University of Fort Hare

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    Viability of government funded broiler production : lessons from Northern KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

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    Generally, rural areas continue to experience high poverty levels and low incomes, which seem to be occasioned by high unemployment rates, limited educational attainments, and devastating floods and droughts. This situation is further exacerbated by increase in crime rates, making livelihoods even more difficult. To mitigate such adverse situations, rural households employ diverse strategies, including maintaining community gardens, one-home-one-garden schemes, as well as livestock and poultry production. The most prevalent livelihood strategy in South Africa or KwaZulu-Natal is broiler production, since it needs less space and a short production cycle compared to other livestock or crop enterprises. At the same time, income is generated over a short period. Besides, the government of KwaZulu Natal has actively intervened in the sector as part of its broader poverty reduction strategy and farmer support programmes. In KwaZulu-Natal Province, the provincial government has been supporting broiler producers for many years. While substantial research work has been done in the province on livelihood strategies, including livestock production on a province-wide basis, there is no information about how successful the broiler production funded by the government has being. Broader concerns about production problems have not been assuaged based on systematic studies and evidence. It is this wise that this study was initiated. The objective is to assess the economic viability of government-funded small-scale broiler projects in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa and determine the implications for poverty reduction and food security. Data were collected from the government-funded small-scale broiler producers that are residing in Northern KwaZulu-Natal districts uThungulu, Zululand and uMkhanyakude. A total of 75 small-scale broiler projects 25 broiler projects in each district were selected by probability sampling procedure for the interviews. Questionnaires that combined both close-ended and open-ended questions were used to collect primary data, which include production and marketing, as well as the factors that influence the profitability of the small-scale broiler projects. After collection, data were captured and encoded on spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software version 26 and STATA for analyses. Descriptive statistics applied include frequencies and means. In addition, a gross margin (GM) and gross profit margin (GPM) analysis were employed to assess the profitability of government-funded small-scale broiler projects. Both profitability and gross margin analyses were used as proxies for farmers’ motivation and incentives to participate in broiler production. Further analyses were conducted to determine the model that best explains the underlying relationships. Initially, the Multiple Linear Regression Model was applied to determine the factors influencing the profitability of government-funded small-scale broiler projects. The indication was that while positive profits were revealed, the system seemed to fall short of its potential. In light of that, it was decided to fit another model to estimate the technical efficiency of the system and gain an understanding of the causes of any inefficiency that might exist in the production system. In that regard, the one-step Stochastic Frontier Model was employed to show that the technical efficiency of broiler production systems in the project area was positively and significantly influenced by flock size, the quantity of feeds and labour costs, while medication played no role possibly because of weak extension coverage. An inefficiency model fitted as part of the one-step model suggested that age, gender and educational level were significant influencers of technical inefficiency, with the possibility that the older the farmers, the more technically inefficient the system possibly because of the strenuousness of commercial poultry production. In addition, it was found that the more educated the farmer, the less inefficient the farm, which conversely means that the system becomes more efficient as the farmer receives more education. The negative coefficient of the gender variable also implies that for farms managed by female farmers, the system was less inefficient, which is more technically efficient, and this can be explained by women’s propensity to be more gentle, caring and sensitive in managing the chickens than their male counterparts. Heteroskedasticity tests and corrections were conducted in the one-step estimation technique to show that variations in the inefficiency term (μ) and the stochastic error term were explained by age and educational level for the most part. Clearly, improvements in the broiler industry in KwaZulu-Natal will depend to a large extent on the knowledge and experience of the farmers and substantial enlargement of the flock size of adequately fed birds. Attention to these elements is expected to have important practical implications for sustainable broiler poultry development and food security in the project area, as well as locations possessing identical features and characteristics.Thesis (MSci) -- Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 202

    Billing system, communication strategies, and organisation change in Zimbabwe: the case of telone customers’ postpaid to prepaid migration

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    This study investigated the effectiveness of the communication strategies used to implement the migration of telephone services from post-paid to prepaid billing at TelOne Zimbabwe. This study adopted the Freeman‟s stakeholder theory and the Lewin‟s change model to analyse the factors that influenced the effectiveness of the communication strategies used by TelOne before, during and after the change implementation as a way to communicate the initiative with its stakeholders. A qualitative approach was utilised and the key research methods used included document analysis, participant observation, as well as 21 face-to-face and 79 telephonic semi-structured interviews conducted with respondents from among TelOne managers, employees and the customers. The documents and respondents were purposively sampled based on the researcher‟s knowledge of their relevance in the study. The findings revealed several factors that mired effective change communication strategies such as company image, stakeholder recognition and communication centralisation. To curb these communication challenges, the study proposes Thrive organisational communication change model TOCC that encourages organisations to communicate the initiative to its relevant internal and external stakeholders considering their views and addressing factors that might hinder effective communication as a strategy to enhance successful change management.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 202

    Integration of digital media and pedagogy in the twenty first century classroom: a survey of selected high schools in Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    The essence of this thesis was to study the effectiveness of integrating digital media technologies within the pedagogical approaches adopted and implemented in private and public high schools in a comparative manner. The study looked closely at private and public high schools of the Eastern Cape Province, to study the gaps of accessibility to technology by schools. The study identified the Eastern Cape Province as having a problem of poor performance in matric results at the end of each year as compared to other South African provinces. In order to select the relevant sample for the study, the researcher has utilized two secondary schools private and public in Makhanda Grahamstown and one public secondary school in Alice. The pragmatic paradigm was used to inform the study and used the mixed methods approach to data collection. The researcher distributed closed ended questionnaires to the learners in the three selected secondary schools and semi-structured interviews for the principals of the schools. The key findings reveal that the digital media tools are used for the teaching and learning purposes as well as communication to the schools’ stakeholders. The findings also revealed that various online platforms are utilized for teaching and sharing of information. For example, D6 and Ibambisa School Communicator app, WhatsApp groups for learners, Facebook, Instagram and School website for potential stakeholders. Hence, the results of this study should contribute to the field of ICTs and education in the country to solve the problems facing the teaching and learning systems of private and public schools of the Eastern Cape. Most schools (especially the public) do not have access to digital media tools in their classrooms. Thus, they still depend heavily on the textbooks, which may be outdated or not enough for all learners. In response to the issues faced by the Eastern Cape secondary schools and the findings, the researcher has suggested a model named the Digital Media and Pedagogy Integration DMPI Model of Communication. This model will contribute to the body of knowledge by providing advice to the Department of Basic Education on how teachers and learners can utilize digital media tools effectively. Also, the study has recommended that there is a need for provision of computer literacy training for teachers in secondary schools in this digital age.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 202

    Investigation into response of wheat genotypes to drought and optimum conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Wheat is generally one of the dominant crops globally, being mainly used for human food and livestock feed. Due to climate change, drought makes it challenging to produce enough wheat mostly under dryland production regions in South Africa. Drought stress has severely reduced wheat yield by up to 70 percent, and adversely compromised wheat grain quality. The adoption of drought-tolerant cultivars offers a sustainable and low-cost solution for increasing wheat yields and minimise importing the crop to meet national requirements. The main objective of this study was to investigate the response of different wheat genotypes to drought and optimum conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Forty diverse wheat genotypes were evaluated in this study. The specific objectives were: (i) to evaluate the response of wheat genotypes under optimum and drought-stressed field conditions; (ii) to determine the effect of terminal drought stress on wheat grain quality composition; and (iii) to identify appropriate drought tolerance indices that can be used as selection tools under field conditions. This study was conducted in the field using a 5x8 alpha lattice design, replicated twice under two water regimes (drought and optimum) over two consecutive winter seasons of 2020 and 2021 at two different sites namely University of Fort Hare Research Farm in Alice, and Zanyokwe irrigation scheme in Keiskamahoek. Drought stress was imposed from 50% flowering up to physiological maturity. Data on agro-physiological traits such as duration to heading (DTH); flowering (DTF); maturity (DTM); plant height (HT); spike length (SL); number of spikelets per spike (SPS); kernels per spike (KPS); and grain yield (GY (kg/ha)) was subjected to the analysis of variance using Genstat 18th edition. As the study took place over two sites, a combined ANOVA table revealed significant differences (p0.001) among genotypes, and all interactions such as genotype by water regime (GWR); genotype by seasons (GS) for all studied traits. Notably, the extent and severity of drought differed between geographical regions and between seasons. This necessitated the adoption of the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis (AMMI) for the identification of stable genotypes under two different water regimes over two sites. Regarding grain yield, superior and/or stable genotypes included G5 (4334 kg/ha under optimum, and 2871kg/ha under drought), and G22 (4418 kg/ha under optimum, and 2624kg/ha under drought) at the UFH site. G21 (3194 kg/ha under optimum, and 2938 kg/ha under drought), G33 (2552kg/ha under optimum, and 3810 kg/ha under drought), and G35 (2688 kg/ha under optimum, and 3309 kg/ha under drought) at the ZAN site. Stable genotypes across sites included G21 and G33. There were generally weak correlations between agro-physiological traits and grain yield. From the experiment, grain quality traits such as fixed protein (PF); wet gluten (WG); hectolitre mass (HLM); and thousand kernel weight (TKW) were also examined. A combined ANOVA revealed significant differences (p0.001) among the interaction of genotypes by environments (GE) for all traits except PF. This implies that the performance of wheat genotypes across sites was also different, and therefore, necessitated separate analysis of variance for each site. Significant differences (p0.001) among genotypes (G), water regimes (WR), and the interaction of genotypes by water regime (GWR) were observed for all studied quality traits except PF in both sites. GWR showed no significant differences for TKW in the ZAN site. The stability in the performance of genotypes across water regimes was further determined. G38 was stable for wet gluten; G31 and G26 were stable for PF; G36 was stable for HLM; and G11, G15, and G29 were stable for TKW at the UFH site. G6 was stable for both WG and PF; G13 and G15 were stable for HLM; and G35, G21, and G40 were stable for TKW at the ZAN site. These results suggest that the quality of wheat grains was affected under drought stress conditions except PF. Average grain yield data under both stressed (Ys) and optimum (Yp) conditions was used to compute a number of different drought tolerance indices. These include mean productivity (MP); geometric mean productivity (GMP); harmonic mean (HM); Tolerance index (TOL), stress susceptible index (SSI), sensitive drought index (SDI), and stress tolerance index (STI). The aim was to identify appropriate drought tolerance indices that can be used as selection tools under drought stress. MP, GMP, and HM were the more appropriate indices as they had a strong and positive correlation with grain yield under both drought and optimum conditions. However, genotypes G5, G22, G8, and G21 were more tolerant and stable as they showed high mean values. Based on the results, G19, G16, G2, and G20 were more sensitive to drought as they showed low values of MP, GMP, and HM. Overall, genotype: G5, G21, G22, and G33 are recommended for production under drought and optimum conditions, as they showed stable performance across water regimes. Principal component analysis also revealed that MP, GMP, and HM were the only indices that had positive loadings into the first principal component.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 202

    An investigation into the effect of dietary protein and fishmeal replacement in juvenile Yellowtail, seriola lalandi (pisces: carangidae) in a recirculating aquaculture system

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    The yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi, is a carnivorous species, which require high levels 40 Percent of protein in its diet of which a significant portion comes from fishmeal. Fishmeal is usually the main ingredient when formulating a diet for carnivorous fish because of its high protein content, good digestibility and balanced essential amino acid profile. The use of fishmeal in diet formulations has decreased because of high prices and short supply. Aquaculturists have little alternative but to reduce the amount used or replace it with alternative suitable protein sources. This study aimed to contribute to the optimization of protein requirements and fishmeal replacement in the diet of juvenile yellowtail in a Recirculating Aquaculture System RAS. This study was conducted at the marine finfish farm, Kingfish Enterprises Pty Ltd in the East London Industrial Development Zone ELIDZ in a purpose designed RAS. The first experiment investigated the effect of dietary protein level on survival, growth, food conversion ratio FCR and health of juvenile yellowtail in a RAS. Four iso-calorific diets containing different dietary protein levels 38 Percent , 44 Percent , 50 Percent and 56 Percent were formulated. Each diet was fed to three RAS tanks holding juvenile yellowtail 30 fish per tank for 49 days. Dietary protein levels did not influence survival of juvenile yellowtail. Specific growth rate SGR p equal 0.003) was greater in fish fed 56 Percent protein compared to fish fed 38 Percent protein but there were no differences between the 56 Percent , 50 Percent and 44 Percent protein diets. There were no differences in protein efficiency ratio PER between the four diets. FCR decreased with increasing protein level with fish being fed the 56 Percent protein yielding the lowest FCR 1.26 compared to fish fed 38 Percent protein 1.76 p equal 0.003, however, there was no difference between the 44 Percent , 50 Percent and 56 Percent protein levels. The hepatocytes of fish fed high dietary lipid content diet with 38 Percent and 44 Percent protein showed large lipid vacuole zones in the cytoplasm p greater 0.001. Body protein, ash, moisture, and lipid was not affected by different dietary protein levels. In terms of producing a diet with best growth at the lowest cost, a 44 Percent protein diet is considered as optimal for juvenile yellowtail in RAS. The second experiment investigated the effect of partial and full replacement of fishmeal with a mixture of alternative protein sources chicken meal, blood meal, and soybean meal in equal proportions that are more sustainable and less costly. Four experimental diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous 44 Percent protein and iso-calorific 19.50 Mg/Kg as follows: 1 a control diet with fishmeal as the only protein source which was the same formulation as the 44 Percent diet used in the first experiment, 2 control diet in which 33 Percent of fishmeal was replaced with the protein mixture, 3 control diet in which 67 Percent of fishmeal was replaced with the protein mixture and 4 control diet in which 100 Percent of fishmeal was replaced with the protein mixture. Different fishmeal levels in the diets did not have an effect on the survival on juvenile yellowtail. Specific growth rate SGR was greater for fish fed 67 and 100 Percent fishmeal p equal 0.017 compared to fish fed 0 Percent fishmeal. There were, however, no differences in SGR between fish fed 33, 67, and 100 Percent fishmeal. Condition factor CF was significantly affected by the interaction between dietary treatment and time with average values lower at the end of experiment compared to the start of the experiment. On day 28 p equal 0.02 and 49 p equal 0.01, CF of fish fed 67 and 100 Percent fishmeal diet differed significantly from those fed the 0 Percent fishmeal diet but 33, 67, and 100 Percent fishmeal diets did not differ from each other . Feed conversion ratio FCR was significantly affected by fishmeal replacement with fish on fishmeal-containing diets showing lower FCRs compared to those on fishmeal-free diets p equal 0.001. Fish fed diets containing 67 and 100 Percent fishmeal had low PER 0.026 compared to fish fed 0 Percent fishmeal. There were, however, no differences in PER between fish fed 33, 67, and 100 Percent fishmeal. Hepatosomatic index HSI was not affected by levels of fishmeal replacement in the diet. Body protein, ash, moisture, and lipid was not affected by partial and full replacement of fishmeal. The results indicate that full replacement of fishmeal 0 Percent diet had the worst SGR, FCR, and PER. The remaining three diets were statistically similar which suggests that a diet with 33 Percent fishmeal produces as good growth, FCR and PER as 67 and 100 Percent fishmeal diets. However, as there were also similarities in SGR and PER for the 0 and 33 Percent fishmeal diets, it is therefore recommended that future studies focus on the region between 33-67 Percent to find the optimal break point for the various growth indicators. This study has provided foundation for the formulation of yellowtail kingfish diet which is suitable for use in a RAS.Thesis (MSci) -- Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 202

    The effect of the anaesthetics 1 Clove oil and MS-222 on the sedation, recovery, survival, population growth and fecundity of the calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus hessei Copepoda Calanoida under culture conditions.

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    Compared to current live food organisms used in aquaculture, the calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus hessei is smaller and has a superior nutritional value. However, due to their fast and erratic movements, manipulating and counting this species for aquaculture research purposes is difficult. For easier manipulation it is therefore necessary to sedate the copepods. The study aimed to determine the effect of two anaesthetics on sedation, recovery, survival, population growth and fecundity of the calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus hessei, under culture conditions. Male and female P. hessei were exposed to the anaesthetics clove oil and Tricaine Methane sulfonate (MS-222). Twelve replicates of five copepods each were exposedto clove oil at 100, 150 and 200 μL/L, and to MS-222 at 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 mg/Lwith the number of fully sedated copepods being recorded. clove oil sedation only occurredafter 5:23±1:25 minutes in the 100 μL/L treatment while copepods exposed to 150 and200μL/L were anaesthetized within 2:48±0:46 and 0:40±0:07 minutes respectively. Sedation did not occur in MS-222 at concentrations of 300 and 600 mg/L while at 900 mg/L all copepodswere sedated within 4:19±0:41 minutes. Only copepods exposed to 1200 and 1500 mg/L were all fully sedated within 2:26±1:46 and 1:23±0:37 minutes respectively. Clove oil recovery onlyoccurred at 4:40±1:32 minutes in the 100 μL/L treatment while copepods exposed to 150 and200 μL/L recovered at 8:30±1:46 and 12:12±0:59 minutes, respectively. In this study, all MS- 222 treatments showed full recovery at 1:07±0:41 to 1:11±0:41 minutes with 100% survivalrate. The growth development FPN (Final Population Number) for Clove oil, MS-222 and control were not different from the control indicating that exposure to the anaesthetic had no effect on their long-term survival (21 days). The mean clutch size of 34±5 eggs per sac was high compared to other studies on the species. Based on these findings the 150 μL/L Clove oiland 1200 mg/L MS-222 concentrations were the lowest doses of each anaesthetic to induce full sedation within 3 minutes followed by rapid recovery 87 within three minutes without it affecting its short (24 hours) and long-term survival, population growth and fecundity. Basedon sedation and recovery rates, effect on survival, fecundity and growth as well as cost and ease use, the 1200 mg/L MS-222 concentration is the recommended to safely anaesthetize P. hessei.Thesis (MSci) -- Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 202

    The Training of pre-service science teachers in the integration of Information and Communication Technology integration in Science teaching: A case of two colleges of education in The Volta Region of Ghana

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    The study was carried out to investigate the training of pre-service Science teachers in the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Science teaching at two colleges of education in the Volta region of Ghana. The study aimed to recommend a framework that can be used to enhance the training in ICT integration competencies of pre-service Science teachers at colleges of education in the country. The study was underpinned by two theoretical frameworks: Rogan and Grayson’s curriculum implementation framework and Guzman and Nussbaum’s ICT integration framework and was located within the interpretive paradigm. The qualitative research approach was adopted to generate data on the types of ICT integration competences that pre-service Science teachers are trained in, the pedagogical strategies used, the support provided, and the challenges faced during the training. The study adopted the explanatory case study design. Convenience and purposive sampling were used to select the study sites and participants respectively, which consisted of two teacher education colleges, two heads of Science department, ten lecturers, and 20 pre-service Science teachers. The study’s data collection methods were semi-structured face-to-face interviews with the lecturers, focus group discussions with the pre-service Science teachers, non-participatory lesson observation, and document analysis. The data was analysed using thematic approach. The study established that pre-service Science teachers at the two colleges received training in mastering the usage of ICT tools, relating ICT to teaching; using ICT for assessment and providing feedback, creating an appropriate environment for ICT integration, and developing positive attitudes toward ICT usage. The study revealed the pedagogical strategies used for training the pre-service Science teachers in ICT integration competencies to include a standalone ICT course, demonstration, group work, self-learning and how assessment is carried out. The study also established that there was support from both within and without the college environment in training pre-service Science teachers, although this was inadequate. The major challenges found by the study to be hindering effective pre-service teacher training in ICT integration competencies were lack of technical know-how among lecturers, poor pre-service Science teachers’ backgrounds in ICT, inadequate ICT resources and infrastructure, prolonged organisational and management bureaucracy, and insufficient funding of ICT. The recommendations made included the need for upgrading infrastructure in the colleges while also upgrading lecturers’ competencies in handling ICT in the colleges. An alternative training framework for preparing pre-service Science teachers in ICT integration competencies was also proposed.Thesis (MEd) -- Faculty of Education, 202

    Evaluation of water and sanitation challenges in informal settlements: a case study of Duncan Village, East London, South Africa

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    Water and sanitation are basic human needs. It is also a constitutional right for all citizens in South Africa to have access to both water and sanitation. Supply of water and sanitation services in South Africa is characterised by both achievements and challenges. As informed by literature, in South Africa it is evident that water and sanitation still hold many challenges in poor communities, particularly in informal settlements. This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating water and sanitation challenges in the informal settlements of Duncan Village and make recommendations, where applicable, to the local municipality for possible remedies. Despite the provision of water and sanitation by the Buffalo City Metro Municipality, the study reveals that there are serious water and sanitation challenges in Duncan Village. High water losses, illegal water connections, illegal sanitation connections causing sewer spillages, vandalism of both water and sanitation service infrastructure, and lack of operations and maintenance are identified as the key water and sanitation challenges. According to the findings, the causes of these challenges include the municipality's lack of proper planning for informal settlements; lack of visibility of municipal water and sanitation officials in informal settlements; lack of awareness; lack of public participation; overpopulation; lack of monitoring; and lack of operations and maintenance budget to help keep the provided facilities intact and usable. The study's key recommendations include intense involvement of the municipality and the ward councillors, ownership by the residents, monitoring of water and sanitation facilities, operations and maintenance, and formalising Duncan Village informal settlements. This was accomplished using questionnaires to gather, analyse, and interpret the collected data. The study targeted residents, ward councillors, and a municipal officer from the municipality's Water and Sanitation section as respondentsThesis (MSci) -- Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 202

    Evaluation of spatial distribution and health risk of pesticide residues in the environmental matrices of buffalo river estuary and their removal using nanosponges and modified cyclodextrins

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    The contamination of lotic ecosystems caused by agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic activities has attracted the attention of researchers, authorities, and scientists because these waterbodies are of social and economic importance to human livelihoods. Pesticides and insecticides are a group of compounds that are toxic to pests and insects, respectively. Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) can be released into different environmental matrices through several sources including agricultural and urban runoff. They are one of the three main classes of synthetic organic pesticides that are used in agricultural sector and very often end up in other destinations than their target sites. In this study, four OPs, namely, ronnel, malathion, parathion and Durban were investigated. The Buffalo River Estuary, located in East London, is one of most popular areas and the river is a major source of raw water abstraction for three municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Sediment samples were collected from six points in the estuary and soil samples were taken from a nearby dumpsite in winter and spring seasons of 2021. The physicochemical parameters of the samples including particle size, moisture content, oil and grease and organic carbon were determined. The samples were then extracted by ultra-sonication, the final extracts were analyzed using GC-μECD and the risk quotient (RQ) method was used to evaluate the risk of OP exposure to aquatic organisms. Polymer modified cyclodextrin (β-CD) for the removal of parathion in sediment and soil was synthesized and the morphology of the modified β-CD and vibrations of the synthesized material were determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the OPs investigated were in the range of 0.09 to 2.99 and 0.274 to 9.06 μg/L, respectively. OPs gave a good recovery except for malathion, which had a recovery percentage lower than 70%. Calibration curves were plotted for the four OPs and were linear with relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 1.02 to 3.50, and correlation coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.9935 to 0.9972. The mean concentrations for sediments and soil in both seasons varied from 0.00231 to 63.8 μg/g in winter and from 0.0017 to 36.6 μg/g in spring, with malathion being the predominant congener and dursban being the least dominant in both seasons. In winter, the particle size percentages of the sediment and soil samples ranged from 34.4 to 79.4 percentage, 15.4 to 23.9 percentage and from 7.77 to 38.3 percentage for coarse, medium, and fine fractions, respectively. While in spring, the particle size for the course, medium and fine mesh fractions ranged from 37.4 to 74.6 percentage, 14.1 to 25.1 percentage and 12.4 to 35.0 percentage respectively; the percentage moisture content varied from 43.0 to 73.1 in winter, and from 57.1 to 63.4 in spring. In the soil samples, the physicochemical properties were lower in winter except for the n- hexane extractable material (HEM), which significantly decreased in spring from 2.6 to 1.63 mg/kg; while for sediments, the oil and grease ranged from 1.77 to 10.3 mg/kg in winter and from 1.63 to 4.28 mg/kg in spring. The risk quotient method was used to determine the risk of OP exposure to sediment-dwelling organisms and the results obtained indicated that the levels of OPs in this study, especially dursban, can pose a high risk to the organisms in sediments, with RQs higher than ten (˃10) in both winter and summer. The Pearson product-moment correlation showed that parathion had a weak correlation with every other variable except for malathion in winter, whereas in spring, parathion correlated very weakly with malathion; suggesting that products containing parathion are mostly used to control pests found in crops, such as corn and mosquitos, which are most active in the spring season. There was a very strong correlation between dursban and ronnel in spring and winter, implying that an increase in dursban concentration resulted in an increase in the concentration of ronnel. To determine the efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent CD-chitosan-alginate for the removal of Parathion from soil and sediment, different parameters such as concentration, time, pH and dose were varied. The adsorption capacity was found to be highest at pH 2 (99.19 percentage), when 3 mL of the adsorbent was used for 30 minutes.Thesis (Msci) -- Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 202

    An assessment of youth empowerment programmes and job creation opportunities: a case of Mhlontlo Local Municipality

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    Youth unemployment is a major policy concern in South Africa. This study aimed to assess youth programmes and job creation opportunities in Mhlontlo Local Municipality. This study intended to: 1. Examine the context, purpose, objectives, assumptions and claims of the national youth empowerment policy on job creation, 2. To assess the implementation of the youth empowerment programs in Mhlontlo Local Municipality for improved job creation, and lastly 3. To provide suitable recommendations on improving youth empowerment programmes and job creation in Mhlontlo Local Municipality. This study adopted a qualitative research design, that included and adapted the use of semi structured interviews and focus groups discussions in the context of COVID 19 regulations. The key findings from the analysis of data included the following – • The Mhlontlo Local Municipality has not developed its own local youth development and empowerment policy. • The design limitations in the theory of change of the National Youth Policy negatively affected the implementation of youth programmes in Mhlontlo Municipality • Mhlontlo Local Municipality’s implementation of youth programme failed to achieve its outcomes of creating a sustainable employment for youth. • There was distinct difference between the espoused views of municipal managers and actual experience of implementation of youth programmes the Mhlontlo Local Municipality that impacted negatively on the implementation of the youth development programme. • Their leadership buy-in and championship for youth development in Mhlontlo Local Municipality from selected managers in the municipality and but not from the political office. • There was lack of transparency and communication mechanisms by Mhlontlo Local Municipality the for-youth participation and engagement with of all stakeholders in decision making.Thesis (MPA) -- Faculty of Management and Commerce, 202

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