13728 research outputs found

    Aidon kehityksen indikaattori GPI maakuntien kestävän hyvinvoinnin mittarina

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    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan kestävän hyvinvoinnin ilmiötä aluekehittämisen kontekstissa. Ilmiötä operationalisoidaan Aidon kehityksen indikaattorin GPI avulla kestävän kehityksen pääomalähestymisteorian ja paikkaperusteisuuden teorioiden viitekehyksessä. Kyseessä on kehittämisorientoitunut arviointitotkimus. Arvioinnin kohteena ovat maakunnat Etelä-Pohjanmaa, Keski-Pohjanmaa ja Pohjanmaa. Käytännössä tutkimuksessa on arvioitu GPI:n 24 osaindikaattorin vastaavuutta maakuntaohjelmien kehittämistavoitteisiin. Vastaavuutta on löytynyt kaikkiin osaindikaattoreihin, mutta osin vastaavuus on heikkoa. Tulokset auttavat kehittämään GPI-indikaattoria paremmin aluekehittämiseen sopivaksi ja toisaalta nostavat esiin maakuntaohjelmien strategisten linjausten tarvetta sellaisiksi, että ne paremmin luotsaavat maakuntia kohti kestävää hyvinvointia

    A lightweight smart contracts framework for blockchain-based secure communication in smart grid applications

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    © 2024 The Authors. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Institution of Engineering and Technology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Life cycle assessment of lithium iron phosphate and electrochemical recuperator cells for city buses in Finland

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    The study investigates the environmental impacts of electric city buses based on the storage technologies applied and the degree of electrification within the Finnish context. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and electrochemical recuperator (ECR) were selected as storage technologies. ECR can be an alternative to the lithium-ion battery; however, little is known regarding its environmental performance when applied to electrify city buses. The study focused on diesel buses, battery electric buses (BEB) and plug-in hybrid buses. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the potential environmental impacts between storage technologies and the degree of electrification. Primary data from the industry was used to assess the impacts of manufacturing ECR. The results showed that manufacturing a kWh of ECR generated a global warming potential (GWP) of 178 kg CO2-eq, higher than LFP. However, its application indicated that ECR performed better. The impacts of using ECR and LFP in BEB were 385 g CO2-eq/km and 441 g CO2-eq/km, respectively. The hybrid system generated 652 g CO2-eq/km and 670 g CO2-eq/km for ECR and LFP, respectively. The study also showed no consistent pattern between the degree of electrification and environmental benefits. Scenario analysis revealed that BEB provided the best GWP when assessed using a Finnish and Norwegian electricity mix, while the hybrid system performed the best when Polish electricity was applied. This study demonstrated that storage technologies, degree of electrification, fuel consumption, and electricity sources affect environmental performance. Careful assessment is needed before deciding to electrify the city's transport system.© 2024 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Issues and Challenges of Grid-Following Converters Interfacing Renewable Energy Sources in Low Inertia Systems : A Review

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    The integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) is a key objective for energy sector decision-makers worldwide, aiming to establish renewable-rich future power grids. However, transitioning from conventional systems based on synchronous generators (SGs) or systems with a low RESs share presents challenges, particularly when accompanied by decommissioning large central generation units. This is because the reduction in inertia and system strength, traditionally provided by SGs, can lead to a loss of essential system support functions like voltage and frequency. While current converter technologies attempt to compensate for the grid support provided by SGs by enhancing converter capabilities, they still heavily rely on the presence of SGs to function effectively. These converters, known as grid-following (GFL) converters, depend on the grid to operate in a stable and secure manner. As the penetration of RESs increases, the efficacy of GFL converters diminishes, posing stability challenges in low inertia systems and limiting the integration of RESs. Therefore, it is crucial to reassess the existing GFL converter technologies, control mechanisms, and grid codes to understand their status and future requirements. This will shed light on the advancements and limitations of GFL converters, enabling greater RESs integration and grid support independent of SGs. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date reference for researchers and system operators, addressing the issues and challenges related to GFL converter technologies, control systems, and applications in low inertia systems. It serves as a valuable resource for facilitating the transition towards future systems with 100% RESs penetration scenarios.© 2024 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Marketing agility in underdog entrepreneurship : A qualitative assessment in post-conflict Sub-Saharan African context

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    Extant entrepreneurship literature lacks specific research on how underdog entrepreneurs survive and strive in post-conflict environments. This study seeks to explore the role of marketing agility as an essential capability to survive and exploit business opportunities in post-conflict Sub-Saharan Africa, where institutional voids and volatility coexist. The empirical research design comprises of multiple case studies of sixteen underdog (war-affected) entrepreneurs in Liberia and Sierra Leon; both countries which went through civil war and violent internal strife in recent past. The study findings reveal that marketing agility and its dimensions, i.e., robustness, responsiveness, and proactiveness, are critical for underdog entrepreneur’s business’s survival. Finally, the findings also show that institutional context, volatility, and individual experiences of entrepreneurs tend to influence the manifestation of this marketing agility.©2024 Elsevier. This manuscript version is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial–NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY–NC–ND 4.0) license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Integration of wind and solar energies with battery energy storage systems into 36-zone Great Britain power system for frequency regulation studies

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    Variable-speed wind generators (VSWGs) and solar Photovoltaic (PV) units are being broadly employed as the main renewable energy sources in large-scale transmission power networks. However, they can cause system stability challenges following power imbalances since they provide no inertial and governor responses. In this study, generic dynamic models are developed for VSWGs, PVs and battery energy storages systems (BESSs) which include inertia emulator and droop-based frequency control schemes. These models are suitable for transmission systems stability studies and are integrated into 36-zone Great Britain (GB) power system in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. It is a very useful benchmark for academic research and industrial sectors to undertake feasibility studies for renewable energy integration into GB power system. However, it is not an exact equivalent of the real GB power system. The dynamic time-domain simulations and modal analysis are provided and justified to investigate how PV, Wind and BESS units affect the system frequency response. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out against several factors to demonstrate the dynamic performance of the test system incorporating the generic models for VSWGs, PVs and BESSs. These are associated with units’ frequency response and system frequency changes under renewable energies’ penetration levels of 20 %, 25 %, 50 %, 60 % and 75 % of system demand.© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Fuel demand, carbon tax and electric vehicle adoption in India's road transport

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    To reduce oil import dependence and carbon emission from road transport, the study estimates the demand for gasoline, high-speed diesel and electric vehicles (EV) in India using non-linear cointegration techniques. The data spans from November 2014 to April 2022. Gasoline, high-speed diesel and EV demand are found to be asymmetric in mean and quantiles, exhibiting extreme tail dependence. Gasoline and high-speed diesel demand are price inelastic, which means that taxation is an ineffective policy instrument to reduce their demand and carbon emissions. However, such taxation could increase the demand for EV. A decrease in electricity prices would also increase the demand for EV while negatively impacting high-speed diesel demand. The study recommends that reducing electricity prices and imposing an additional carbon tax on gasoline and high-speed diesel could encourage electric mobility, eventually reinforcing India’s ‘net zero’ target by 2070. Future studies could focus on forecasting EV demand under different scenarios.©2024 Elsevier. This manuscript version is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial–NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY–NC–ND 4.0) license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Theoretical approaches to measuring governance : public administration

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    ©2024 Edward Elgar. This is a draft chapter/article. The final version is available in Handbook on Measuring Governance edited by P. Triantafillou & J. M. Lewis, published in 2024, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. The material cannot be used for any other purpose without further permission of the publisher, and is for private use only.fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Utilizing a transport management system to reduce the carbon footprint of transportation in a global marine and energy technology organization

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    The importance of sustainable development is constantly growing, and sustainability has be- come a desired characteristic among companies. Today, this is highlighted by various sustaina- bility goals that companies commit to meet the requirements of climate laws and consumers' more ecological choices along with the volume of research conducted on the matter. Companies must consider the carbon footprint of their operations to achieve their aim of lowering emis- sions. Because the transportation industry is one of the largest producers of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, focusing on it enables huge emission reductions across supply chains. This master's thesis is conducted as a case study for a company. The objective of the thesis is to find out the most effective ways to utilize a transport management system used by the case company to reduce the carbon footprint caused by the transportation of the incoming material flow. The thesis aims to investigate what factors contribute to the carbon footprint of transpor- tation in the case company, how emissions can be measured using a transport management system, and how its utilization affects time, cost, and reliability when choosing more environ- mentally friendly modes of transportation. To achieve these objectives, internal interviews were performed at the case company, and the features of the transport management system were familiarized. The research is a qualitative case study. The theoretical part of the research focuses on the var- ious modes of freight transportation and the related emissions, as well as the functions and role of transport management systems in measuring and controlling emissions from transportation. The objective of the empirical part of the research is to describe the current transportation pro- cesses of the case company and the generation of the carbon footprint of transportation and to examine how the transport management system is currently utilized in the case company. The research methods include a literature review, interviews, and presentations related to the transport management system. The research provided insight into the elements of the carbon footprint of transportation in the case company and the potential for more effective utilization of the transport management sys- tem in measuring and reducing emissions. The main sources of emissions in the case company were discovered to be air freight and road freight transportation. The transport management system has been used to support the transportation process in the background, and the system offers several features that have not yet been fully used, that allow emissions to be measured and decreased when effectively utilized. Data collection and integration with the transport man- agement system make it possible to obtain comparable reports that can be used to guide future strategic choices regarding transportation and transportation providers.Kestävän kehityksen merkitys on jatkuvassa kasvussa ja kestävyydestä on tullut tavoiteltava omi- naisuus yritysten keskuudessa. Tämä korostuu nykypäivänä erilaisilla kestävillä tavoitteilla, joi- hin yritykset sitoutuvat vastatakseen ilmastolakien vaatimuksiin ja kuluttajien ekologisempiin valintoihin, ja aiheesta on tehty myös useita tutkimuksia. Saavuttaakseen päämääränsä päästö- jen vähentämiseksi, yritysten on kiinnitettävä huomiota toimintansa hiilijalanjälkeen. Kuljetus- sektori on yksi suurimmista hiilidioksidipäästöjen aiheuttajista maailmassa ja siksi siihen keskit- tymällä on mahdollista saavuttaa merkittäviäkin päästövähennyksiä toimitusketjuissa. Tämä pro gradu -tutkielma on toteutettu tapaustutkimuksena yritykselle. Tutkielman tavoit- teena on selvittää tehokkaimmat tavat hyödyntää tapausyrityksen käyttämää kuljetustenhallin- tajärjestelmää niin, että on mahdollista pienentää saapuvan materiaalin kuljetuksista syntyvää hiilijalanjälkeä. Lisäksi tavoitteena on tutkia, mistä kuljetusten hiilijalanjälki tapausyrityksessä muodostuu, miten päästöjä on mahdollista mitata kuljetustenhallintajärjestelmän avulla ja mil- laisia vaikutuksia sen hyödyntämisellä on aikaan, kustannuksiin ja luotettavuuteen, kun valitaan ympäristöystävällisempiä kuljetusmuotoja. Näiden tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi on suoritettu tapausyrityksen sisäisiä haastatteluja sekä perehdytty käytössä olevan kuljetustenhallintajärjes- telmän tarjoamiin ominaisuuksiin. Tutkimus on kvalitatiivinen tapaustutkimus. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen osuus käsittelee rahtikul- jetusten eri muotoja ja niihin liittyviä päästöjä sekä kuljetustenhallintajärjestelmien toimintaa ja roolia kuljetuksista syntyvien päästöjen mittaamisessa ja hallitsemisessa. Tutkielman empiiri- sessä osuudessa on tarkoitus kuvata tapausyrityksen nykyisiä kuljetusprosesseja ja kuljetusten hiilijalanjäljen muodostumista sekä tarkastella, miten kuljetustenhallintajärjestelmää tutkimus- hetkellä hyödynnetään tapausyrityksessä. Tutkielman tiedonkeruumenetelmiä ovat kirjallisuus- katsaus, haastattelut ja kuljetustenhallintajärjestelmään liittyvät esitelmät ja esitysmateriaalit. Tuloksena saatiin näkemys siitä, mistä kuljetusten hiilijalanjälki tapausyrityksessä muodostuu ja tunnistettiin mahdollisuuksia kuljetustenhallintajärjestelmän tehokkaammalle hyödyntämiselle päästöjen mittaamisessa ja vähentämisessä. Tapausyrityksen suurimmiksi päästöjen aiheutta- jiksi kuljetusmuodoista todettiin lentorahti ja maantiekuljetukset. Kuljetustenhallintajärjestel- mää on hyödynnetty tapausyrityksessä kuljetusprosessin taustalla ja järjestelmässä on useita ominaisuuksia, joita ei vielä ole hyödynnetty ja jotka mahdollistavat päästöjen mittaamisen ja vähentämisen, kun niitä hyödynnetään tehokkaasti. Dataa keräämällä ja yhdistämällä sen kulje- tustenhallintajärjestelmään on mahdollista saada vertailukelpoisia raportteja, joiden perusteella tapausyritys voi jatkossa tehdä strategisia päätöksiä kuljetuksiin ja kuljetusyrityksiin liittyen

    Impression management and leadership in failing or failed business-to-business firms during and post-COVID-19 : Empirical insights from Africa

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    This paper is one of the pioneering studies to specifically link COVID-19 pandemic with business failures in African B2B firms and the role of leadership and impression management in mitigating business failures. Based on the qualitative data from Ghana and Nigeria, our findings show that although B2B firms in emerging markets are agile and proactive, the COVID-19 pandemic triggered the process of business decline leading to failure in some cases. Particularly, the lack of technological know-how and the absence of online business activities made it difficult for B2B firms to continue operations. Further, we found that case B2B African firms needed a balance of market and non-market strategies to avoid failure caused by the pandemic. Study findings also indicate that despite the challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic presented opportunities to B2B firms in emerging markets. Flexible working and employee management are found to be instrumental in avoiding business failure. Finally, our findings show that, despite the absence of institutional support in African emerging markets, several case B2B firms quickly adopted digital technologies to communicate with partners and manage online business operations.© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

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