University of Sassari

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    6806 research outputs found

    Prevalence and identification of antibiotic residues in dairy cow’s bulk tank milk produced in Lebanon

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    This research was aiming to evaluate in Lebanon the prudent use of veterinary antibiotics and the prevalence of antibiotic residues in raw cow’s milk. A first survey concerning antibiotics and their utilization was carried out involving 100 farmers, developing a specific questionnaire. The results have shown that most of the Lebanese dairy farmers have a very low knowledge level about antibiotics. A second study to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in dairy raw milk produced in the seven Lebanese Governorates was also carried out. A total of 1020 raw milk samples that covers big and medium size dairy farms and dairy raw milk collection centers were collected. Samples were tested using a microbiological test for inhibitors, lateral flow test for residues and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test. Results show that using microbiological test, 22% (220) out of 1020 collected samples were double positive for inhibitors. HPLC-DAD test results showed that out of 220 double positive samples tested with microbiological test, 143 (65%) samples were contaminated with penicillin G (53.6%), tetracycline (23.1%) and florfenicol (22.7%). Charm® TRIO and AMPH tests revealed that out of arbitrary 95 positive samples tested using HPLC, 92 samples were contaminated with penicillin G (62.1%), tetracycline (43.2%), amphenicol (40%) and sulfa drugs (32.6%)

    Trattamento topico della oftalmomiasi esterna da Oestrus ovis: progettazione e sviluppo di un nuovo preparato galenico

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    Introduction Ophthalmomyiasis is an infection of the eye caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, Diptera. Currently, there are no available drugs to treat this condition in humans and mechanical removal of the larvae is the only effective therapy. Methods The study was divided into 3 Phases. The first was designed to identify and test “in vitro” new galenic formulation against O. ovis L1 larvae. The second addressed the cytotoxicity of the compounds tested in phase 1 on corneal and conjunctival cells. We assessed the toxicity of different dilutions of Propylene Glycol and then analyzed the combination of Ivermectin with DMSO, Glycol and Glycol + PVP-I. We also tested the 40, 60, 80X dilution of the stock solution. Finally, we tested the compounds in a rat model, in order to assess the in vivo toxicity of the galenic formulations. Results Ivermectin 1% solution and the combination of Ivermectin 1% + PVP-I 0.6% were found to be significantly better than propylene glycol alone, in terms of time needed to kill Larvae (p=0.0422). MTT assay confirmed low tissue toxicity. In the mouse model, no toxicity was found. Conclusion Our results suggest that Ivermectin 1% and Propylene glycol are both effective against L1 larvae and could be potential candidates for the treatment of ophthalmomyiasis caused by Oestrus ovis

    Investigation of the role of an evolutionarily selected autoimmunity variant in the BAFF gene in response to Malaria antigens

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    Population genetics signatures have revealed that an autoimmunity variant (BAFF-var) overexpressing soluble BAFF (sBAFF) showed significant evidence of positive selection, possibly due to adaptations to malaria infection. Interestingly, different studies have shown that mice overexpressing BAFF are protected from lethal Malaria infections. The aim of this project is to elucidate the role of BAFF-var during the response to malaria antigens, and thus to explain the possible protective role of BAFF-var. We prepared lysates of erythrocytes infected (iRBCs) or not infected (Control, uRBCs) with Plasmodium falciparum, a malaria pathogen that was highly prevalent in Sardinia were BAFF-var was detected and has been positively selected. The lysates were used to stimulate PBMCs genotyped for BAFF-var. After stimulation, samples were analyzed for differential gene expression and cell profiles by flow cytometry. In PBMCs purified from BAFF-var donors and treated with iRBCs, differential levels of B- and T- cell subpopulations, immunoglobulins as well as several cytokines were observed. These variations were associated with differential gene expression in several immune-related pathways such as the NFkB2 pathway and cytokines as determined by changes in RNA and protein levels. Increased production of sBAFF was observed in patients carrying the BAFF-var allele, which leads to an increased risk of autoimmunity. Differential gene expression, levels of specific B and T cells and cytokines secretion, implicated in malaria response potentially enhanced protection against malaria. These findings describe a previously unknown mechanism by which BAFF-var can potentiate the immune system against Plasmodium infection

    Ambiente, risorse, territorio e spopolamento in aree di montagna: l’Unione dei Comuni Barbagia e la Serra de Sicó

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    This study, whose main goal is to describe those ongoing processes of depopulation taking place in inland areas – both rural and mountainous ones – made it possible to observe how human activities characterizes a territory and how variable are those peculiarities (both material and immaterial ones) that lends originality to it. We decided to conduct this study focusing on two geographic realities that, although they could be considered – from a certain point of view – heterogeneous, share some common features: one of our study target areas is located in Sardinia (i.e. the Unione dei Comuni Barbagia), the other one is located in the Portuguese Região Centro (i.e. the Serra de Sicó). The main goal of this study is to examine the effects of depopulation on the territory while furthering our understanding of cultural identities and – especially – of the processes of their construction and reconstruction that take place as a consequence of territorial abandonment. At the same time, we will focus our attention on the fact that local development must arise out of territorial needs and inhabitants’ identities

    Effect of melatonin treatment on reproductive activity and immune response in Sarda sheep breed

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    The aims of the present thesis were to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment (MELOVINE subcutaneous implant 18 mg melatonin) in different aspects of livestock of Sarda sheep breed (considering season, lactating periods, male replacement during mating perdiod, puberty, different melatonin receptor genotype, milk yield and mammary immune system). This study was conducted in different farms located in Sardinia and similar for raising condition and animals managment, involving a great number of sheep. The data confirmed that melatonin is able to advance reproductive recovery in Sarda sheep breed in spring. Furthermore, the most suitable time to perform the melatonin treatment for the best response to the male effect is April-May. Melatonin treatment should be performed 3 or 4 months after lambing, in order to obtain optimal reproductive results. A weekly substitution of the males and their treatment with melatonin guarantees a better reproductive efficiency both in the adult ewes and in the ewe lambs. Another interesting conclusion is that treatment with melatonin in lactating sheep does not change the quantity and quality of milk and decreases the number of somatic cells, suggesting that this molecule can preserve health of the mammary gland. In conclusion, this thesis has provided many results directly applicable in Sarda sheep farms in order to improve reproductive efficiency, furthermore can give a new starting point to the development of research

    Gli Obblighi informativi in materia di contratto di viaggio: dalla disciplina generale del contratto alla normativa dell'unione europea

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    The information obligations regarding travel contracts have undergone a profound evolution in recent years with respect to the general regulation of the contract, due to the intervention of the European Union legislation on consumer protection and tourist packages and related tourist services. As a result, the duty of information, which was previously an unwritten general rule of conduct, substantially implementing the duty of good faith and fairness referred to in articles 1175 and 1375 of the civil code, becomes a protection openly provided in favour of the weak consumer against contractual asymmetry and risk of abuse of power by the professional. Thus, we can witness a proceduralization of the information which becomes an explicit rule, according to rules that set out its content and form in detail and which are qualified as mandatory by the most recent European legislation. The recent directive 2015/2302 / EU and the Legislative Decree n. 62/2018, transposing the directive into the national legal system, indicate in detail the information that must be provided in the travel contracts, as defined therein, laying down rules of mandatory nature. In this way, the legal framework paves the way, in case of violation, to contractual remedies such as “virtual” nullity , that were previously categorically excluded from the prevailing legal doctrine doctrine and case law

    Immune response against <i>Mycobacterium avium</i> subsp. <i>paratuberculosis</i>, Epstein-Barr virus, HERV-K and IRF5 in rheumatoid arthritis

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    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease characterized by synovitis, systemic inflammation, autoantibodies that causes joint damage, disability, decreased quality of life, and cardiovascular and other comorbidities. Its aetiology as well the exact etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well clear so far. RA is triggered by an interplay between genes and environmental factors. Several studies showed that microorganisms play an important role in triggering autoimmunity through different mechanisms of action. Viral and bacterial infections, such as those caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERVs) and mycobacteria, may play a pathogenetic role in RA through immunological cross-reactivity or molecular mimicry. Sardinians have a peculiar genetic background resulting from a long lasting geographical isolation with a strong incidence and prevalence of different autoimmune disease such as RA, multiple sclerosis (MS) and diabetes. During this PhD course, I have studied the role of EBV, HERV-K and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in RA pathogenesis and other rheumatic diseases for a better understanding of how these infectious agents can lead to a deregulation of transcription factors such as Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) that is important in the regulation of different cells type like macrophages and neutrophils. Finally, in order to better understand the etiopathogenesis of RA, an animal model has been used to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the above-mentioned diseases and to better understand the link between the environment and genes in RA with an objective to develop new therapeutic strategies

    La Pianificazione in zone di conflitto: il caso di Gerico nei Territori Palestinesi occupati

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    In the Israeli-Palestinian context there is an intricate territorial conflict based on two different and contrasting narratives of historical, cultural and religious belonging. In this clash, it is the state of Israel that holds power and exercises it through spatial, politicaladministrative and economic control over the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Since 1948 a continuous process of contraction of Palestinian Territories (PT) has been initiated, this by means of targeted policies such as the incessant construction of Israeli settlements, the declaration of military zones and the construction of by Pass roads etc. The research explores and analyzes the role that planning has played in the process of colonization of the PT, using planning techniques to achieve political objectives, by making the strong part prevails against the weaker one. Thus, this thesis aims, from one hand to demonstrate the ineffectiveness of planning system used by the Palestinian National Authority in areas of its sovereignty: it is done through the use of analytical and comparative methodology to study the planning system in the PT and its historical development and the descriptive method of the impacts of Israeli policy on Palestinian cities. From the other hand, by using the city of Jericho as a case study, the thesis elaborates the research issues and advices for better planning and management of the PT based on future scenarios of the political situation

    Cystic echinococcosis in cattle: histological and proteomic features of inflammation

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    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus and is a widespread zoonotic disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) included CE in the list of Neglected Tropical Diseases in order to eliminate the disease and support the affected countries. The aim of the study was to compare fertile and infertile cysts from naturally infected cattle by means of histological and proteomic analysis in order to elucidate the molecular cross-talk between host and parasite and obtain further information on the bovine host immune response against E. granulosus. In this study, 70 hydatid cysts were removed from parasitized bovine lungs and livers. Each cyst was ranked as fertile or infertile and processed through histologic, immuno-histochemical, biomolecular, and statistical analysis. After that, 27 pulmonary tissues and 10 hydatid fluid samples were analysed with a Tandem Mass Tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics approach. As a result, four degrees of inflammation were detected, and thousands of proteins were identified in both tissues and fluids. Based on ontology and pathway analysis, several differential proteins are involved in the modulation or activation of host defence mechanisms. In conclusion, the combination of histological and proteomic approaches applied in this work provided a better understanding of the host-parasite interplay and of the bovine host immune response against E. granulosus

    Target identification of small molecules with antiproliferative properties

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    1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives are widely used in the research of antineoplastic drugs. On the basis of previous work, 16 new 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds with different structural types were designed and synthesized on the basis of 2j, in order to obtain new efficacious anticancer with low toxicity and side effects. In the present research, the results showed that 7FB, 16FB, 8VDB, 22VDB, and 23VDB had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor cell lines and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a time-dependent manner in Hela and PC-3 cells. In order to further study 2j and its derivatives possible targets and identify molecular mechanisms, the DEGs were determined after 2j, 16FB and 8VDB treatment. RNA-seq was performed and data were analyzed using functional (GO term) and pathway (KEGG) enrichment of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The hub genes of anti-tumor small molecules were determined by the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks. The results showed that 2j and its derivatives were tubulin inhibitors, mainly affected tumor cells through the cell cycle, FoxO signaling pathway, and apoptotic and p53 signaling pathways. Based on STRING analysis of function gene networks, hub genes were identified and the small molecular targets obtained by CMap comparison, the possible targets of 2j, 16FB and 8VDB could be TUBA1A, TUBA4A, and TUBB. Molecular docking results indicated that 2j interacted at the colchicine-binding site on tubulin


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