The University of Kansas: Journals@KU
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    Mushroom sprouting out of a living frog

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    Occurrence of Lymphedema in Wild-Caught Anurans: Lymphedema in frogs

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    Lymphedema is a condition in which the lymph hearts fail to pump fluid from the lymph sacs of anurans and other amphibians. This causes the sacs to fill with fluid and provide the frog with balloon-like swellings or over-all appearance. The condition has previously been connected with various diseases including tadpole edema virus and chytrids. I observed lymphedema in six anuran species (Acris blanchadi*, Anaxyrus fowleri*, Hyla squirrela*, Pseudacris streckeri illinoensis*, Rana sylvatica, Rana sphenocephala* [species with * are species records for lymphedema])

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    Daily activity rhythm of the African stingless bee Hypotrigona gribodoi (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in the dry season, with notes on nest structure and colony composition

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    We studied 18 colonies of Hypotrigona gribodoi (Magretti) nesting in the tubing of a disused horticultural sprinkler system during the late dry season in Ghana, West Africa.  Flight activity began around dawn (about 06:00), rising to a peak in the half-hour starting 07:30 and gradually declining to end around dusk (about 18:00).  Bees returning with pollen showed a more extended peak from 07:30 to 09:00.  Dissection of 18 nests showed a mean inner volume of 466.5 ml, while 17 active colonies had a mean number of 851 adults.  Colony size is positively correlated with nest size.  It is likewise positively correlated with the fraction of fully mature adult females. Several nests had branching entrance tubes with an angle of roughly 30⁰ between branches.  In each of three such nests studied, there was a marked division in the use of the two branches, such that one served mainly as an exit and the other as an entrance

    Morphology, biology, and distribution of Ichthyophis kodaguensis (Amphibia:Gymnophiona), a rare caecilian from the Western Ghats, India

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    Of the amphibian orders, the Gymnophiona (caecilians) have the lowest number of species and are the least known. We report new information on the morphology, biology, range, and distribution of Ichthyophis kodaguensis, a striped ichthyophiid caecilian from the Western Ghats, India that shows the first evidence of possible sexual-dimorphism in this species. Based on the clutch size, limited range, relatively low fecundity, and agricultural practices in their habitats, we consider that I. kodaguensis is highly threatened when compared to other striped ichthyophiids from the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot.


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