Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Making Britain ‘Home’: Zimbabwean Social Workers’ Experiences of Migrating To and Working in a British City\ud \ud



Recruitment of overseas social workers is increasingly becoming popular with social workers migrating from developing countries to developed countries like the UK which suffer from chronic social worker shortages. Following the heavy recruitment of Zimbabwean social workers by UK local authorities in the early twenty first century, this study focuses on the migration experiences of Zimbabwean social workers recruited from Zimbabwe to come and work for a particular local authority in the UK. The general objective is to examine the forms of support utilised by the Zimbabwean social workers from arriving in the UK, integrating into the workplace and wider society and establishing a ‘home’ away from home. Considering how social capital has been said to bring about positive effects for individuals and society in previous research, social capital is assumed a key concept in this research. \ud Semi-structured interviews were used as the primary data collection method to allow for deep exploration of the Zimbabwean social workers’ experiences together with questionnaires for triangulation. Findings from the study show that the Zimbabwean social workers were able to draw upon different forms of social capital to access as many resources as they could in an effort to develop themselves personally and professionally and eventually establishing themselves as UK citizens. The Zimbabwean social workers’ migration trajectories are far from being linear as most of them live dual lives participating socially, economically and politically back in Zimbabwe while living in the UK with plans to re-migrate for some, and to eventually return to Zimbabwe for others. Research findings may help to improve policy and practice for the recruitment and handling of overseas social workers in the UK and also help to raise awareness of the different types of networks that can be relied upon by these workers within and across borders.\u

Topics: migration, social capital, overseas social workers, ethnic networks, immigrant professionals, international recruitment, diaspora, transnationalism, sense of belonging, Zimbabwe, 'the role of the researcher'
Year: 2011
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles


  1. ( 2005b). Social Inclusion in Research: Reflecting on a Research Project Involving Young Mothers in Care. doi
  2. (2006). A Comparative Study of Care and Provision across Caribbean and Italian Transnational Families. Families & Social Capital ESRC Research Group. On line: (accessed 22/05/07).
  3. (2003). A Critique of Using Grounded Theory as a Method.
  4. (2008). A Fractured Diaspora: Strategies and Identities among Zimbabweans in Britain. PhD Thesis.
  5. (1992). a nd Szanton Blanc, C. doi
  6. (2008). Abject Spaces, Transnational Calculations: Zimbabweans in Britain Navigating Work, Class and the Law. doi
  7. (2004). Acculturation Strategies, Coping Process and Acculturative Stress. doi
  8. (2009). Acculturative Stress: South Asian Immigrant Women's Experiences in Canada's Atlantic Provinces. doi
  9. (1998). Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy N etworks in International Politics. Ithaca and London: doi
  10. (2009). Africa’s Diasporas and the Struggle for Survival. The Life and Times of Undocumented Zimbabwe Nationals Based in the United Kingdom. In
  11. (2003). African Migration: Causes, Consequences and Future Prospects and Policy O ptions. Trade and Development Studies Centre, Harare. On line:, accessed 01
  12. (2003). Albanian Immigrants in Italy: Migration Plans, Coping Strategies and Identity Issues. doi
  13. (1997). Allocation of Economic Competence in Teams: A Comparative Institutional Analysis. Working Paper Series 480,
  14. (2007). Alternative media, diasporas and the mediation of the Zimbabwe crisis. doi
  15. (1994). An Evaluation doi
  16. (1993). Approaches to Social Enquiry. Cambridge and Oxford: doi
  17. (2005). Assessing the Performance of Public Sector Institutions in Zimbabwe: A Case Study A pproach. Doctoral Thesis, University o f Petoria. On line: (accessed 11/09/09). Oberg,
  18. (1924). Assimilation. In Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago:
  19. (2009). Associational Links with Home Among Zimbabweans in the UK: Reflections on Long-distance Nationalisms. doi
  20. (2004). Asylum Statistics in the UK. London: Home Office.
  21. (2010). Baby P ‘Deterring Social Workers’. Available from: uk/8353808.stm (accessed 03/03/10).
  22. (2009). Baby Peter Case in Haringey.
  23. (2003). Banal Transnationalism: The Difference that Television Makes.
  24. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. doi
  25. (1993). Bearing the Brunt: Labour and Structural Adjustment in Zimbabwe.
  26. (2000). Being’ Native versus ‘Going Native’: Conducting Social Work Research as an Insider. doi
  27. (2007). Between Two Worlds: Feelings of Belonging While
  28. (2004). Beyond Remittances: The Role of Diaspora in Poverty Reduction in their Countries of Origin. Washington: Migration Policy Institute.
  29. (2005). Biggest Ever Rise in Overseas Staff.Community Care,
  30. (2003). Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations. doi
  31. (2000). Both Glue and Lubricant: Transnational Ethnic Social Capital as a Source of Asia-Pacific Subregionalism. doi
  32. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. London and doi
  33. (1993). Breaking Out Again: Feminist Ontology and Epistemology. London and doi
  34. (2006). British Indians ‘Returning Home’: An Exploration of Transnational Belongings. Sociology - doi
  35. (2010). Buiding a Safe, Confident Future - The Final Report of the Social Work Task Force: Your Questions Answered. On line: (accessed 16/03/10).
  36. (2007). Capital and Community Building through the Internet: A Swedish Case Study in a Disadvantaged Suburban Area. doi
  37. (2009). Career Success of Immigrant Professionals: Stock and Flow of their Career Capital. doi
  38. (2004). Caribbean Families, Social Capital and Young People’s Diasporic Identities. doi
  39. (1996). Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London and doi
  40. (2000). Case Study Research Methods. London and
  41. (2005). Challenges and Prospects of Social Work Services
  42. (2006). Challenges and Prospects: Social Work Practice in Zimbabwe in an Environment of Economic Meltdown. In
  43. (2004). Chinese Migration in Germany: Making Home in Transnational Space. IKO doi
  44. (2005). Coming to Autoethnography: A Mental Health Nurse’s Experience.
  45. (1997). Common Qualitative Methods.
  46. (2003). Communication Among Knowledge Diasporas: Online Magazines of Expatriate Chinese Students.
  47. (1990). Communities of Resistance: Writings on Black Struggles for Socialism.
  48. (2005). Community I nfluence on Precocious Transitions to Adulthood: Racial Differences and Mental Health Consequences. doi
  49. (2007). Community Perspectives on the Impact of Policy Change on Linking Social Capital in a Rural Community. doi
  50. (2010). Competing Meanings of the Diaspora: The Case of Zimbabweans in Britain. doi
  51. (1999). Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism. doi
  52. (2002). Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Tenth Edition. doi
  53. (2004). Contentious Transformations and Global Citizenship: Zimbabwe’s Global Citizens in Harare North (United Kingdom). Paper Presented at The Nordic Africa Institute Conference,
  54. (2006). Coping Strategies in a Wealthy City of Northern Italy. doi
  55. (1998). Coping Strategies. Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. network/coping.html, accessed 25
  56. (2001). Coping with Cross-Cultural Transition. doi
  57. Country Assessment Guidelines. On line: /The+Social +Care+Register/Apply+for+registration/Workers+from+abroad/Country+assessment+guideli nes/
  58. Data Pack 2006-2007: Social Work Education and Training Statistics. London: Care Council for Wales, General Social Care Council,
  59. (2006). Defining Transnationalism Boundaries: New Zealand Migrants in Australia.
  60. (2009). Delivering Equality a nd Diversity: A Summary G uide. Available from: (accessed 15/12/09).
  61. (2004). Detangling Data Collection: Methods for Gathering Data. Harvard Family Research Project
  62. (2000). Determining Validity in Qualitative Inquiry. Theory into Practice doi
  63. (2009). Development Finance, Private and Public Sectors in Zimbabwe: Sustainability o r Odious Debt. BWPI W orking Paper 84. On line: (accessed 08/09/09).
  64. (2001). Dialogue, Positionality and the Legal Framing of Ethnographic Research. doi
  65. (2003). Diaspora Circulation and Transnationalism as Agents for Change in the Post Conflict Zones of Sri Lanka. Department of Sociology and Centre for Refugee Studies,
  66. (2009). Diaspora Dollars and Social Development: Remittance Patterns of Zimbabwe Nationals Based
  67. (1991). Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return. doi
  68. (2009). Diversity – A New Mode of Incorporation? doi
  69. (2004). Do Multiculturalism Policies Erode the Welfare State? In doi
  70. (2007). Echoing silences': Ethnicity in Post-colonial Zimbabwe, doi
  71. (1996). Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP)’s Fables II.
  72. (2003). Editors Comments: The Reflexive Researcher.
  73. (2006). Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What Do We Know., doi
  74. (2006). Embedded Cosmopolitanism and the Politics of Obligation: The Ghanaian Diaspora and Development. doi
  75. (1993). Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action. doi
  76. (2007). Embodiment of Discrimination and Overseas Nurses’ Career Progression. doi
  77. (2006). Emigration from Zimbabwe: Migrant Perspectives. doi
  78. (2005). Empowering People by Transforming Institutions: Social Development in World Bank Operations. The World Bank, doi
  79. (2004). Enabling Social Workers to Work Abroad (Learning from Overseas Workers Experience
  80. (2010). Equality and Diversity. On line: equality_and_diversity_page.asp (accessed 9/03/10).
  81. (2009). Escalators, Elevators and Travelators: The Occupational Mobility of Migrants to South-East England. doi
  82. (2007). Ethiopian Migration: Challenging Traditional Explanatory T heories.
  83. (2009). Ethnic Conflict in Zimbabwe: A Ghost of the Past? Foreign Policy Digest, November. On Line: (accessed 19/12/09).
  84. (2006). Eureka’, The Sunday T imes, 17 December. Available from: (accessed 15
  85. (2004). Evaluation and Social Research: Introducing Small Scale Practice.
  86. (2002). Everyday Racism: A New Approach to the Study of Racism. doi
  87. (2006). Experiences of Zimbabwe Trained Social Workers. In
  88. (2003). Families and Social Capital: Exploring the Issues. Families
  89. (2006). Families, Social Capital and Ethnic Identities: Report on Italy. doi
  90. (2006). Families, Social Capital and Ethnic Identities: Report on the Caribbean. doi
  91. (2006). Family Love in the Diaspora: Migration and the Anglo-Caribbean Experience. New Brunswick and London: doi
  92. (1987). Feminism and Methodology. Milton Keynes:
  93. (1993). Feminist Epistemologies. doi
  94. (1985). Fighting Familiarity. Strategies of Qualitative Research
  95. (2001). Firearm Prevalence and Social Capital. doi
  96. (2006). Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study R esearch. doi
  97. (2007). Food Security i n Southern Africa: Assessing the Use and Value of ENSO information. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. On line: (accessed 08/09/09).
  98. (2006). for Excellence in Social Work Education. doi
  99. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. doi
  100. (2010). From ‘Fish Out Of Water’ to ‘Fitting In’: The Challenge of Re-placing Home in a Mobile World. Population Space and doi
  101. (2007). From Ethnic Minorities to Ethnic Majority Policy: Multiculturalism and the Shift to Assimilationism in the Netherlands. doi
  102. (2007). From Free Movement to Fair Movement: The Immigration Debate in the UK.
  103. (1982). From Resistance to Rebellion: Asian and Afro-Caribbean Struggles doi
  104. (2003). Games Without Frontiers? Questioning the Transnational Social Power of Migrants in Europe. On line: (accessed 12/02/07).
  105. (2002). Gender and the silences of social capital: doi
  106. (2008). Gendering the diaspora: Zimbabwean Migrants in Britain. African Diaspora: doi
  107. (2005). Getting Started with a Piece of Research/ Evaluation in Social Work. In
  108. (2005). Global Standards for the Education and Training of the Social Work Profession. doi
  109. (1997). Globalisation from Below: The Rise of Transnational Communities. On line: (accessed 29/01/07).
  110. (2002). Great Britain: The Role of Government and the Distribution of Social Capital. In doi
  111. (2009). Grow Your Own Social Workers: A Toolkit.
  112. (2001). Hidden Minorities and the Politics of ‘Race’: The Case of British Arab Activists in London. doi
  113. (2007). Home Alone. doi
  114. (2009). Home is Where the Heart Abides: Migration, Return and Housing in
  115. Home Office (2007a). The Economic and Fiscal Impact of Immigration. On line: http:// (accessed 01/11/10).
  116. Home Office (2007b). Regional Consultation on Impacts of Migration. Migration Impacts Forum (MIF) Report. On line: regionalimpacts.pdf (accessed 01/11/10).
  117. Home Office (2007c). Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship.
  118. (2003). How the Other Half Works: Immigration and the social organization of labor. doi
  119. (1996). Immigrant America: A P ortrait. Los Angeles:
  120. (2002). Immigrant Incorporation and Sociocultural Transnationalism. doi
  121. (2005). Immigrant Racialization and the New Salvage Slot: Race, Migration and Immigration in the New Europe. doi
  122. (2007). Immigrant Unemployment at Low Level. /innvarbl_en/arkiv/ (accessed 15/06/07).318
  123. (2008). Immigrants into Citizens. doi
  124. (2007). Immigration, Social Cohesion and Social Capital: A Critical Review. doi
  125. (2004). Increase in Overseas Social Workers Poses Ethical Questions for Councils. Community Care,
  126. (1988). Intercultural Migration and the Development of Personal Identity-The Dilemma Between Identity Maintenance and Cultural Adaptation. doi
  127. (2005). International Migration and Human Rights. A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and
  128. (1995). International Migration: Implications for the World Bank. Human Capital Development and Operations Policy W orking Paper No. 54. On line: http:// (accessed 31/01/07).
  129. (2005). International Nurse Recruitment and NHS Vacancies: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.
  130. (2009). International Organization for Migration. http// projectsPDF/reports/projectsheets.pdf (accessed 27/10/09).
  131. (2007). International Recruitment of Nurses: Policy and Practice in the United Kingdom. doi
  132. (2004). International Recruitment of Social Workers to the UK: A Systematic Review of Evidence. Final Report to the Department of Health (Unpublished). Kings College London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit.
  133. (2005). International Social Work: Themes and Issues for the 21 st Century.
  134. (2009). Internationally Recruited Nurses from India and the Philippines in the United Kingdom: The Decision to Emigrate. Human Resources For Health 7:37. doi
  135. (2007). Interrogating the Language of Integration: The Case of Internationally Recruited Nurses. doi
  136. (2010). Introduction: The Making of Zimbabwe’s New Diaspora.
  137. (2002). Introduction. doi
  138. (2003). Is Social Capital Ecological or Individual?
  139. (2006). Is Up to the Individual. A Letter to Community Care,
  140. (2004). Italian Families and Social Capital: Rituals and the Provision of Care in British-Italian Transnational Families. Families & Social Capital ESRC Research Group. On line: (accessed 22/05/07).
  141. (2007). Joining the BBC (British Bottom Cleaners)’: Zimbabwean Migrants and the UK care industry. doi
  142. (2000). Keeping the Pain: Health, Belonging and Resilience among Guatemalan Immigrant Men.
  143. (2000). Kinship and Continuity. Pakistani Families in Britian. The Netherlands: Harwood Academic Press.317 Sichone,
  144. (2005). Land and Natural Resource Redistribution in Zimbabwe: Access, Equity and Conflict. doi
  145. (1985). Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. doi
  146. (2006). Leadership and Learning: A Comparative Case Study of Leadership Practices in Two Washington State High Schools. PhD Thesis.
  147. (2003). Learning From Others: Overseas Nurses’ doi
  148. (2010). Leeds’s Shocking Shortage of Social Workers. Yorkshire Evening Post, 29 January. On line: (accessed 03/03/10).
  149. (1999). Life Events and Career Change: Transition Psychology in Practice. The EOS Life-Work Resource Centre. On line: transprac.htm (accessed 09/04/07).
  150. (2002). Localised Examinations in Zimbabwe Not to be Degraded.
  151. (2010). London the Leveller’: Ghanaian Work Strategies and Community Solidarity. doi
  152. (2005). London: General Social Care Council; Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.313
  153. (2003). Maintaining Social Ties: Social Capital in a Global Information Age. On line: (accessed 20/05/07).
  154. (1993). Making Democracy W ork: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. doi
  155. (2003). Mapping Diasporic Mediascapes. doi
  156. (2004). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Educational Psychology I nteractive. (accessed 11/06/07).
  157. (2009). Measuring Ethnic Linkages Among Migrants. doi
  158. (2010). Measuring Social Capital and its Differentials by Family Structures. doi
  159. (2001). Measuring Social Capital: Towards a Theoretically Informed Measurement Framework for Researching Social Capital in Family and Community Life. Research Paper No. 24, Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  160. (2004). Mexican Hometown Associations and Development Opportunities.
  161. (2001). Migrant Networks and the Immigrant Professional: An Analysis of the Role of Weak Ties.
  162. (2009). Migrants and Ethnic Minorities in Post-Communist Europe: Negotiating Diasporic Identity. doi
  163. (2007). Migration Advisory C ommittee (2009). Skilled, Shortage, Sensible: First Review of the Recommended Shortage Occupation Lists for the UK and Scotland: Spring 2009.http//
  164. (2009). Migration and Materialism: The Roles of Ethnic Identity, Religiosity and Generation. doi
  165. (2003). Migration as a Factor in Development and Poverty R eduction. Washington: Migration Policy Institute.
  166. (2002). Migration, Social Capital, and the Environment: Considering Migrant Selectivity and Networks in Relation to Coastal Ecosystems.
  167. (2009). Mixed Marriages between European Free Movers.
  168. (1970). Motivation and Personality, Second Edition.
  169. (2004). Mugabe the Liberator? Ask the Ndebele People. Rastafari Speaks Archives. Available from: http// (accessed 12/02/2010).
  170. (2008). Multicultural Living? Experiences of Everyday Racism Among Ghanaian Migrants in London. doi
  171. (2003). Multiculturalism and the New Face of
  172. (1994). Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments and Deterritorialized Nation-States. doi
  173. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. doi
  174. (2007). Negotiating Changing Livelihoods: The Sampan Dwellers of Tam Giang Lagoon, Viet Nam. doi
  175. (2010). New Scheme to Step Up Social Work Recruitment. On line: (accessed 25/03/10).
  176. (2006). Opportunities and Challenges for Social Workers Crossing Borders. doi
  177. (2006). Our Nations Future – Multiculturalism and Integration’. On line: (accessed 10/02/08).
  178. (2006). Out of Africa into Birmingham. Professional Social Work,
  179. (2005). Overcoming Adversity: R esilience and Coping Mechanisms Developed by Recent Immigrant Women Living in the Inner City of Calgary, Alberta. Women’s Health and Urban Life,
  180. (2009). Overseas Nurses’ Experiences of Discrimination: A Case of Racist Bullying? doi
  181. (2005). Overseas Nurses’ Motivations for Working in the UK: Globalization and Life Politics. Work Employment and doi
  182. (2010). Overseas Social Workers Bridge the Gap. Available from: (accessed 17/02/10).
  183. (1997). Parliament in Transition: Review of the effects of the 1997 UK Election Landslide. The EOS Life-Work Resource Centre. On line: /pitrev.htm (accessed 09/04/07).
  184. (2010). People in Places: A Qualitative Exploration of Recruitment Agencies’ Perspectives on the Employment of International Social Workers in the UK. doi
  185. (2003). Plugging the Care Gap.
  186. (1982). Policy Dilemmas and the Adoption of Black Children.
  187. (1994). Political Blackness and British Asians. doi
  188. (2009). Population: International Immigration. On line: http:// (accessed 23/07/09).
  189. (2003). Positive Events as a Stress Buffer for Children and Adolescents in Families in Transition. doi
  190. (1998). Post-qualifying Training. On line: Training+and +learning/Continuing+your+training/Postqualifying+training/ (accessed 12/12/08) Guanipa,
  191. (1994). Practising Feminist Research: The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Research Process.
  192. (1997). Prejudice and Racism Revisited. doi
  193. (2009). Private Schools Forced to Postpone Opening. The Daily News,
  194. (2004). Promoting Equality and Diversity in the NHS: A Guide for Board Members. Equality and Diversity Legislation, Department of Health.
  195. (2007). Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. doi
  196. (2003). Qualitative Research in Information Systems. On line: (accessed 12/05/07).
  197. Quality Assurance Agency (2000). Subject Benchmark Statements – Social Policy and Administration and Social Work, Honours Degree Benchmark Statements. Gloucester: Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education.
  198. (1988). Quantity and Quality in Social Research. doi
  199. (2007). Re-negotiating Identity and Reconciling Cultural Ambiguity in the Indian Immigrant Community in Sydney,
  200. (1990). Reading Feminism in Fieldnotes.
  201. (2002). Real World Research, Second Edition.
  202. (2004). Reconciliation, Ethnicity and School History in Zimbabwe,
  203. (2001). Refugees and Transnationalism: The Experience of Bosnians and Eritreans in Europe. doi
  204. (2007). Relations Between Africans, African Americans and Afrocaribbeans: Tensions, Indifference and Harmony. South Africa:
  205. (2007). Remittances, Poverty Reduction and the Informalization of Household Well Being doi
  206. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks,
  207. (2005). Research Ethics Framework. On line: infocentre/opportunities/research_ethics_framework/ (accessed 03/03/07).
  208. (2007). Rethinking and Unravelling the Interlocking Dynamics of Caribbean Emigration and Return.
  209. (2009). Rethinking Geographies of Assimilation. doi
  210. (2007). Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence from the UK . doi
  211. (2009). Revitalising Participatory P olitics? The Internet, Social Capital and Political Action. Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University. On line: (accessed 25/01/10).
  212. (1980). Rootedness versus Sense of Place. Landscape 24(1): 3-8.319 UKCOSA
  213. (2005). Roots and Routes. Questions of Home, Belonging and Return in an Afghan Diaspora.
  214. (2002). Sampling and Sampling Methods. doi
  215. (1999). Scars of Slavery.
  216. (2005). Secure Borders, Safe Haven: A Contradiction doi
  217. (1994). Sensuous Sapphires: A Study o f the Construction of Black Female Sexuality.
  218. (2006). Setting the Scene. In Lyons, doi
  219. (2000). Skilled International Migration: The Experience of Nurses in the UK’. doi
  220. (2005). Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America. Paper given at the Expert Group Meeting
  221. (1997). Social capital in the Creation of Human Capital. doi
  222. (2001). Social Capital: A Post Transition Concept? Questions of Concept and Gender from Latin American Perspective. In
  223. (2000). Social Capital: Implications for Development Theory, Research and Policy. doi
  224. (1998). Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology. doi
  225. (2000). Social Capital: Promise and Pitfalls of its Role in Development. doi
  226. Social Care Code of Practice for International Recruitment: Principles. On line: (accessed 01/02/07).
  227. Social Care Code of Practice for International Recruitment. On line: http:// (accessed 26/10/08).
  228. (2004). Social Care Register Application Pack for Social Workers Who Trained and Qualified outside England,
  229. (1998). Social Networks, Gender and Immigrant Incorporation: Resources and Constraints. doi
  230. (2001). Social Research Methods. doi
  231. (1990). Social structure, household strategies and the cumulative causation of migration, doi
  232. (2000). Social Theories of Immigration. Available from: http// /regents /ushisgov/themes/immigration/theories.htm (accessed 28/01/2007).
  233. (2004). Social Work and Sustainable Development: An Exploratory S tudy. Doctoral Thesis, University o f Pretoria. On line: (accessed 05/09/07).
  234. (2009). Social Work Education, Training and Employment in Africa: The Case of Zimbabwe. Ufahamu:
  235. (2007). Social Work in the UK and the Global Labour Market: Recruitment, Practice and Ethical Considerations. doi
  236. (1991). Social Work Practice in Zimbabwe. doi
  237. (2009). Social Work Task Force Timeline. On line: http://www.communitycare (accessed 17/01/10).
  238. (2006). Socio-cultural Adjustment of Immigrants: Universal and Group-specific Predictors. doi
  239. (1977). Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. doi
  240. Specialist Standards and Requirements for Post-Qualifying S ocial Work Education and Training. On line: (accessed 12/12/08).
  241. (2008). Staff Shortages and Immigration in the Social Care Sector. A Report Prepared for the Migration Advisory Committee.
  242. (2007). Stay in School, Don’t Become A Parent: Teen Life Transitions and Cumulative Disadvantages for Voter Turnout. doi
  243. (1996). Structural Adjustment and the Working Poor in Zimbabwe: doi
  244. (1993). Structural Adjustment in Zambia and Zimbabwe: Reconstructive or Destructive? Harare: Third World Pub.
  245. (1998). Structural Adjustment Programmes and the Problem of Urban Poverty: An African Perspective. doi
  246. (2007). Sub-Saharan Africa: Beyond the Health Worker Migration crisis? doi
  247. (1993). Taking Subjectivity into Account. doi
  248. Task Force (2009a). Facing Up to the Task: The Interim Report of the Social Work Task Force. On line: (accessed 12/12/09).
  249. Task Force (2009b). Building a Safe, Confident Future. The Final Report of the Social Work Task Force. On line: (accessed 23/02/10).
  250. (2007). The Adjustment Process of Ex-Buddhist Monks to Life After the Monastery. doi
  251. (2006). The Comparative Case Study A pproach in Public Administration.
  252. (1985). The Context of Emergent Paradigm Research. In
  253. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? doi
  254. (2006). The Economics of Migration and Remittances Under Globalization. On line: (accessed 20/01/07).
  255. (2006). The Emergence of Super-diversity in Britain.
  256. (1986). The Forms of Capital. In doi
  257. (2006). The Health Workforce: Managing the Crisis Ethical International Recruitment of Health Professionals: Will Codes of Practice Protect Developing Country Health Systems? doi
  258. (2006). The Impact of Latino Immigrants in Grand Rapids’ Urban Development: A Social Capital Approach.
  259. (2005). The Impact of Remittances from Zimbabweans Working in South Africa on Rural Livelihoods in the Southern Districts of Zimbabwe. Forced Migration Working Paper Series #14. Forced Migration Studies, Programme University of the Witwatersrand.
  260. (2005). The Impact of Social Capital on the Earnings of Puerto Rican Migrants. doi
  261. (2001). The Importance of Pilot Studies. doi
  262. (2000). The Interview: From Neutral Stance to Political Involvement.
  263. (2008). The Long Term: A Special Report on Migration.
  264. (1999). The Macpherson Report doi
  265. (2004). The Migration Effects of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme on a Rural Community in Zimbabwe.
  266. (2009). The Multicultural State We’re In: Muslims, ‘Multiculture’ and the ‘Civic Re-balancing’ of British Multiculturalism. doi
  267. (2003). The New Brain Drain from Zimbabwe. Migration Policy Series No. 29, Southern African Migration Project,
  268. (1999). The Otavalo Trade Diaspora: Social Capital and Transnational Entrepreneurship. doi
  269. (2001). The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic Outcomes.
  270. (2010). The Politics of Land Dressed Up as Research. On line: /html/archive/ (accessed 05/07/10).
  271. (2010). The Politics of Voluntary Returns. On line: (accessed 03/11/10).
  272. (1995). The Poverty Assessment Research Study. Harare: Government Printer.
  273. (1990). The Professional and the Personal: A Study of Women Quantity Surveyors.
  274. (2000). The Pros and Cons of Data Analysis Software for Qualitative Research. doi
  275. (2007). The Role of Perceived Cultural Distance in the Acculturation of Exchange Students in Russia. doi
  276. (2009). The Role of the Diaspora in Development:
  277. (2010). The Sociology of Globalization. doi
  278. (2002). The State of Social Welfare in Zimbabwe. In doi
  279. (2008). The State of the Adult Social Care Workforce in England,
  280. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. doi
  281. (2001). The Strengths and Limitations of Case Study Research. A Paper Presented to the Learning and Skills Development Agency Conference: Making an Impact on Policy a nd Practice. Cambridge,
  282. The Times (2007). Migrants in Britain: The Official Verdict.
  283. (1975). The Tragedy of Maria Colwell.
  284. (2003). The Transition Penalty: Unemployment Among Recent Immigrants to Canada. Canadian Labour and Business Centre Commentary. Transition_Penalty_e-CLBC.pdf (accessed 13/05/07).
  285. (2000). The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces. Oxford: doi
  286. (2001). The Well-being of Nations: The Role of Human and Social Capital. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develoment, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation,
  287. (2004). The Zimbabwe situation. The Financial Gazzette, Readers Forum,
  288. (1995). Theories of International Labor Migration: An Overview.
  289. (2009). Theorizing Identity in Transnational and Diaspora Cultures: A Critical Approach to Acculturation. doi
  290. (2001). Theorizing Transnational Immigration: A Critical Review of Current Efforts. doi
  291. (2004). This Place Will Become Home: Refugee Repatriation to Ethiopia. Ithaca and London: doi
  292. (2008). Ties that Bind: Families, Social Capital and Caribbean SecondGeneration Return Migration.
  293. (2009). Tories Warn of Social Work Recruitment Crisis. The Guardian, 3 February. On line: (accessed 04/02/09).312 Mupedziswa,
  294. (2003). Tracing the Historical Origins of Youth Delinquency and Violence: Myths and Realities about Black Culture. doi
  295. (2007). Tramped no more: Voices from Bulawayo’s Townships about Families, Life, Survival, and Social change in Zimbabwe.
  296. (2007). Transitions, networks and communities: The significance of social capital in the lives of children and young people. doi
  297. (2002). Transnational Communities, Citizenship and African-Caribbeans in Birmingham. (accessed 29/01/07).
  298. (2002). Transnational Networks and Skilled Labour Migration. Paper Presented at Migration Conference, Ladenburg,14-15 February. On line: http://www.transcomm. (accessed 13/08/07).
  299. (2001). Transnational Social Formations: Towards Conceptual Cross Fertilization. Paper presented at the Workshop on Transnational Migration:
  300. (2006). Transnationalism or Assimilation? Patterns of Socio-political Adapatation Amond Canadian Business Immigrants.
  301. (2004). Trauma and Coping in Somali and Oromo Refugee Youth. doi
  302. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. doi
  303. (2003). UK Draining Zimbabwe of Social Workers.
  304. (2001). Undermining the Sanitized Account: Violence and Emotionality in the Field in Northern Ireland. doi
  305. (2009). UNISON Memorandum on Social Workers. On line: http:// (accessed 23/02/10).
  306. (2002). Unsocial Services.
  307. (2002). Using Case Studies in Research. doi
  308. (2002). Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research.
  309. (2006). Voluntary Returns a Hard Sell to Zimbabweans. South African Migration Project, October. On line: (accessed 28/01/07).
  310. (2009). What (a) Difference a Degree Makes: The Evaluation of the New Social Work Degree in England. doi
  311. (2005). What if Migrants had not Migrated? Determinants and Consequence of Korean Immigration to the United States. doi
  312. (2002). What to Expect When You Relocate. On line: (accessed 10/04/07).
  313. (2007). What’s Wrong with the Global Migration of Health Care Professionals? Individual Rights and International Justice. Hastings Center Report doi
  314. (2007). Workers learn how to raise alarm in English. The Times,
  315. (2003). Workers, Migrants, Aliens or Citizens? State Constructions and Discourses of Identity among doi
  316. (2006). You Must Think Familia’: The Everyday Lives of Mexican Migrants in Destination Communities. doi
  317. (2002). Zimbabwe Government and Farmers Locked in Land Reform Dispute. Human and Constitutional Rights. On line: (accessed 10/08/07).
  318. (2000). Zimbabwe Near Collapse After Farm Exodus. The Independent,
  319. (2010). Zimbabwe: Country Reports. Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment. On line:
  320. Zimbabwe: Humanitarian Country Profile. On line: /country.aspx?CountryCode=ZW&RegionCode=SAF (accessed 05/01/10).
  321. (2003). Zimbabwe: Why Reconciliation Failed. In
  322. (2005). Zimbabwe’s Global Citizens in ‘Harare North’: Overview and Implications for Development. Peri-NET Working Paper 14. Africa: The Urban and Peri-Urban Research Network.
  323. (2010). Zimbabwean Transnational Diaspora Politics doi
  324. (2008). Zimbabweans in Britain: Transnational Activities and Capabilities. doi
  325. (2002). Zimbabweans Who Move:

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.