University of Illinois at Chicago

University of Illinois at Chicago: UIC INDIGO (INtellectual property in DIGital form available online in an Open environment)
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    Profession Video: Occupational Therapy Profession - Roles and Responsibilities

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    This video prepares all members of the health care team to collaborate with individuals in the Occupational Therapy profession. The video provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of occupational therapists in the US Health Care System, the educational preparation for a career in occupational therapy, challenges, and future developments in the profession.</p

    Stability of Tschirnhausen Bundles

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    Let α: X → Y be a general degree r primitive map of nonsingular, irreducible, projective curves over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero or larger than r. We prove that the Tschirnhausen bundle of α is semistable if g(Y) ≥ 1 and stable if g(Y) ≥ 2

    Efficacy of administering a sugar‐free flavor before dental injections on pain perception in children: A split‐mouth randomized crossover clinical trial

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    BackgroundSweet taste administration before dental injections helps to control associated pain in children.AimTo evaluate the efficacy of using a sugar‐free flavor on pain perception during dental injections.DesignChildren (n = 84) aged 4–9 (mean 6.71 ± 1.55) years who required buccal infiltration bilaterally participated in this split‐mouth randomized crossover study. On the test side (flavor visit), infiltration injections were applied after receiving a sugar‐free flavor. On the control side (no flavor visit), sterile water was administered. Demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and sweet taste preference (STP) were recorded. Pain perception during injection was measured using heart rate (HR), sound, eyes, and motor (SEM) scale, and Wong–Baker Faces pain scale (WBFPS).ResultsMost children had healthy weight (72.6%) and equal STP (32.1%). In the test side, mean HR during injection, HR differences before and during injection, and SEM scores were significantly lower (p < .001, for all). There was no significant difference in the WBFPS between both visits. Flavor had a significant effect on pain reduction (p = .001 for HR, p = .000 for SEM), whereas age, gender, BMI, STP, and treatment side did not. Treatment sequence had a significant effect on total SEM scores (p = .021); children who received the flavor during their first visit had lower SEM scores.ConclusionUsing a sugar‐free flavor before dental injections helps in reducing associated pain in children.</p

    A Different Approach to Agency Theory and Implications For ESG

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    In conventional agency theory, the agent is modeled as exerting unobservable “effort” that influences the distribution over outcomes the principal cares about. Recent papers instead allow the agent to choose the entire distribution, an assumption that better describes the extensive and flexible control that CEOs have over firm outcomes. Under this assumption, the optimal contract rewards the agent directly for outcomes the principal cares about, rather than for what those outcomes reveal about the agent’s effort. This article briefly summarizes this new agency model and discusses its implications for contracting on ESG activities

    Socioecologic Factors and Racial Differences in Breast Cancer Multigene Prognostic Scores in US Women

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    IMPORTANCE: Disproportionately aggressive tumor biology among non-Hispanic Black women with early-stage, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer contributes to racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. It is unclear whether socioecologic factors underlie racial differences in breast tumor biology. OBJECTIVE: To examine individual-level (insurance status) and contextual (area-level socioeconomic position and rural or urban residence) factors as possible mediators of racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of ER-positive breast tumors with aggressive biology, as indicated by a high-risk gene expression profile. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study included women 18 years or older diagnosed with stage I to II, ER-positive breast cancer between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015. All data analyses were conducted between December 2022 and April 2023. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the likelihood of a high-risk recurrence score (RS) (≥26) on the Oncotype DX 21-gene breast tumor prognostic genomic biomarker. RESULTS: Among 69 139 women (mean [SD] age, 57.7 [10.5] years; 6310 Hispanic [9.1%], 274 non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaskan Native [0.4%], 6017 non-Hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander [8.7%], 5380 non-Hispanic Black [7.8%], and 51 158 non-Hispanic White [74.0%]) included in our analysis, non-Hispanic Black (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.23-1.43) and non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native women (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01-1.86) had greater likelihood of a high-risk RS compared with non-Hispanic White women. There were no significant differences among other racial and ethnic groups. Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, there were greater odds of a high-risk RS for non-Hispanic Black women residing in urban areas (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46), but not among rural residents (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77-1.41). Mediation analysis demonstrated that lack of insurance, county-level disadvantage, and urban vs rural residence partially explained the greater odds of a high-risk RS among non-Hispanic Black women (proportion mediated, 17%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this cohort study suggest that the consequences of structural racism extend beyond inequities in health care to drive disparities in breast cancer outcome. Additional research is needed with more comprehensive social and environmental measures to better understand the influence of social determinants on aggressive ER-positive tumor biology among racial and ethnic minoritized women from disadvantaged and historically marginalized communities.</p

    Crafting Practical Magic: Navigating Humanities Education in a Post-AI World

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    Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. - Arthur C. Clarke This paper delves into the nuanced challenges instructors encounter when designing humanities courses in a post-AI world and explores my attempts to translate this transitional moment for the liberal arts. While these challenges are not unique to the humanities nor confined to this particular moment, they are novel in an unknown possibility, facing a technological future beyond our wildest imaginations. The tenuous future of the humanities is nothing new. And yet, we must all agree there is a certain magic living inside the humanities. Ultimately, it was this magic that drew us to them despite being told it would be difficult to put into practice (ahem, a career). Now more than ever, our students want their degrees to translate into a practical reality that often appears too nebulous when sitting in, say, a French literature or grammar class. The proliferation of AI tools further complicates this landscape, promising efficiency at the expense of individual experience. Therefore, I developed a practical assignment that extends beyond the classroom into the future lives of my students. In my course, French 297: Paris in Literature, Film, and Culture, I assigned students to meticulously plan a trip to the City of Light. This comprehensive assignment required them to develop a detailed daily itinerary with strict budget considerations, navigating the intricacies of transportation, accommodations, dining, and leisure activities. To facilitate collaboration, students presented their research on a shared Google Site. Additionally, students partnered with a peer for a "meet-up" session, engaged in constructive peer reviews, and even performed a self-reflection where they graded their work, fostering a collaborative learning environment between the students and instructor. Lastly, students compared their research findings to ChatGPT, engaging in a series of inquiries and evaluating the quality of the responses received. Student responses were collected in a survey, the results of which inform our assessment of the experience. As for the magic? Well, that’s the easy part. We blended the natural enchantment of our readings and course materials with the transformative power of cutting-edge technology, empowering students to cultivate a practical magic, perfectly poised for real-world applications

    Enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolizing microorganisms on the oral mucosa of tobacco users

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    Certain soil microbes resist and metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The same is true for a subset of skin microbes. In the human mouth, oral microbes have the potential to oxidize tobacco PAHs, thereby increasing these chemicals' ability to cause cancer of adjacent epithelium. We hypothesized that we could identify, in smokers, the oral mucosal microbes that can metabolize PAH. We isolated bacteria and fungi that survived long-term in minimal media with PAHs as the sole carbon source, under aerobic conditions, from the oral mucosa in 17 of 26 smokers and two of 14 nonsmokers. Of bacteria genera that survived harsh PAH exposure in vitro, most were found at trace levels, except for Staphylococcus, Actinomyces, and Kingella, which were more abundant. Two PAH-resistant strains of Candida albicans (C. albicans) were isolated from smokers. C. albicans was a prime candidate to contribute to carcinogenesis in tobacco users as it is found orally at high levels in tobacco users on the mucosa, and some Candida species can metabolize PAHs. However, when C. albicans isolates were tested for metabolism of two model PAH substrates, pyrene and phenanthrene, they were not capable, suggesting they cannot metabolize PAH under the conditions used. In conclusion, evidence for large scale microbial degradation of tobacco PAHs under aerobic conditions on the oral mucosa remains lacking, though nonabundant PAH metabolizers are certainly present

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    University of Illinois at Chicago: UIC INDIGO (INtellectual property in DIGital form available online in an Open environment) is based in United States
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