: the Amir of that hzjrah was 'Aqil
  629. The hijrah of Al-Faydhah: the Amir of
  630. The hijrah of Al-Furuthi: the Amir of that hijrah was Mishari ibn Busais.(284)
  631. The hijrah of Al-Hasah Al-Sifla: the Amir of that hijrah was Finays ibn Huayl.(3 15) King 'Abdul-'Aziz and the loyal of the !khwan had faced several battles on their journey to Al-Shuki.
  632. The hijrah of Al-Hifayr: the Amir of that h/rah was Katib Al-Namasi.(253) Katib was the Shaykh of the Al-Nimsan section of the Al-Zumayl clan of the Sinjarah part of the Shammar tribe.(254)
  633. The hijrah of Al-Himar: the Amir of that hijrah was Hathal ibn Wiqayan.(324) Hathal was the Shaykh of the Al-Shakarah clan of the Al-Hasan of the Suhayb of the Zayd part of the
  634. The hijrah of Al-Husu: the Amir of that hijrah was Jimay'an ibn Dhawi.(88) Jimay'an was from the Al-Si'ran clan.(89)
  635. The hijrah of Al-Jifayr: the Amir of that hjrah was Nasir ibn Sadhan.(153)
  636. The hijrah of Al-Khafah: the Amir of that hijrah was Fahhad ibn Hithlayn.(281) Fahhad was from the Al-Hithlayn family who were the shaykhs of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(282)
  637. The hijrah of Al-Labib: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Abdul-Mihsin AlHaydhil.(237)
  638. The hijrah of Al-Mashash: and the Amir of that hijrah was Minahi ibn Jil'ud.(169) Minahi was the Shaykh of the
  639. The hijrah of Al-Mishash: the Amir of that hijrah was Dilaym ibn
  640. The hijrah of Al-Qararah: the Amir of that hjrah was Sultan Abu Sinun.(243) Sultan was the Shaykh the Al-Marashdah clan of the Al-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(244)
  641. The hijrah of Al-Qawarah: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Ali ibn Hidayb and the headmen of the hijrah were Falih ibn Hidayb and 'Abayd ibn Mikhlif.(187) 'All was a Shaykh of the shaykhs of Al-Furadah clan of the Masruh
  642. The hijrah of Al-Qirayn: the Amir of that hijrah was Khatam ibn Mas'ad.(248) Khatam was a Shaykh of the A1-Dalabhah clan of the Al-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(249)
  643. The hijrah of Al-Qisayr: the
  644. The hijrah of Al-Qurayn: the Amir of that hjrah was 'Abdul-Mun'im ibn Naqi.(253)
  645. The hijrah of Al-Ruaydah: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Abdullah ibn Mazhur.(171) 'Abdullah was the Shaykh of the Al-Mahalaf clan of the Al-Suhul tribe.( 172)
  646. The hijrah of Al-Sahaf: the Amir of the hijrah was
  647. The hijrah of Al-Sam'urayh: the Amir of that hUrah was Sa'di Al-Dhikri.(256) Sa'di was a Shaykh of the Bath 'Auf of the Masruh part of the Harb tribe.(257)
  648. The hijrah of Al-Sarrar: the Amir of that hijrah was Dhaydan ibn Khalid ibn Hizam ibn Hithlayn and he was the Shaykh of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(280)
  649. The hijrah of Al-Sha'ybah (1): the Amir of that hijrah was Shari' ibn Mijlad.(234) Shari' was from the Al-Mijiad family who were the shaykhs of the Al-Dahamshah clan of the Dhana Wail part of the 'Anizah tribe.(235)
  650. The hijrah of Al-Shamli: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Abdul-Mihsin
  651. The hijrah of Al-Shibaykiyah: the Amir of that hjrah was Hindi AlDhuaybi.(263)
  652. The hijrah of Al-Sinayna: the Amir of that hijrah was Sa'dun ibn 'Abass.(259) Sa'dun was a Shaykh of the Al-Sawid clan of
  653. The hijrah of Al-Thamriyah: the Amir of that hjrah was Ya'qub Al-Himaydani and the headmen of the hjrah were Muhammad ibn Mulayh Al-Himaydani, Bijad
  654. The hijrah of Al-Wannan: doi
  655. The hijrah of Al-Zughayn: the Amir of that hjrah was Khalid Al-Mitlaqim.(294) Khalid was the Shaykh of the Al-Hadi clan of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(295)
  656. The hijrah of Baydha Nathiyl: the Amir of that hi:jrah was Khalaf Al-'Awaji.(232) Khalaf was the Shaykh of the A1-Ja'afrah section of the Walid Sulayman clan of the Dhana 'Ubayd part of the 'Anizah tribe.(233)
  657. The hijrah of Buqya'ah: the Amir of that hjrah Dhubakh Al-Bishiri. Masha'an Al-Bishiri used to be the Amir of that hjrah and Dhubakh became the Amir of that hijrah.(266)
  658. The hijrah of Himyan: the Amir of that hUrah was Badir ibn 'Akayl
  659. The hijrah of Imba'idh: the Amir of that hijrah was Tami Al-Qurayfah.(102) Tami was the Shaykh of the Al-Bidana clan of the Birayh part of the Mutayr tribe.( 103)
  660. The hijrah of Imba'idh: the Amir of that hijrah was Tami Al-Qurayfah.(290) Tami joined the rebels for a short time and he asked King 'Abdul-'Aziz to forgive him. King 'Abdul-'Aziz forgave Tami and he became a loyal ally.(291)
  661. The hijrah of Inbuan: the Amir of that hijrah was Dilaym ibn Barraq and the headman of the hzjrah was Dha'ar ibn 'Umayr.(353) Sa'dan ibn Qu'bub mentioned that all of the Amirs of those
  662. The hijrah of Jilmudah: the Amir of that hijrah was Qarran ibn 'Ajran and the headmen of the hijrah were Khalid ibn Harbi ibn
  663. The hijrah of Jubih: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Adwan ibn
  664. The hijrah of Kahaylah:
  665. The hijrah of Khasibah: the Amir of that h{jrah was Dha'ar ibn Hammad(259)
  666. The hijrah of Khaybar: the Amir of that hijrah was Muhammad ibn Farhan Al -Ayda and the headmen of the hijrah were Hazza' ibn Hays Al-Ayda and Hazza' ibn Muhammad A1-Ayda.(228) Muhammad was the
  667. The hijrah of Mulayh: the Amir of that hzjrah was 'Alush ibn Suqayyan and a headman of the hijrah was Ghazi ibn Suqayyan.(96) 'Alush was the Shaykh of the A1-'Awanah clan of the
  668. The hijrah of Nibak: the Amir of that hijrah was Sa'ud
  669. The hijrah of Qitnanah: the Amir of
  670. The hijrah of Sajir: the Amir of that hijrah was was Dha'ar ibn Ruby'an and the headmen of the hijrah were
  671. The hijrah of Salasil: the Amir of that hzjrah was 'Au ibn 'Aid and the headman of the hijrah was Hamad ibn 'Aid.(320) 'Au was a Shaykh of the Al-Muhammad part of the Bani Hajir tribe and Hamad was his cousin.(321)
  672. The hijrah of Sanam: the Amir of that hijrah was Sultan Aba Al-'AIa.(240)
  673. The hijrah of Thadiq: the Amir of
  674. The hijrah of Umm Al-Qulban: the Amir of that hijrah was Ghadhban ibn Rimal.(249) Ghadhban was the Shaykh of the Al-Rimal clan of the Sinjarah part of the Shammar tnbe.(250)
  675. The hijrah of Umm Rabay'ah: the Amir of that hijrah was Milahi ibn Qadh'an.(302) Milahi was the Shaykh of the Al-'Arja clan of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(303)
  676. The hijrah of Wadhakh: the Amir of that hijrah was ManiyfAl-Qutaym.(302)
  677. The hijrah of Yakrib: the Amir of that hijrah was Shall ibn Shall and the headmen of the hjrah were Madhkaribn Shafi and Humud ibn Shafi.(316) Shall was from the Al-Mukhadhabah part and he was the Shaykh of
  678. The hjrah of
  679. The hjrah of A1-Fawarrah: the Amir of that h/rah was Hijab ibn Nahiyt.(251)
  680. The hjrah of Al-Bsayri: the Amir of that hzjrah was Ghazi ibn Kalaab.(270) Ghazi was the Shaykh of the A1-Hawamdhah clan of the Masruh part of the Harb tribe.(271)
  681. The hjrah of Al-Hufayyirah: the Amir of that hijrah was Sajdi Al-Haydhil and Minahi used to be the Amir of that hzjrah.(238) Sajdi was from the Al-Haydhil family which were the shaykhs of the Al-Da'ajiyn clan of the Barqa part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(239)
  682. The hjrah of Al-Mahalani: the Amir of that hUrah was Rishayd
  683. The hjrah of Al-Rayn Al-Sifla: the Amir of that hijrah was Khalil ibn 'Umar. Sultan ibn Sifran used to be the Amir of that hijrah, but was replaced by Khalil. (309) There was a political reason behind that
  684. The hjrah of Al-Sha'ibi: the Amir of that hrah
  685. The hjrah of Al-Shaflihayah: the Amir of that hijrah was Qa'dan ibn Dirwaysh.(305) Qa'dan was a Shaykh of the Al-Sa'bah clan of the 'Ulwa part of the Mutayr tribe.(306)
  686. The hjrah of Al-Sikak: the Amir
  687. The hjrah of Fudah: the Amir of that hzjrah was Muhammad ibn Tizah and the headman of the hjrah was Shal' ibn Sudah.(318) Muhammad was the Shaykh of the 109Al-Muhammad part of the Bani Hajir tribe and Shai' was
  688. The hjrah of Mulayh: the Amir of that hzjrah was 'Alush ibn Suqayyan.(301)
  689. The hjrah of Shibayrmah: the Amir of that hzjrah was Nasir ibn Razin.(246) Nasir was (he Shaykh of the A1-Hizman section of the A1-Hanatiysh clan of the AlRuqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(247)
  690. The hjrah of Umm Hazim: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Awadh AlMuqahwi .(288)
  691. The hrah of Al-Ja'lah: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Au Al-Kharaybit.(293) 'Ali was a Shaykh of the Al-Jiblan clan of the 'Ulwa part of the Mutayr tribe.(294)
  692. The hrah of Al-Mitaywi: the Amir of that hijrah was Salim ibn 'Arnan.(303) Salim was a Shaykh of the Al-Rukhman clan of the 'Ulwa part of the Mutayr tribe.(304)
  693. The hrah of Al-Qarradi: the Amir of that hijrah was Khalid ibn Hithlayn.(285) Khalid was from the AI-Hithlayn family who were the shaykhs of the Al-'Ajman tribe.(286)
  694. The hrah of Al-Rayn Al-'Ilya: the Amir of that hzjrah was Hadhal ibn Su'aydan.(3 11)
  695. The hrah of Al-Ruaydah: the Amir of that hjrah was Jimal Al-Mahari.(23 1)
  696. The hrah of Dukhnah: the Amir of that hz:jrah was 'Aiyd Al-Bahaymah.(252)
  697. The hrah of Sajir: the Amir of that hUrah was Nasir ibn Mihaya and 'Aqab ibn Mihaya was the Amir of that hijrah.(226) Nasir was the Shaykh of the Al-Hanatiysh clan of the Al-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(227)
  698. The hrah of Thadiq: the Amir of that h,,irah was Bijad ibn Ghumaydh.(279)
  699. The hrah of Umm Hazim: the Amir of that h/rah was 'Awadh A1-Muqahwi.(92) 'Awadh was a headman of the Al-Si'ran clan
  700. The hsjrah of Qaryah Al-'Ilya: the Amir of that hrah was Tirahiyb ibn Shiqayr.(292)
  701. The hUrah of A1-Sahwah: the Amir of that hijrah was Minzal ibn SaiI.(267) Minzal was the Shaykh of the
  702. The hUrah of AI-Rudah: the Amir of that hzjrah was Majid ibn Fihayd.(236)
  703. The hUrah of Al-Thamriyah: the Amir of that hjjrah was Ya'qub AlHimaydani .(287)
  704. The hUrah of Nifi: the Amir of that hijrah was 'Umar ibn
  705. The hz:jrah of Daban: the Amir of that hjrah was Dighaym ibn Hadba.(295) Dighaym was a Shaykh of the Al-Hadabiyn clan of the 'Ulwa part of the Mutayr tribe.(296)
  706. The hzjrah of A1-'Irtawi: the Amir of that hrah was Siliym ibn Rijah.(299) Siliym was a Shaykh of the Al-Rukhman clan of the 'Ulwa part of the Mutayr tribe.(300)
  707. The hzjrah of A1-Makkahul: the Amir of that hijrah was Marzuq
  708. The hzjrah of A1-Sauh: the Amir of that hijrah was Sultan Al-Gharbi.( 135) Sultan was the Shaykh of the Al-Gharbyah section of the Al-Hanatiysh clan of the AlRuqah part of
  709. The hzjrah of Al-Athlah: the Amir of that hijrah was Huayl ibn Samhan.(298)
  710. The hzjrah of Al-Hayd: the Amir of that
  711. The hzjrah of Al-Hisi: the Amir of that hUrah was Fudghush ibn Shawyah and the headmen of the hijrah were Wilayd ibn Shawyah, Ghunaym ibn Fahhad,
  712. The hzjrah of Al-Husu: the Amir of that hrah was Jimay'an ibn Dhawi.(289)
  713. The hzjrah of Al-Jifayc the Amir of that hUrah was Nasir ibn Sadhan.(3 12)
  714. The hzjrah of Al-Qawarali: the Amir of that hijrah was Au ibn Hidayb.(255)
  715. The hzjrah of Budha: the Amir of that hjrah was Mutlaq Al-Hafta.(90)
  716. The hzjrah of Budha: the Amir of that hzjrah was Mutlaq Al-Hafta.(297)
  717. The hzjrah of Kabshan: the Amir of that hUrah was Sultan Abu Khishaym and a headman of the hijrah was Ja'id ibn Bijad Abu Khishaym.(131) Sultan was the Shaykh of the Al-Marashdah clan of the A1-Ruqah part
  718. The hzjrah of Khasibah: the Amir of that hzjrah was Dha'ar ibn Hammad and the headman of the hijrah was Sultan ibn Hammad.(193) Dha'ar was a Shaykh of the
  719. The hzjrah of Mishayrfah: the Amir of that hijrah was Minahi ibn Hifayz.(326) Minahi was a Shaykh of the Al-Shakarah clan of the Al-Dawasir tribe.(327)
  720. the late twenties. The Amir of the hzjrah of 'Isaylah was Ghazi Al-Turn and he was a Shaykh of the 'Utaybah tribe.(53)
  721. The Literature Review I doi
  722. The Research Method The main aim of this study is to clarify the role of the Ikhwan of Najd under 'Abdul'Aziz Al Sa'ud in the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. I have used different methods in approving this idea and they are the following:
  723. These conditions to apply to
  724. These hijar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  725. These hjar were the following (See Appendix Figure 2):
  726. Thifnan
  727. Those who were accused of supporting the rebels and not fighting against them would be deprived of their instruments of warfare such as camels, horses, and rifles.
  728. Turki Al-Dhiyt: the Amir of the brigade of the hijrah of Nifi which meant that he was under the command of 'Umar ibn Ruby'an.(134) Turki was the Shaykh of the Al'Adhyan clan of the Al-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe.(135)
  729. Turki ibn Ruby'an, op. cit.
  730. two,
  731. Ubayd Al-Zughaybi: 'Ubayd became the Amir of the hzjrah of Al-Khushaybi
  732. Ukadh, July 18,
  733. Ukadh, July 18, 1996.
  734. Umar ibn Rubyan: the Amir of the brigade of the hUrah of Al-Dahnah. He was also the Amir of the hijrah of Nifi.(123) 'Umar was the Shaykh of Al-Ruqah part of the 'Utaybah tribe and he was from the Al-Thibtah clan.(124)
  735. Umm doi
  736. Umm Al-Qura, doi
  737. Umm Al-Qura, August 29, doi
  738. Umm Al-Qura, January 4, 1929.
  739. Umm Al-Qura, July doi
  740. Umm Al-Qura, July 11,
  741. Umm Al-Qura, July 11, op.
  742. Umm Al-Qura, July 12, 1929, and interview with Sultan Al-Azma', op. cit.
  743. Umm Al-Qura, July 21, op. cit.
  744. Umm Al-Qura, July ii,
  745. Umm Al-Qura, No. doi
  746. Umm Al-Qura, No. 208, doi
  747. Umm Al-Qura, No. 208, op.
  748. Umm Al-Qura, No. 208, op. cit.
  749. Umm Al-Qura, No.208, op. cit.
  750. Umm Al-Qura, October 17, 1930.
  751. Umm Al-Qura, op. cit.
  752. Umni
  753. Umni Al-Qura,
  754. Unun
  755. Urnm
  756. Vassiliev, Alexei (1986), Tarikh
  757. Vassilieve, Alexei, op.
  758. volume
  759. volume two, p 545.
  760. Wahbah, Hafiz (1967), Jazirat
  761. was the Shaykh of the AI-Ghirayr clan of the Al-Aslam part of the Shammar tribe.(262)
  762. Whabah, Hafiz, op. cit, p291.
  763. Wilayd
  764. Wilayd ibn Shawyah, op. cit.
  765. with
  766. with Al-A sh'al Al-Kuraysi, op. cit.
  767. with Fans Al-Ayda, op. cit.
  768. with Faysal ibn Mirihah, op. cit.
  769. with Faysal ibn Munaykhir, op. cit.
  770. with Fihayd ibn Habas, op.
  771. with Humud ibn Luaysh, op.
  772. with Kumaykh A1-Muraykhi, op. cit.
  773. with Kumaykh Al-Muraykhi, op. cit.
  774. with Marzuq
  775. with Mishari ibn Haza' ibn Busais in Al-Riyadh, the Kingdom Saudi Arabia, 4.7.1994, and see also chapter two.
  776. with Nasir ibn Sha'af, op. cit.
  777. with Sultan AI-Azma',
  778. with Sultan Al-Azma', op. cit.
  779. with Wilayd ibn Fihayd ibn Shawyah in Shawyah, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 9.4.1994, and
  780. Zabin ibn Juday':
  781. Zafi ibn Ma'rif.(269) Zafi was a Shaykh of the Al-'Amud clan of the Shammar tribe.(270)

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