Location of Repository

Assessing the hydrologic impacts of military maneuvers

By Ginger E. Pugh


Master of ScienceDepartment of Biological and Agricultural EngineeringStacy HutchinsonMilitary land management is vital to the future health and usability of maneuver training areas. As land disturbance increases, runoff from the area also increases and may create significant erosion potential. Determining the relationship between what is safe training versus what is harmful to the environment can be done by determining runoff potential at different disturbance percentages given different training intensities. Various studies have shown that soil density, soil structure, plant biodiversity, animal biodiversity, and many other essential ecosystem factors are greatly damaged by continuous training. These ecosystem factors influence runoff amounts and likewise erosion potential in that area. The primary factor examined in this study was the Curve Number (CN). Since military procedures do not have predefined CNs, representative CNs were created based off of CNs for agricultural use and supplemental research about training impacts on the land. Training intensity was broken into four classes: undisturbed, light use, moderate use, and heavy use. Five sample watersheds on Fort Riley were used as replications for the study. Disturbance intensity indexes were broken into 10% increments, and changes in runoff amount and peak rate modeled with TR-55. Statistical analysis was done comparing watersheds, training intensities and disturbance percentages for different storm magnitudes to assess statistically significance of changes in runoff amount and peak rate. This analysis showed that runoff amount and rate were both significantly impacted at every 10% increase on disturbance percentage. Results also showed that at the lower disturbance percentage (less than 30%), runoff amount and rate were not significantly impacted by training use classes. From this it can be seen that even with very little training done to the land increased erosion can be expected

Topics: Runoff, Hydrologic modeling, Military maneuvers, Fort Riley, Environmental Engineering (0775)
Publisher: Kansas State University
OAI identifier: oai:krex.k-state.edu:2097/15677

Suggested articles



  1. (2009). A comparison of Tuttle Creek Reservoir and Milford Lake. Available online at: http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/student/milner2/Imagewebpage.htm.
  2. (2000). Application of a Landscape Evolution Model to Gully Management and Reclamation on Military Lands: Fort Carson, CO Case Study. Annual Report Submitted to the Army Research Office,
  3. (2008). ArcGIS 9.2 Desktop Help, Flow Accumulation. Available online at: http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/index.cfm?TopicName=flow_accumulation.
  4. (2005). Assessing and Predicting Changes in Vegetation Cover Associated with Military Land Use Activities using Field Monitoring Data at Fort Hood, Texas.
  5. (1995). Assessment of kinematic wave time of concentration.
  6. (2013). Available at: http://www.lmnoeng.com/Hydrology/hydrology.htm.
  7. (2012). Available at: http://www.natureserve.org/aboutUs/PressReleases/nr040824.pdf.
  8. (2013). Available online at: http://www.cemml.colostate.edu /assets/pdf/ tps-96-8.pdf KDHE.
  9. (2012). Available online at: http://www.kansasgis.org/catalog/index.cfm.
  10. (2011). Base SAS® 9.3. Help and Documentation,
  11. (1996). Calculating Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) Estimates on Department of Defense Lands: A Review of RUSLE Factors and U.S. Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) Data Gaps. Center for ecological management of military lands.
  12. (1997). Changes in Erosion,
  13. (2010). Chemistry in Soil-Plant Relationships. Alaska Agriculture in the Classroom, Agriculture in the classroom consortium and USDA. Available on line at: www.alaskafb.org/~akaitc/alaskaAITC/pdf/9_12/chemistry_ soil.pdf.
  14. (1987). Clean Water Act Section 319. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Laws and Regulations. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/owow_keep/NPS/cwact.html.
  15. (1972). Clean Water Act. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Laws and Regulations. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/cwa.html.
  16. (1996). Control of water pollution from agriculture- FAO irrigation and drainage paper 55. Natural Resources Management and Environment Department. GEMS/Water Collaborating Centre, Canada Centre for Inland Waters,
  17. (1999). Corps of Engineers.
  18. (2009). Curve Number Design Methodology. ODNR-DSWC. Available at: http://www.starkswcd.org/articles/CN_Design_Method.pdf Accessed:
  19. (2012). Dredging 101-Hydraulic Dredging Costs.
  20. (2003). Effect of military training on indicators of soil quality at Fort Benning,
  21. (2011). Environmental assessment,
  22. (2011). Environmental Concerns at Fort Riley Topic at
  23. (2004). Environmental Hydrology, Second Edition.
  24. (2003). Equation for high-rate gully erosion.
  25. (2010). Fort Riley Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan. Fort Riley,
  26. (2006). Gully Erosion. Natural Resources and Water, Facts: Land Series. Queensland Government,
  27. (1999). Hydrologic calculation for storm runoff discharge and curve numbers for watersheds.
  28. (2010). Identification of Superfluous Roads in Terms of Sustainable Military Land Carrying Capacity and Environment.
  29. (2005). Impact of M1A1 Main Battle Tank Disturbance on Soil Quality, Invertebrates, and Vegetation Characteristics."
  30. (2009). Influence of turning radius on wheeled military vehicle induced rut formation.
  31. (2006). Initial Effects of Light Armored Vehicle use on Grassland Vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington.
  32. (2002). Integrating Multi-criteria Analysis and GIS for Land Condition Assessment: Part II- Allocation of Military Training Areas.
  33. (2008). Kansas Data Access and Support Center. Census Military Boundaries.
  34. (2007). Kansas-Lower Republican Basin. Available online at: http://www.kwo.org/Kansas_Water_Plan/KWP_Docs/VolumeIII/KLR/KLR_Atlas/map_ kr_KWP_basemap_120607_tr.pdf.
  35. (2010). Like Hollow Point Bullets from the Sky- Combating Rain Splash Erosion”, Restoring Utopia. Available online at: http://restoringutopia.blogspot.com /2010/07/likehollow-point-bullets-from-sky.html Accessed 21
  36. (1996). Managing Endangered Species on Military Lands.
  37. (2012). Managing Vegetation on Coastal Slopes- Causes of Erosion. Available online at: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/pubs/93-31/chap1.html Accessed 21
  38. (2005). Measurement and variation of site-specific hardpans for silty upland soils in the Southeastern United States.
  39. (2002). Models of soil compaction due to traffic and their evaluation.
  40. (2004). National Engineering Handbook, Part 630 Hydrology. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. Chapter 10, Estimation of Direct Runoff from Storm Rainfall.
  41. (2007). National Engineering Handbook, Part 630 Hydrology. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. Chapter 7, Hydrologic Soil Groups.
  42. (2011). Natural Resources Conservation Program.
  43. (2012). of Conservation and Recreation.
  44. (1999). Plant and Environmental Interactions.
  45. (2004). Porosity and Pore Size Distribution.
  46. (2001). Rangeland Soil Quality- Water Erosion. Soil Quality Information Sheet.
  47. (2007). Relationships between military land use and storm-based indices on hydrologic variability.
  48. (2012). RiverMorph Stream Restoration Software. Available at: http://www.rivermorph.com/index.php?p=1_2_Information. Accessed:
  49. (2009). Simulating Spatial Pattern and Dynamics of Military Training Impacts for Allocation of Land Repair Using Images.
  50. (2009). Small Watershed Hydrology, WinTR-55 User Guide. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation of Engineering Division.
  51. (2007). Soil hydraulic properties as ecological indicators in forested watersheds impacted by mechanized military training,
  52. (2007). Soil Properties and Perceived Disturbance of Grasslands Subjected to Mechanized Military Training: Evaluation of an Index.
  53. (1975). Soil Survey of Riley County and Part of Geary County, Kansas. United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service in Cooperation with Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
  54. (2012). Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database for Fort Riley, Kansas. Available online at http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov.
  55. (2011). Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan (SPCCP) and Installation Spill Contingency Plan (ISCP).
  56. (2005). The Effect of Model Structure and Data in Modeling Land Conditions in Disturbed Complex Ecosystems.
  57. (1968). The influence of rainfall interception on streamflow.
  58. (2012). The National Map Viewer. Available online at: http://viewer.nationalmap.gov/viewer/.
  59. (2006). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Historical Development, Applications, and Future Research Directions. SWAT Invited Review Series.
  60. (2006). U.S. Military Lands are Habitat for Hundreds of Species at Risk, Study Finds.
  61. (1986). Understanding ephemeral gully erosion. Committee on conservation needs and opportunities. Soil Conservation Service: An Assessment of the National Resources Inventory,
  62. (2000). Universal Soil Loss Equation. Factsheet. Ontario Minitstry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Order no.
  63. (1986). Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Engineering Division.
  64. (2004). Vegetation of the Fort Riley Military Reservation. Kansas Biological Survey.
  65. (2012). Vegetation Survey and Mapping of the Fort Riley Military Reservation,
  66. (2003). Vehicle Movement Patterns and Vegetative Impacts during Military Training Exercises.
  67. (2002). Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Window Interface Tutorial.
  68. (2010). Waterbody Report for Milford Lake. Available online at: http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl_waters10/attains_waterbody.control?p_list_id=KS-KR-17-LM019001&p_cycle=2010&p_state=KS&p_report_type=T.
  69. (2011). Weather Data Library, Riley County. K-State Research and Extension. Available online at: http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/wdl/precip%20files/rl_p.asp.
  70. (2013). WinTR-55 Watershed Hydrology. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov /wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/water/?&cid=stelprdb1042901.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.