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    5492 research outputs found

    Intraoral administration of probiotics and postbiotics: An overview of microorganisms and formulation strategies

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    The last decade provided significant advances in the understanding of microbiota and its role in human health. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven benefits for the host and were mostly studied in the context of gut health, but they can also confer significant benefits for oral health, mainly in the treatment of gingivitis. Postbiotics are cell-free extracts and metabolites of microorganisms which can provide additional preventive and therapeutic value for human health. This opens opportunities for new preventive or therapeutic formulations for oral administration. The microorganisms that colonize the oral cavity, their role in oral health and disease, as well as the probiotics and postbiotics which could have beneficial effects in this complex environment were discussed. The aim of this study was to review, analyse and discuss novel probiotic and postbiotic formulations intended for oral administration that could be of great preventive and therapeutic importance. A special attention has been put on the formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage forms that are expected to provide new benefits for the patients and technological advantages relevant for industry. An adequate dosage form could significantly enhance the efficiency of these products

    Sulforaphane—A Compound with Potential Health Benefits for Disease Prevention and Treatment: Insights from Pharmacological and Toxicological Experimental Studies

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    Sulforaphane (SFN), which is a hydrolysis product from glucoraphanin, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, has been studied for its potential health benefits, particularly in disease prevention and treatment. SFN has proven to be effective in combating different types of cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of tumors and triggering apoptosis. This dual action has been demonstrated to result in a reduction in tumor size and an enhancement of survival rates in animal models. SFN has also shown antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects, improving glucose tolerance and reducing fat accumulation. SFN’s ability to activate Nrf2, a transcription factor regulating oxidative stress and inflammation in cells, is a primary mechanism behind its anticancerogenic and antidiabetic effects. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties are also suggested to provide beneficial effects against neurodegenerative diseases. The potential health benefits of SFN have led to increased interest in its use as a dietary supplement or adjunct to chemotherapy, but there are insufficient data on its efficacy and optimal doses, as well as its safety. This review aims to present and discuss SFN’s potential in treating various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on its mechanisms of action. It also summarizes studies on the pharmacological and toxicological potential of SFN in in vitro and animal models and explores its protective role against toxic compounds through in vitro and animal studies

    The impact of the aqueous phase on the physicochemical characteristics of nanoemulsions loaded with patent protected compound GL-II-73

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    INTRODUCTION Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by seizures, but can also be associated with mental health problems for which there are no clear treatment regimens. A proprietary compound, GL-II-73 - (4R)-8-ethynyl-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-N,N,4-trimethyl-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]diazepine-3-carboxamide, a positive allosteric modulator of α5-containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of these comorbidities [1]. ..

    Hepatotoxicity of newer antiseizure medications in children: an overview and disproportionality analysis of VigiBase

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    Background: We aimed to characterize newer antiseizure medications (ASMs)-induced hepatotoxicity in children and identify signals of disproportionate reporting of hepatotoxicity-related adverse drug events (ADEs). Research Design and Methods: Case reports reported to VigiBase were accessed using Empirica™ Signal software. To summarize characteristics of the retrieved cases, descriptive statistics were used. A disproportionality analysis was conducted using the Multi-item Gamma Poisson Shrinker algorithm, which calculates Empirical Bayesian Geometric Mean value and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits (EB05 and EB95, respectively). EB05 > 2, N > 0 was considered a signal. Results: Based on 870 analyzed cases, a higher proportion of cases was reported in girls than in boys and in patients aged 2–11 years than in other age groups. Most cases were serious. In 25 cases, hepatotoxicity resulted in death. A high proportion of patients (n = 275, 31.61%) experienced hyper- sensitivity reactions, mostly due to lamotrigine. The disproportionality analysis yielded 17 signals concerning felbamate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, and topiramate. Four signals were for severe liver injury and concerned felbamate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topira- mate. Gender-biased reporting frequency was detected for four ASM-ADE combinations. Conclusion: Our results should serve to raise clinicians’ awareness about the potential association between several newer ASMs and drug-induced liver injury in children

    Obesity and dyslipidemia in early life: Impact on cardiometabolic risk

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    Childhood obesity with its growing prevalence worldwide presents one of the most important health challenges nowadays. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development of this condition, as well as in its associations with various cardiometabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recent findings suggest that childhood obesity and associated dyslipidemia at least partly originate from epigenetic modifications that take place in the earliest periods of life, namely prenatal and perinatal periods. Hence, alterations of maternal metabolism could be fundamentally responsible for fetal and neonatal metabolic programming and consequently, for metabolic health of offspring in later life. In this paper, we will review recent findings on the associations among intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to undesirable modulators of metabolism, development of childhood obesity and later cardiometabolic complications. Special attention will be given to maternal dyslipidemia as a driven force for undesirable epigenetic modulations in offspring. In addition, newly proposed lipid biomarkers of increased cardiometabolic risk in obese children and adolescents will be analyzed, with respect to their predictive potential and clinical applicability

    What is the Current Clinical Impact of the CYP2CTG Haplotype?

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    We read with great interest the paper by Zubiaur et al.1 on the analysis of a genotype–phenotype relationship of the CYP2C:TG haplotype. This study, including 225 patients receiving one of 6 different drugs and liver pieces from 135 children (median age 7 years), is in contrast to 2 studies by Bråten et al. using in vivo data from 875 escitalopram-treated2 and 840 sertraline-treated3 Norwegian patients, respectively, in which significantly increased rate (+20 to 25%) of CYP2C19-dependent metabolism of these drugs was found for the CYP2C:TGhaplotype

    Efikasnost superkritične fluidne hromatografije u kreiranju ekološki prihvatljivih rešenja u farmaceutskoj analizi

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    Initially employed primarily at a preparative scale for enantiomer separation of chiral drug candidates, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is nowadays extensively used in the analytical mode. Recent advances in SFC separation science have emphasized its potential for modern and environmentally friendly pharmaceutical analysis. The aim of this review is to provide a deeper insight into the main fundamental and practical aspects of the SFC technique in order to familiarize readers with its versatile nature and efficiency in creating sustainable chromatographic solutions. All considerations are made primarily in the context of the most widely used mode of operation - achiral SFC. In addition, recent applications of this promising technique are presented at the end of the article to further promote its use in pharmaceutical analytical practice.Na početku pretežno korišćena kao preparativna tehnika u enantioseparaciji hiralnih molekula kandidatâ za lek, superkritična fluidna hromatografija (eng. supercritical fluid chromatography, SFC) danas se široko koristi u analitičke svrhe. Noviji naučni napori ukazali su na značaj SFC tehnike u modernoj i ekološki prihvatljivoj farmaceutskoj analizi. Cilj ovog preglednog rada je pružanje dubljeg uvida u najvažnije fundamentalne i praktične aspekte SFC tehnike, kako bi se čitaocima približio njen svestrani karakter, te efikasnost u kreiranju održivih hromatografskih rešenja. Sva razmatranja prevashodno su data u kontekstu najzastupljenijeg režima rada - ahiralne SFC. Takođe, na kraju rada predstavljene su savremene primene ove obećavajuće tehnike kako bi se dodatno ohrabrilo njeno usvajanje u farmaceutsku analitičku praksu

    Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts of Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. (Asteraceae)

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    The chemical composition of Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. aerial parts essential oil (EO), growing wild in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was presented in the study. In addition to the EO composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were also tested. The aerial parts of P. dysenterica contained 0.3% of yellow, liquid, fragrant EO. The 51 components identified accounted for 81.09% of the oil. The EO was characterized by the presence of a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes 51.83% while oxygenated monoterpenes constituted 15.57%, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 9.32% and non-terpene compounds presented 4.37% of the EO. The dominant compounds were the sesquiterpenes caryophyllene oxide, (E)-nerolidol, β-caryophyllene and monoterpene nerol. The antimicrobial activity of EO was tested against selected ATCC strains of microorganisms, the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and the fungus Candida albicans. The results showed that the investigated EO inhibited the growth of all selected ATCC strains of microorganisms. The best result was obtained against Escherichia coli bacteria with MIC value of 1 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity of EO was measured against the HeLa cell line using the MTT method with IC50 of 188.52 μgmL-1. This study has provided scientific baseline data on the therapeutic properties of P. dysenterica

    Maternal deprivation causes CaMKII downregulation and modulates glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin in limbic brain areas in a rat model of single prolonged stress

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    Background: Early life stress is a major risk factor for later development of psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An intricate relationship exists between various neurotransmitters (such as glutamate, norepinephrine or serotonin), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), as an important regulator of glutamatergic synaptic function, and PTSD. Here, we developed a double-hit model to investigate the interaction of maternal deprivation (MD) as an early life stress model and single prolonged stress (SPS) as a PTSD model at the behavioral and molecular levels. Methods: Male Wistar rats exposed to these stress paradigms were subjected to a comprehensive behavioral analysis. In hippocampal synaptosomes we investigated neurotransmitter release and glutamate concentration. The expression of CaMKII and the content of monoamines were determined in selected brain regions. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA was quantified by radioactive in situ hybridization. Results: We report a distinct behavioral phenotype in the double-hit group. Double-hit and SPS groups had decreased hippocampal presynaptic glutamatergic function. In hippocampus, double-hit stress caused a decrease in autophosphorylation of CaMKII. In prefrontal cortex, both SPS and double-hit stress had a similar effect on CaMKII autophosphorylation. Double-hit stress, rather than SPS, affected the norepinephrine and serotonin levels in prefrontal cortex, and suppressed BDNF gene expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Limitations: The study was conducted in male rats only. The affected brain regions cannot be restricted to hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Conclusion: Double-hit stress caused more pronounced and distinct behavioral, molecular and functional changes, compared to MD or SPS alone

    New Imidazodiazepine Analogue, 5-(8-Bromo-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]diazepin-3-yl)oxazole, Provides a Simplified Synthetic Scheme, High Oral Plasma and Brain Exposures, and Produces Antiseizure Efficacy in Mice, and Antiepileptogenic Activity in Neural Networks in Brain Slices from a Patient with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    KRM-II-81 (1) is an imidazodiazepine GABAA receptor (GABAAR) potentiator with broad antiseizure efficacy and a low sedative burden. A brominated analogue, DS-II-73 (5), was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized as a potential backup compound as KRM-II-81 moves forward into development. The synthesis from 2-amino-5-bromophenyl)(pyridin-2yl)methanone (6) was processed in five steps with an overall yield of 38% and without the need for a palladium catalyst. GABAAR binding occurred with a Ki of 150 nM, and only 3 of 41 screened binding sites produced inhibition ≥50% at 10 μM, and the potency to induce cytotoxicity was ≥240 mM. DS-II-73 was selective for α2/3/5- over that of α1-containing GABAARs. Oral exposure of plasma and brain of rats was more than sufficient to functionally impact GABAARs. Tonic convulsions in mice and lethality induced by pentylenetetrazol were suppressed by DS-II-73 after oral administration and latencies to clonic and tonic seizures were prolonged. Cortical slice preparations from a patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy (mesial temporal lobe) showed decreases in the frequency of local field potentials by DS-II-73. As with KRM-II-81, the motor-impairing effects of DS-II-73 were low compared to diazepam. Molecular docking studies of DS-II-73 with the α1β3γ2L-configured GABAAR showed low interaction with α1His102 that is suggested as a potential molecular mechanism for its low sedative side effects. These findings support the viability of DS-II-73 as a backup molecule for its ethynyl analogue, KRM-II-81, with the human tissue data providing translational credibility

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