Repositori Institucional de la Universitat Jaume I

    La didacticidad de los textos publicitarios: transversalidad, competencia comunicativa y creatividad

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    Esta Tesis Doctoral toma como punto de partida el supuesto de que los textos publicitarios cuentan con un potencial didáctico, centrado, básicamente, en la didáctica de la lengua (lenguas primeras), desde la perspectiva del enfoque comunicativo, pero también en otras cuestiones como las programaciones didácticas transversales, la educación en valores, la programación integrada de lenguas, e incluso, la didáctica de L2 (segundas lenguas), como referencia de aprendizaje en cuestiones que atañen a los usos culturales y a la pragmática intercultural. La investigación completa la hipótesis inicial con un planteamiento epistemológico basado en la propia caracterización del texto publicitario, debido a que su singularidad le confiere un alto grado de didacticidad que ha sido ignorado tradicionalmente por los manuales, y centra su objetivo en plantear propuestas sobre las que programar secuencias didácticas, capaces de integrar todas las cuestiones asociadas al potencial didáctico de los textos publicitarios.This Doctoral Thesis takes as its starting point the assumption that the advertising texts have a didactic potential, focused basically on the didactics of language (first languages), from the perspective of the communicative approach. More over are considered on other issues such as cross-curricular programming, education in values, integrated programming of languages, and even the teaching of L2 (second languages), as a reference for learning in questions related to cultural uses and intercultural pragmatics. The research completes the initial hypothesis with an epistemological approach based on the characteristics of the advertising text, because its singularity confers a high degree of didacticity that has traditionally been ignored by textbooks. And, finally, it focuses its objective in presenting proposals to program teaching sequences, able to integrate all the issues associated with the didactic potential of advertising texts

    The Critical Translation and Interpreting Stories of the Amistad Case

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    This doctoral thesis entitled, "The Critical Translation and Interpreting Stories of the Amistad Case," unravels the role and impact of the interpreting and translation matters in the Amistad Case. Until now, academic and colloquial versions of the story have mentioned the intervention of a court interpreter (s) who enabled the African-Amistad-Mendi to testify in their defense in court. This researched revealed 13 interpreters involved in the case. The abolitionists who organized the recruitment for the linguistic mediator knew that this represented the critical strategy for a chance to win the trial in a socio-political context divided along pro-slavery and anti-slavery ideologies and policies. Nineteenth century courts lacked a judicial mandate to provide linguistic rights for LEPs. This dissertation investigates how IT matters responded to the political and racial background shaping the development of the Amistad story applying a Critical Race Theory lens.Esta tesis doctoral titulada "The Critical Translation and Interpreting Stories of the Amistad Case" pone de manifiesto los importantes aspectos traductológicos y de interpretación que facilitaron el desarrollo del caso judicial de La Amistad. Los cristianos abolicionistas lideraron la búsqueda de un intérprete judicial como la única estrategia más confiable para lograr la liberación de los africanos que habían tomado posesión de la goleta Amistad. Los españoles que capiteaban la goleta lo hacían contreveniendo acuerdos internacionales vigentes en el 1839 en contra de la trata esclava. Cuando la marina EEUU remolcó la goleta, el país se encontraba dividido entre posturas esclavistas y anti esclavistas. El lado pro esclavista hizo todo lo posible para impugnar al intérprete previo y al comienzo del juicio sin éxito. Esta investigación académica indaga sobre los asuntos cruciales de interpretación y traducción aplicando un filtro metodológico conocido como Critical Race Theory.Programa de Doctorat en Llengües Aplicades, Literatura i Traducci

    A Plurilingual Approach to English Language Teaching from an Ecological Perspective: An international comparative study

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    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the application of multilingualism and plurilingualism theories and the use of the mother tongue in the English classroom in primary education using a communicative teaching approach on a global scale. With this purpose in mind, we implemented our study in three very different contexts around the world: Spain, Norway and China. Based on the premise that the worldwide spread of English has resulted in significant consequences in education and language policies, throughout our dissertation we focus on the different factors affecting English language learning and analysed the students’ response to a plurilingual communicative approach to English Language Teaching (ELT). Our position aims to present an ecological approach to ELT that views English as a real international language that is a tool in our multilingualism and not a threat.Aquesta tesi investiga d’una manera global l'aplicació de les teories multilingües i plurilingües amb l'ús de la llengua materna en l'aula d'anglés en l’educació primària mitjançant un enfocament d'ensenyament comunicatiu. Amb aquest propòsit hem dut a terme la nostra investigació en tres contextos molt diferents del món: Espanya, Noruega i la Xina. El nostre punt de partida és la idea que la difusió de l'anglés a tot el món ha tingut importants conseqüències tant en l'educació com en les polítiques lingüístiques. En aquesta investigació ens hem centrat en diferents factors que afecten l'aprenentatge de l'anglés i hem analitzat la resposta dels alumnes a un enfocament comunicatiu plurilingüe de l'ensenyament de l'anglés. La nostra posició té per objecte presentar una visió ecològica de l’ensenyament que considera l'anglés com una veritable llengua internacional; una eina en la societat multilingüe en la qual vivim i no una amenaça.Programa de Doctorat en Llengües Aplicades, Literatura i Traducci

    The effect of out-of-school media contact on language attitudes in multilingual adolescents: a complex psychosociolinguistic system

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    Esta tesis analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de los adolescentes multilingües en función de su contacto con los idiomas a través de los medios de comunicación. El estudio utiliza la teoría de Sistemas Dinámicos y Complejos para proponer un sistema multilingüe psico-sociolingüístico integrado y demostrar la manera en que los subcomponentes de este sistema funcionan en conjunto. Los participantes del estudio son 152 estudiantes de ESO de la provincia de Castellón. Los instrumentos utilizados son un cuestionario y una serie de entrevistas orales. Los resultados demuestran que el contacto con los medios de comunicación en inglés y en catalán tiene un impacto significativo en las actitudes lingüísticas, caracterizado por la interconectividad compleja y la susceptibilidad a cambios a lo largo del tiempo. Además, los adolescentes muestran una gran voluntad en la creación y el uso de los entornos mediáticos multilingües, y un rango de motivos emocionales y pragmáticos respecto a sus prácticas lingüísticas multilingües y multimodales.This thesis analyzes the linguistic attitudes of multilingual adolescents in terms of their contact with languages ​​through the media. The study uses Complex Dynamic Systems Theory to propose an integrated psycho-sociolinguistic multilingual system and demonstrate how the subcomponents of the system work together. The study participants are 152 obligatory secondary education (ESO) students in the province of Castellon. The instruments used are a questionnaire and a series of oral interviews. The results show that media contact in English and Catalan has a significant impact on language attitudes, characterized by complex interconnectivity and time sensitivity. In addition, adolescents show great agency in the creation and use of multilingual media environments and also a range of emotional and pragmatic reasons regarding their multilingual and multimodal practices

    Le professionnalisme des traducteurs et interprètes judiciaires "natifs" et "professionnels" : étude exploratoire et contrastive en France et en Espagne

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    La traducción y la interpretación judicial en Francia y en España están en vías de profesionalización. Las estructuras profesionales -formación, asociaciones, regulación estatal- contribuyen a esta transformación junto con una actitud favorable a este proceso por parte de los propios traductores e intérpretes: el profesionalismo. ! La bibliografía sobre cuestiones profesionales en los estudios en traducción e interpretación no presta suficiente atención a este concepto y otorga mayor importancia a la formación. Asimismo, la formación aparece como un criterio de diferenciación entre los traductores-intérpretes que poseen un título de traductor y/o intérprete -considerados “profesionales” y aquellos que han adquirido la competencia traductora mediante la práctica -considerados “nativos” (“naturales” o “no profesionales”).el desempeño de sus funciones, el deseo de mejorar las condiciones de trabajo y las referencias o fuentes de principios éticos. A partir de entrevistas se explora el grado de profesionalismo de traductores-interpretes judiciales “nativos” y “profesionales” que trabajan en Francia y en España. Los resultados demuestran que no es el grado de formación sino la interacción entre los agentes entrevistados y las estructuras profesionales lo que determina el profesionalismo en el campo de la traducción. France and Spain are in the process of professionalizing this field. Even now, professional structures like a formal education, organizations and state regulations are contributing to this transformation, as well as demonstrating a favorable attitude towards the professionalization from its practitioners. In other words, professionalism. ! We have noticed that translation studies do not have a notion of professionalism, but keep a central role in formal education, which in effect neglects its attitudinal aspects. Furthermore, a formal education becomes the differentiation distinguishing those who are certified in translation (qualified as “professionals”) from those who have acquired their translation skills through practicePrograma de Doctorat en Llengües Aplicades, Literatura i Traducci

    Espai i identitat en l'obra de Jordi Pere Cerdà. Una geografia literària cerdaniana

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    L'obra de l'autor nord-català Jordi Pere Cerdà (1920-2011) teixeix una cartografia literària que abasta tota dimensió espacial -real, imaginada i ficcional. Les prospeccions que assagen els seus texts es fonen en el medi natural i rural, canten a l'amor, als veïns i als éssers fantàstics del folklore català, es comprometen amb els refugiats encarant-se a tota frontera i, també, a tot abisme interior i exterior que oprimesca l'ésser. El mapatge cognitiu i literari que crea Cerdà sobrepassa qualsevol obstacle per construir espais oberts i possibles, en comunió amb l'altre. Partint d'una aproximació teòrica geocrítica, aquest treball d'investigació aprofundeix en diverses nocions sobre l'espacialitat lligades a un context convuls, ple de transformacions a nivell socioeconòmic, polític, cultural i lingüístic, el qual determinarà la vida d'un autor i d'un territori transfronterer com el de la Cerdanya i la Catalunya del Nord. En definitiva, la rica experiència vital de Jordi Pere Cerdà ens permet reflexionar sobre les relacions que vulguem establir entre els individus i amb el nostre hàbitat natural i cultural, a fi d'esdevenir membres actius que participen de la transformació dels espais que configuren les nostres identitats.The work of the North Catalan author Jordi Pere Cerdà (1920-2011) weaves a literary cartography which reaches all spatial dimensions -real, imagined and fictional. The prospections proved by their texts merge with the natural and rural environment, sing to love, neighbours and the fantastic beings of the Catalan folklore. Such prospections also commit themselves with the refugees facing every frontier and, also, facing all interior and exterior abyss that oppresses the being. The cognitive and literary mapping created by Cerdà overcomes any obstacle to construct opened and possible spaces, in communion with the other. Based on the theoretical approach called geocriticism, this research study delves into various notions about spatiality linked to a convulsive context, full of transformations at a socioeconomic, political, cultural and linguistic level; these transformations will determine the life of an author and a cross-border territory such as Cerdagne and Northern Catalonia. In short, the rich experience of Jordi Pere Cerdà allows us to reflect on the relationships we want to establish between individuals, as well as between human groups and our natural and cultural habitat, in order to become active members that participate in the transformation of the spaces that make up our identities.Programa de Doctorat en Llengües Aplicades, Literatura i Traducci

    Assessing similarities between spatial point patterns with a Siamese neural network discriminant model

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    Identifying structural differences among observed point patterns from several populations is of interest in several applications. We use deep convolutional neural networks and employ a Siamese framework to build a discriminant model for distinguishing structural differences between spatial point patterns. In a simulation study, and using a one-shot learning classification, we show that the Siamese network discriminant model outperforms the common dissimilarities based on intensity and K functions. The model is then used to analyze similarities between spatial point patterns of 130 species in a tropical rainforest study plot observed at different time instances. The simulation study and data analysis show the adequacy and generality of a Siamese network discriminant model in the classification of spatial point patterns

    C60 Thin Films in Perovskite Solar Cells: Efficient or Limiting Charge Transport Layer?

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    In this work, we identify the importance of C60 and compact-TiO2 (cTiO2) as electron transport layers on the device performance of coevaporated n–i–p perovskite solar cells. We found (1) a synergetic effect between both layers when extracting the charges and (2) that optimization of the C60 layer is essential for obtaining devices with enhanced device performance. In particular, we found that a C60 layer of an optimum thickness (20 nm), an additional charge transport resistance is observed by impedance analysis, indicating that devices with nonoptimized C60 thickness could limit the fabrication of highly efficient perovskite solar cells.N.K., C.M., A.O.A., and F.F.-S. thank the European Union′s Horizon 2020 research nos. 764787 and 763977. H.K. acknowledges the support of the H2020 program for Solar-ERANET funding of the BOBTANDEM (2019-2022) A.A.S. and C.I. acknowledge the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) funding through Synergia Grant EPISODE (grant no. CRSII5_171000). The authors thank the project German Research Foundation (DFG) (Projekt number 424101351)–Swiss National Foundation (SNF) (200021E_186390). A.O.A. and F.F.-S. acknowledge Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) from Spain under the project ENE2017-85087-C3-1-R and Generalitat Valenciana under the project PROMETEO/2020/028 for financial support

    ¿Es posible salir de la ciudad sin límites?

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    Resenya de: La destrucción de la ciudad. El mundo urbano en la culminación de los tiempos modernos. Juanma Agulles Martos. Los libros de la Catarata, Madrid, 2017

    The global impact of adverse childhood experiences on criminal behavior: A cross-continental study

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    Background Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have been associated with a greater risk of later criminal offending. However, existing research in this area has been primarily conducted in Western developed countries and cross-cultural studies are rare. Objectives This study examined the relationship between ACEs and criminal behaviors in young adults living in 10 countries located across five continents, after accounting for sex, age, and cross-national differences. Participants and setting In total, 3797 young adults aged between 18 and 20 years (M = 18.97; DP = 0.81) were assessed locally in community settings within the 10 countries. Method The ACE Questionnaire was used to assess maltreatment and household dysfunction during childhood and a subset of questions derived from the Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS) was used to determine past-year criminal variety pertaining to 10 acts considered crime across participating countries. Results Physical and sexual abuse, physical neglect, and household substance abuse were related to criminal variety, globally, and independently across sexes and countries ranked differently in the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). In addition, three out of five experiences of household dysfunction were related to criminal variety, but subsequent analyses indicate that some forms of household dysfunction only hold statistical significance among males or females, or in countries ranking lower in the HDI. Conclusions This research strengthens the finding that there are cross-cultural mechanisms perpetuating the cycle of violence. It also indicates that forms of household dysfunction have an impact on criminal behavior that is shaped by gender and the country's levels of social well-being
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