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    [Archivio Rai Teche: Presidente Aden Abdulla Osman visita Papa Paolo VI]

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    Incontro ufficiale del Presidente Somalo Aden Abdulla Osman a Roma con Papa Paolo VI. Presenti il Cardinale Amleto Cicognani, il Ministro degli Esteri somalo Abdullahi Issa Mohamud, On. Mohamed Scek Dahir. Saluti e scambio di doni.Madaxweynaha Soomaaliyeed, Aadan Cabdulle Cusmaan iyo wafdigiisi waxay si rasmi ah ula kula kulmeen Roma Boobka Paolo VI. Waxaana goobjoog ka ahaa Cardinale Amleto Cicognani, Wasiirka arrimaha dibadda ee Soomaalia Cabdullaahi Ciise, mudane Maxamed Sh. Daahir. Salaan iyo haddiyado ayaa lays dhaafsaday.Official visit of Somali President Aden Adbullah Osman Daar in Rome to Pope Paul VI. At the presence of Italian cardinal Amleto Cicognani, the Somali Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdullahi Issa, Hon. Mohamed Sheikh Dahir. Greetings and gifts exchange.Link:http://www.teche.rai.it/techecustomer/somalia-filmati/fmt/iframe3/Materiale video messo a disposizione del Centro Studi Somali da Rai Teche.Vido-wyo ay Xarunta Cilmibaarista Soomaaliyeed ka heshay Rai Teche.Video made available by Rai Teche

    Statistical analysis of earthquake occurrences and implications for earthquake forecasting and seismichazard assessment

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    This dissertation is organized in three chapters: 1. Chapter I: Empirical evaluation of the magnitude-independence assumption; 2. Chapter II: Features of seismic sequences are similar in different crustal tectonic regions; 3. Chapter III: On the b-value estimation and its variability. Chapter I and Chapter II consist of manuscripts presently in press on Geophysical Journal International and submitted to Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America journals, respectively. Chapter III is a document - including contributions from Ilaria Spassiani and Matteo Taroni - that will be converted soon into a manuscript for publication. In Chapter I, we focus on the magnitude-independence assumption (the magnitude of any earthquake is independent from the past), which stands behind the most common earthquake forecasting models. The reliability of this assumption, which severely limits the capability to forecast large earthquakes with high probabilities, has been questioned by several authors, who found evidence for correlated magnitudes and/or different seismicity patterns before earthquakes of different magnitudes. Our goal is to contribute to this discussion by empirically investigating the validity of the magnitude-independence assumption through a comprehensive and rigorous analysis. Specifically: i) we implement a metric-based correlation (inspired by the nearest-neighbor method proposed by Baiesi and Paczuski (2004) and elaborated by Zaliapin et al. (2008)) to identify the precursory seismicity, avoiding the 1 use of space-time-magnitude windows for the identification of foreshocks, mainshocks and aftershocks; ii) we consider different instrumental catalogs and multiple synthetic (ETAS) catalogs; iii) we carefully consider spatiotemporal variations of the magnitude of completeness when statistically comparing the frequency-magnitude distribution of background and triggered earthquakes; iv) we statistically analyze different space-time-magnitude features of the seismicity which anticipates a triggered event. Our findings are in agreement with the magnitude-independence assumption which stands behind the most common earthquake forecast models. We find only one departure from the expected model: larger events tend to nucleate at a higher distance from the ongoing sequence. This result, which confirms the findings of a previous independent study, could be hopefully used to improve the current forecasting models. We also notice that the reliability of the magnitude-independence assumption may depend on the spatial scale considered, as we identify possible departures in small areas, which could reflect different ways to release locally seismic energy. Finally, we show that some significant departures from the magnitude-independence assumption do not survive when considering spatiotemporal variations of the magnitude of completeness. In Chapter II, we contribute to answer the following question: do earthquake cluster properties change depending on the tectonic environment under consideration? The common answer to this question is positive, and it is generally based on discrepancies observed among a limited number of seismic sequences pertaining different tectonic environments. We contribute to this discussion analyzing the clustering properties in three areas related to distinct tectonic regimes: Italy, Southern California and Japan. Specifically, we investigate on this aspect by i) adopting the nearest-neighbor method [Baiesi and Paczuski (2004); Zaliapin et al. (2008)] to identify all the sequences of triggered events; ii) implementing a comprehensive statistical analysis of several features of the seismicity recorded in different instrumental catalogs. We demonstrate that sequences of triggered events are characterized by comparable distributions through the three regions, though the latter are characterized by a different dominant fault type (compressional, extensional or strike-slip). We conclude 2 that, at least for active seismic crustal regions, the tectonic regime does not seem to play a key role in affecting the spatiotemporal clustering properties. These findings have two important implications: first, they suggest that calibrating earthquake forecast models based on the specific tectonic regime may not be necessary, at least in the case of active seismic crustal regions; second, they support the use of common declustering models, avoiding the need to re-calibrate them according to the tectonic environment. As regards the background seismicity, it shows some significant departures from the hypothesis of a stationary Poisson process when looking at short time scales (1-year time intervals). This could suggest transient perturbations of the background seismicity rate due to undetected seismicity or to localized physical processes, whose effects seem to decrease on longer time scales. In Chapter III, we focus on the b-value, one of the parameters of the well known magnitudefrequency Gutenberg-Richter law. The main motivation is that its variability has often been used to advocate its use as an earthquake precursor, and/or as a stress indicator. As a matter of fact, many studies claim that a decrease of the b-value occurs before large earthquakes, a feature which is generally explained in terms of increased stress. We argue that several factors, which are very often neglected in seismology, may induce bias in the b-value estimation and lead to apparent variations that do not have any real physical meaning. To show that, we: i) analyze three theoretical biases: the Jensen inequality, the normal approximation for the b-value error estimate, and the correlation between the b-value and the maximum foreshock magnitude in the sequence; ii) we quantify (by numerical simulations) the bias induced by an improper magnitude of completeness selection, which affects the analysis of real seismic catalogs. We show that: i) the Jensen inequality and the normal approximation for the b-value error estimate influence, at different degree, the b-value and its uncertainty for catalogs with less than 100 data; ii) the maximum magnitude in the dataset may introduce a bias in the b-value estimate, by yielding a systematic underestimation of the b-value when a large earthquake is included; this bias is particularly severe for small datasets (N 500); iii) it is very likely to estimate a significantly low b-value only as a consequence of the incom- 3 pleteness of the catalog and goodness-of-fits test, such as the Lilliefors test, could fail to spot an incomplete recording for small datasets, making this bias very difficult to be recognized: iv) assuming, for any space-time subset of a catalog, the same completeness threshold as for the whole catalog could induce strong errors

    Mogadiscio - Piazza 21 aprile

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    Immagine tratta dal sito "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) e inclusa nell'Archivio Somalia con il consenso del curatore della collezione Rick Davies.Sawir laga soo qaatay "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/), laguna biiriyay Kaydka Soomaaliya, kaddib markii laga helay ruqsad milkiilaha sawirka, Rick Davies.Image taken from the website "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) and included in the Somali Archive with the permission of the owner of the collection, Mr. Davies

    Mogadiscio

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    Immagine tratta dal sito "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) e inclusa nell'Archivio Somalia con il consenso del curatore della collezione Rick Davies.Sawir laga soo qaatay mareegta "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/), waxaana lagu biiriyay Kaydka Soomaaliya, kaddib markii oggolaasho laga helay qofka diyaariyay oo ah Rick Davies.Image taken from the website "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) and included in the Somali Archive with the permission of the owner of the collection, Mr. Davies

    Mogadiscio (Somalia Italiana) - Veduta di Amaruini

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    Image taken from the website "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) and included in the Somali Archive with the permission of the owner of the collection, Mr. Davies.Sawir laga soo qaatay mareegta "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) laguna biiriyay Kaydka Soomaaliya, kaddib markii ruqsad laga helay Mr. Davies.Immagine tratta dal sito "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) e inclusa nell'Archivio Somalia con il consenso del curatore della collezione Rick Davies

    The British in conflict with Sayid Maxamed Cabdille Xasan 1902-1903

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    Immagine tratta dal sito "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) e inclusa nell'Archivio Somalia con il consenso del curatore della collezione Rick Davies.Sawir laga soo qaatay mareegta "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/), waxaana lagu biiriyay Kaydka Soomaaliya, kaddib markii oggolaasho laga helay qofka diyaariyay oo ah Rick Davies.Image taken from the website "Mogadishu: Images from the past" (https://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/) and included in the Somali Archive with the permission of the owner of the collection, Mr. Davies

    Collection of Somali poetry (Muqdisho, Afgooye and elsewhere, 1987)

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    This collection of Somali poetry, recorded by J.W. Johnson in Muqdisho, Afgooye and in the Sool region of Somalia from February to October 1987, includes recitations of a multitude of genre including religious music associated with Ramadan and recreational poetry and songs including churning, pounding, mat-weaving, sheep, goat and cattle-watering, welcoming and children's songs.Ururin maanso Soomaaliyeed oo Prof. J.W. Johnson ka soo ururiyay Muqdisho, Afgooye iyo gobolka Sool, Febraayo ilaa Oktoobar 1987. Ururintani waxay ka kooban tahay: musikada diineed ee la xiriirta Ramadanka; maanso la macaansado; hees-hawleed oo la xiriira caano ruxa, badar tumid, falkin kebed, shubidda xoolaha; hees-carruureed iyo heeso la xiriira martiggelinta.Questa raccolta di poesia somala, registrata e curata da J.W. Johnson a Mogadiscio, Afgoi e nella regione Sol dal febbraio all'ottobre del 1987, include performance di diverso genere tra cui: musica religiosa associata al Ramadan, poesia ludica, brani e canti associati alla lavorazione del latte (per ottenere burro), atto del pestare, tessitura di stuoie, abbeveraggio del bestiame, canzoni per bambini e relative all'ospitalità.Link: https://media.dlib.indiana.edu/media_objects/avalon:20802/section/avalon:20946?autostart=tru

    Shekooyiinka III

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    Qoraalkaani waa ururintii saddexaad ee uu sameeyey Axmed Cartan Xaange oo ku saabsan sheeko dhaqameedka Soomaaliyeed. Wuxuuna qoray qoraagu 90meeyadii, muddaddadaasoo ku noolaa xerada Qaxootiga ee Dhadhaab. Waxaa ku urursan qoraankan sheeko dhaqameedyo Soomaaliyeed oo kala duwan: sheekobaraalay, sheeka xariir, iwm kuwaasoo ku wada qoran af Soomaali iyo af Ingiriisi.This manuscript is the third collection of Somali folktales collected by Axmed Cartan Xaange and written by him while in Dadaab refugee camp during the 90s. It contains mythological, cultural, humorous tales and legends; every tale is provided in Somali and English.Questo manoscritto costituisce la terza collezione di racconti somali raccolti da Axmed Cartan Xaange, scritto durante la sua permanenza nel campo profughi di Dadaab negli anni '90. Contiene leggente e racconti e favole mitologiche, umoristiche e culturali; ogni racconto in lingua originale è provvisto di traduzione in inglese

    I dialetti somali. Indagine iniziale

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    Il Progetto Studi Somali, sviluppato a partire dal 1978 in collaborazione tra il Dip. di Linguistica dell'Università di Roma La Sapienza e l'Università Nazionale Somala di Mogadiscio, prevedeva tra i suoi obiettivi anche la descrizione della lingua somala, comprensiva di una mappatura esauriente delle varietà linguistiche presenti sul territorio. Nel 1983 è stata avviata quindi una ricerca sul campo, vengono qui pubblicati i primi e parziali dati raccolti che si riferiscono solo ad alcune regioni.Mashruuca Daraasaadka Soomaaliyeed, oo la billaabay 1978, iyagoo iska iskaashanaya Dip. di Linguistica dell'Università di Roma La Sapienza iyo Jaamacadda Ummadda soomaaliyeed ee Muqdisho, ulajeedooyinkiisi waxaa ka mid ahaa baaritaanka af Soomaaaaliga iyo lahjadaha ka jira dalka. Sidaa darteed qoraalkaan waxaa la sameeyey 1983 oo ah baaritaan lahjadeed, oo laga soo aruuriyay gobollada qaarkood, waa qoraal hordhac ah.One of the main objectives of the Somali Studies Project, implemented by the Dept. of Linguistics of the University of Rome La Sapienza and the Somali National University of Mogadishu, was the description of Somali language, comprehensive of a complete mapping of linguistic varieties spoken in the territory. In 1983 a field research begun, the documents published here correspond to the preliminary data gathered which refer only to some regions

    Sufi poetry in Somali: Its themes and imagery

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    This Phd thesis explores the world of Somali Sufi oral poetry, with the aim of contributing to a better understanding and documentation in this field. He provides the cultural setting and deepens the mixture of Islamic and traditional elements this particular kind of poetry includes, analyzing above all its themes and imagery.Buug qalinjebineedka PhD-du wuxuu falanqaynayaa maansada Suufiyada soomaaliyeed. Wuxuu aad u falanqaynayaa wadajirka waxyaaba isku dhafan oo ka jeeda diinta iyo dhaqanka oo maansa diimeeddu muujinayso, gaar ahaan wuxuu sii lafaguraya mawaadiicdeeda iyo mala-awaalkeeda.Questa tesi dottorale esplora il mondo della poesia somala Sufi con l'obiettivo di contribuire alla conoscenza di questo soggetto. Fornisce lo sfondo culturale e approfondisce l'insieme di elementi religiosi e tradizionale che questo tipo di poesia presenta, analizzando soprattutto temi e immaginario.PhD thesis.Buug qalinjebin PhD.Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca

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