Nelson Mandela University

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    3005 research outputs found

    The use of Police force in crowd management

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    South Africa has a violent and oppressive past. They are various historical incidents1 of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the previous apartheid regime. Much of the modern South African democratic state was forged by protests. During the 1970s and 80s, the legislator by passing unjust laws was used to assist the government to maintain the oppression of the people of South Africa. From the Soweto uprising in the 1970s to the current service delivery protests of the 21st century, gatherings have always had the potential for deadly violence. The motivation for this research started with the emotions evoked by the iconic picture of the body of Hector Pietersen2 being carried after being shot by the police. Strikingly the images of the killing by the police of Andries Tatane conjured further questions concerning the use of deadly force within crowd management situations. The research undertook an analysis of the use of force by the police during crowd management situations. A brief analysis of South African law relating to the use of force by the police prior to 1996 is provided. There are legislative prescripts for the use of force during the maintenance of public order. It must be noted that the legislation falls short on providing clear, concise authority for the use of deadly force. Normally, the use of force by the police and civilians for the purpose of arrest is regulated by the Criminal Procedure Act3 , whereas the Regulation of Gatherings Act4 providing the authority for the use of force by the police in crowd management situations to preserve public order. At first glance, section 49 of the CPA seems to validate arguments that it violates some constitutionally protected rights, among which are the right to dignity, life, to freedom and security of the person, against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and to a fair trial, which includes the right to be presumed innocent. Section 49 however, withstood Constitutional muster as set out in Re: S v Walters & another. As the right to life is a non derogable right.5 The limitation of this right may lead to constitutional scrutiny. The emphasis will thus be on ensuring that the balance with regards to proportionality in the use of deadly force is maintained. During the research it became apparent that the police, especially during crowd management situations, served political interests.6 This had the unintended consequence that the laws were applied to suit the political narrative and not the rule of law. The use of force in the policing arena is controversial. It is very clear that any misuse of force in crowd management situations will evoke the historical wounds associated with apartheid. However, within crowd management, the use of force and the authority to use deadly force is absolutely necessary. The Marikana massacre was used to highlight the mistakes that police have made during inappropriate use of force and its catastrophic consequences.7 It was observed that the legislative framework concerning the use of force, whether under section 49 of the CPA or section 9 of the RGA, is incoherent and too complex. The research argues for simplicity and accuracy within policy and applicable legislative alignment. The linkages from the applicable legislation to the institutional policies should never be outdated or incorrectly formulated. The violent rhetoric from politicians such as ex-president Jacob Zuma, 8 Minister Fikile Mbalula 9 and Bheki Cele10 fuels the argument that the police are susceptible to misdirected notions and may cause the police act unlawfully. The Constitution requires the police to “enforce the law”11 and as such there is an obligation on the police to do this within the constitutional parameters. The correct use of deadly force will only be achieved if the SAPS adequately resource, train and regularly refresh their members regarding the use of force when policing protests.Thesis (LLM -- Faculty of Law, School of Criminal and Procedural Law, 202

    Collective entrepreneurship and economic development in MALAWI: A case study of Blantyre City

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    Entrepreneurship is one of the corner stones of poverty alleviation as it is a tool for economic growth. As Malawi’s SME sector comprising entrepreneurs is facing challenges such as lack of access to finance, and high business operating costs, collective entrepreneurship has been found to be a possible solution. Collective entrepreneurship occurs when individual’s resources and skills are incorporated into a group so that the innovation process and accessing marketing resources is made easier compared to individual effort. The collective ability of individuals and organisations is important in developing countries as it enables the use of the community as a means of targeting business opportunities and hence promoting growth of the economy. This study’s purpose was to assess the potential of collective entrepreneurship in enhancing economic development in Malawi. Specifically, the study aimed to investigate the youths’ attitudes towards collective entrepreneurship, examine the potential of collective entrepreneurship to empower the youth economically, explore ways of engaging the youth in collective entrepreneurship programmes and identify strategies that could be used to promote economic development by the youth through collective entrepreneurship. The study focused on the youth to increase their empowerment economically, as this element was previously not critically examined. Furthermore, this study was based on the fact that not much research has been conducted in Malawi to guide an entrepreneurship development strategy. The study’s participants were from Blantyre City townships. A survey method was adopted, targeting a population of 90 respondents. Data was collected using 40 questionnaires, 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. Data was analysed using software packages such as Rev, Microsoft Excel and SPSS. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the youth are ready to participate in collective entrepreneurship ventures as they can potentially empower them economically. The study found ways of engaging the youth in collective entrepreneurship programmes, which included financial institutions such as banks providing timely tailored financing options and engaging responsively with youth. The study identified strategies that could be used to promote economic development by means of collective entrepreneurship including universities supporting young entrepreneurs through courses on collective vii entrepreneurship, and the hosting of incubator and accelerator programmes. The study made several recommendations which among them was targeting the youth in the formation of collective entrepreneurship programmes, developing policies that embrace key success factors for collective entrepreneurship and promoting entities that can foster collective entrepreneurship.Thesis (MA) -- Faculty of Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, 202

    South African plantation forest nursery pesticide -use: current status, pesticide identification for management, and screening of fungicides for pathogen control

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    Forest nurseries are exposed to many challenges during the production of plant material, with pests and pathogens two of the most important. Management of pests and diseases require the use of multiple methods, including cultural, biological, and chemical control strategies in an integrated nursery pest management plan (IPM). In most nurseries, where hygiene practices and biological controls do not prevent the presence of pests and pathogens, they are managed through the use of pesticides. Forestry companies are regulated by both Government and Forestry Certification bodies. These include South African legislation pertaining to pesticides regulated by the Registrar Act 36 of 1947, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). A limited number of pesticides, with an even more limited range of active ingredients, and not targeting all known plantation forestry pests/pathogens, are currently registered for use against pests and pathogens in plantation forestry in South Africa. Many of these have been in use for more than a decade, posing a serious risk in terms of resistance build-up. There is a major need for the identification and testing of additional/alternative products (biological natural or synthetic) for use against the range of pests and pathogens that occur on the various plantation tree species and hybrid combinations that are raised in nurseries.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science, School of Natural Resource Science & Management, 202

    A risk management model for commercial property development and investment in Ghana

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    Commercial property development and investment provide many benefits to individuals and governments around the globe; these include the generation of income for investors, employment, tax revenues, and contributions to a country‘s GDP. Yet commercial property development and investment projects involve construction, economic and management risks. A lack of effective risk assessment and management tools may lead to developers and investors incurring losses. To curtail such losses, this study sought to create a credible management model that can be used to assess and manage risks in Ghana‘s commercial property development and investment industry. An extensive literature review was done, covering all 12 identified study constructs: real estate trends and cycle, construction project management, outside advice/mentorship, spatial development, strategic factors, business management skills, PMBOK, PESTEL analysis, general management skills, governance structures, financial feasibility, professional feasibility, and risk management. Each construct was defined and operationalised. A positivistic philosophical approach was used, and quantitative approach was used to solicit data from the main respondents through the distribution of questionnaires to the target population sample. CB-SEM and SPSS version 24 were used to analyse data, SEM to test the positive relationships hypothesised between the identified variables and SPSS to analyse the demographic data. The major findings are that there is a lack of financial and professional feasibility analysis among respondents along the following factors: the PMBOK, real estate trends and cycles, general management, business management, strategic factors, spatial development, and PESTEL analysis. It was found that these factors have positive and favourable influences on CPDI projects. The study recommends that developers and investors do financial and professional feasibility studies before they embark on projects. This could improve project viability in commercial property development and investment. The study has contributed to the body of knowledge in CPDI sector by developing a new risk assessment/risk management model.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Engineering Built Environment and Technology, School of the built Environment, 202

    Changing anthropocentric ideology through a children’s storybook, tales of the Turtle

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    This research study aims to produce ‘ecological art’ in the form of a children’s wordless picture book, that can be distributed to many schools in South Africa, bringing awareness to ocean conservation and the effects of the environmental crisis. To do this, a theoretical study has been conducted, synthesising numerous theoretical frameworks, to gather information to create an appropriate children’s picture book. The study first considers environmental philosophy, such as that presented by Spinoza and Naess for instance. At this point, focus also falls on how prevailing societal practices, spurred on by neoliberal capitalism, prevents caring approaches to nature. Then, there is also a scientific side to the study. Research on the Benguela and Agulhas currents of South Africa are offered, as an entry point to seeing how and what is being affected by climate change, also looking at the aquatic animals and their fates. Additionally, an analysis is made regarding representation of different types of megafaunas through forms of media throughout the ages, which helps with selecting which charismatic animals to feature in Tales of the Turtle. Thereafter, research is laid out regarding the relationship between westernised and indigenous teaching approaches. Here specific focus falls on Kenneth Mlungisi Ngcoza’s ‘third space’ and Helio Manuel García-Campos’s ‘interdisciplinary space.’ Finally, the design and illustrative techniques, such as the rule of thirds, line strength, and colour contrasts, are observed to produce an appropriate wordless picture book. South Africans’ relationships with books, access to books, and the relationships that South Africans have with westernised teaching, were also taken into consideration. The overall study is capped by the actual children’s storybook, Tales of the Turtle.Thesis (MA) -- Faculty of Humanities, School of Music, Art and Design, 202

    Assessing the impact of COVID-19 on South African organisation’s way of working: A Black Management Forum Perspective

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    The aim of this study was to examine impact of Covid-19 on organisation’s work environment in South Africa, based on Black Management Forum’s views. The outbreak of Covid-19 led to disruption on organisation’s ways of working, this was due to lockdown rules and regulations, restrictions imposed by Government to curb the spread of the virus. The study used quantitative method approach; online survey questionnaire was distributed to recruited Black Management Forum (BMF) members who were willing to voluntarily participate via an email and WhatsApp platform. These members were sampled using convenience and snowball non-probability sampling techniques. The concepts of the study were scientifically hypothesised to determine whether such associations exist within the context of the work environment and productivity within the different corporate sector of industries in South Africa. The study findings confirmed that most organisations were impacted, and they changed their ways of work by implementing mostly work partly from home (WPFH) hybrid work model. The study findings also revealed that, workload was more during the pandemic than before, as results of changed work environment. Other finding from the study indicated that most employees adapted well to changes, understood the need for change and they performed well. Most employees also felt more productive and well supported and respected by managers. Service sectors were more impacted than other sectors and they showed more productivity as well. Most respondents felt that the adopted ways of working would remain post-pandemic and that they prefer this hybrid model of working because it gave them an opportunity to manage their own time. vii The research is significant as it critically examined how a pandemic can create organisational changes and the extent to which organisations must adjust. The research also provides policy recommendations that could assist corporate organisations in adopting new ways of working.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, 202

    A Literacy Project with community members: Designing translanguaging storybooks for a multilingual community

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    The purpose of this study was to establish a community-based literacy project that would design translingual storybooks accessible to all children and community members in terms of language, contextual relevance, and age appropriateness for a rural community in the Eastern Cape. Although multiple studies have been done worldwide, more research was needed on the impact community members thought it could have in South African society. This study's theoretical framework was drawn from Cen Williams's (1980) translanguaging. Williams (1980) viewed translanguaging as receiving information in one language (input) and relaying it in another language (output) to expand the competency of the two languages as well as ensure that deeper learning takes place (Wright & Baker, 2017). Translanguaging has evolved throughout the centuries. García and Wei (2014) describe it as a single repertoire that is being used since students integrate their languages and create a new language that they use to function in the world. A qualitative approach was used to answer the research question: "How can a translingual pedagogy enhance communicative repertories in designing community translingual storybooks?" A CPAR design was used to answer the research questions. Through workshops, focus groups, storyboards, and draw-and-talk, the researcher aimed to discover how a translingual pedagogy could enhance communicative repertoires by designing translingual storybooks. Lincoln and Guba's (1985) model of trustworthiness was used to guarantee trustworthiness by concentrating on credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability, and reflexivity. Three main themes materialised from the data: using the mother tongue, isiXhosa, foundation to improve additional languages, interactive and structure-based strategies, and assets and drawbacks while creating resources with community members. The findings of this study indicated that multiple community members sometimes used their mother tongue to aid in the development of understanding additional languages, English and Afrikaans. They needed to learn the crucial roles they played in students' language development since they were the ones that could make those vital connections. The research participants needed an idea of the methods that could be used to design their translingual storybooks. They indicated that they wanted to work with other community members and wanted steps to follow to design these storybooks. The researcher had to present them with ideas of methods that fit their needs. The researcher knew that every study has assets and drawbacks depending on their view, the study's iii aims and goals, and the research question. It was found that the assets outweighed the drawbacks since the participants were an eager group of individuals. The research participants in this study come with a wide variety of knowledge about the needs of their community based on their experiences. They all have different job descriptions, but what brings them together is their desire to improve the community reading resources to improve their linguistic knowledge. The research participants designed the translingual storybooks at home and shared the data via WhatsApp.Thesis (MEd) -- Faculty of Education, School for initial Teacher Education, 202

    A Protection of Personal Information Act Compliance Framework for the City of Tshwane’s Fresh Produce Market.

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    The Protection of Personal Information Act of 2013 (POPIA) is a law drafted to regulate the processing of personal information in South Africa. Its provisions include but are not limited to the usage of personal information for marketing purposes. While it was announced that enforcement of the law would commence in July 2021, many organisations are still in the process of reorganising themselves to comply with this important piece of legislation. Although the Information Regulator’s guideline document is available for utilization, organisations are struggling to develop POPIA compliance frameworks tailored to their operational requirements. As stated in section 6.2.1 of the Information Regulator’s guideline document, the act calls for the appointment of the an Information Officer by organisations who is required to develop, implement, monitor and maintain a POPIA compliance, framework. With that stated, this study aims to reports about developing a POPIA compliance framework for the City of Tshwane’s Fresh Produce Market. The study’s primary objective was to develop a POPIA compliance framework for the City of Tshwane’s Fresh Produce Market (TFPM) as a collector and processor of personal information. The study had three sub-objectives which were achieved using three research methods, namely literature review, content analysis and semi-structured interviews. Through a literature review, conditions that should be adhered to in relation to collecting and processing personal information were identified. Shifting the focus to the second sub-objective, a vigorous content analysis was performed to investigate the TFPM’s current method of collecting and processing personal information. The process involved evaluating the TFPM’s SOPs, Service Level Agreement, License Agreement, and the city of Tshwane’s Information Communication Technology Framework using the Nexia POPIA checklist. The evaluation results revealed a huge non-compliance gap with regard iii to POPIA and personal information conditions. Post development of the POPIA framework the study embarked on an expert review process with the top management of the TFPM to assess their view on the developed POPIA compliance framework.Thesis (MPhil) -- Faculty of Engineering, the Built Environment and Technology, School of Information Technology, 202

    The influence of site characteristics on growth and wood properties of Pinus radiata and Pinus elliottii in the Southern and Eastern Cape forestry regions of South Africa

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    The intensive nature of plantation forestry in South Africa requires efficiency and financial viability in production systems, amidst a complex growing environment subjected to changing macro-climatic patterns. The success of plantation forestry operations depends, amongst others, on our understanding of tree growth and wood formation patterns in response to variable growing conditions in both space and time. This study was conducted on the two most commonly used species in the southern and Eastern Cape forestry regions, i.e., Pinus radiata and P. elliottii. The region is regarded as highly suitable for plantation forestry in terms of climatic conditions, but soil characteristics pose several challenges due to nutritional disorders and poor drainage. The study focused on investigating the influence of both soil and climatic conditions on the growth and Wood Density properties of the two species, and to establish functional relationships where possible. The two species showed comparable growth rates at the reference age of 13 years on the range of sites sampled in the study area. An analysis of variance showed greater differences in Site Index between than within sample plots, pointing towards the possible influence of site on growth variation. Correlations between climatic variables and the growth of both species were generally weak and contradictory. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. It is proposed that the general favourable climatic profile of the region and hydromorphic nature of soils reduce the chances of significant correlations between variables influencing moisture availability and tree growth. The analysis of correlations between soil parameters and tree growth revealed some influence of soil organic C and Na on the growth of P. elliottii. This is discussed in terms of our understanding of the influence of soil parent material and soil ecology. The absence of any correlations between soil chemical parameters and the growth of P. radiata was conspicuous. This is in contradiction with earlier studies on the species in the region and can possibly be explained in terms of the site-specific fertilizing policy of the industry, as well as the less diverse range of sites sampled than in the past, which can mask or reduce nutrient limitations for tree growth. However, P. radiata did show a high level of sensitivity towards effective soil depth. Site-quality prediction models are proposed for the two species, but with variable application value due to the limited options of significant control variables that can be considered for inclusion in the models.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science, School of Natural Resource Science and Management, 202

    The effect of operations and management on the reliability of rural water supply maintenance at Amathole District Municipality

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    The growing population in South Africa’s rural municipalities, coupled with industrial expansion, continue to exert pressure on the available water resources. While service delivery demands are becoming a serious concern among residents in various municipalities, local governments need to improve the supply of essentials, such as water. This study examines water scantiness in the rural side of the Amathole District Municipality (ADM), with a prime focus on the water distribution and maintenance system.Thesis (MA) -- Faculty of business and economic sciences, 202

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