Technical University of Malaysia Malacca

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    9008 research outputs found

    Enhancement of feature sets for subjectivity analysis on Malay-English code-switching text

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    A code-switching sentence is a sentence that is constructed using two or more languages. It is a norm for a multi-lingual speaker to use code-switching sentences to share objective and subjective textual information on public platforms such as blogs and social media. Classifying a voluminous code-switching text into subjective and objective classes has posed a new challenge to the current solution of subjectivity analysis. The current solution has limited its design to process only monolingual text. Therefore, the presence of subjective code-switching text is ignored by the current solution. The ignorant limits the capability of the current solution to generate an accurate result of subjectivity analysis on code-switching text. Therefore, this research aims to find a set of solutions for subjectivity analysis on code-switching text. The research process begins by filling in the absence of the subjectivity code-switching corpus. A subjective Malay-English code-switching corpus was built. The corpus contains 35,067 Malay-English code-switching sentences that were harvested from Malay-English blog posts. Each sentence was annotated with either subjective or objective labels. The research process continues with designing the feature sets that represent the subjectivity of the Malay-English code-switching sentences from the corpus. The feature sets were enhanced from the subjective monolingual feature set, that was initially designed to represent subjectivity of English text. The initial subjective monolingual feature sets consist of pronoun, adjective, cardinal number, modal and adverb. The enhanced feature sets consist three feature sets which are embedded code-switching feature set, unified code-switching feature set and stylistic feature set. The embedded code-switching feature used the initial monolingual feature set for English and embeds the feature of Malay language in it. In the unified code-switching feature set, the extracted Malay and English features were unified using an adapted algorithm known as the Malay-English Unified POS. The algorithm predicts the type of each word in a code-switching sentence according to the language of the word. In the stylistic feature set, emoticons, interjections, signs of subjectivity such as exclamation marks and word with exaggerations of spelling were extracted to represent the subjectivity in the code-switching sentences. The effectiveness of the enhanced feature sets was evaluated using the Malay-English code-switching subjectivity corpus as the data set and two machine learning classifiers, which are Naïve-Bayes and Support Vector Machine. The 10-fold cross-validation classification technique was used on different settings of experiments and combinations of feature sets to obtain the performance of the enhanced feature sets. The performance from the combination of unified code-switching and stylistic feature sets has outperformed other feature sets. The combination has consistently performed at the accuracy of 59% using both machine learning classifiers. The consistent performance indicates the combined feature sets are the viable solution for subjectivity analysis on the Malay-English code-switching text

    The effect of different type of additives on friction and wear of MNR grease

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    Grease typically has a base of mineral or synthetic oil, a thickener, additives, and fillers. The tribological performance of grease depends on the viscosity of the base oil and the type and concentration of thickening agent used. Grease lubricants are used in many different parts of automobiles, including gears, cams, sealed ball bearings, and others. Having to use more energy to overcome vehicle friction is wasteful. Power consumption can be drastically cut if frictional losses are minimised, making the components more effective. Grease lubrication helps keep surfaces apart, reducing friction and wear for increased durability. Prepared by sonicating the grease supplied by MNR Multitech Sdn Bhd using an ultrasonic homogenizer, the produced greases had a 10% concentration of additive nanoparticles of varying types mixed in. To put it simply, MNR is a grease that has no additives added to it. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), lithium complex grease (LCG), and potassium (MNR + K) are some of the other additives that have been introduced (K). Tribological tests were conducted using a 4-Ball Tester in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards D 2266 for Wear Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four-Ball Method) and 2596 for measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of Lubricating Grease (Four-Ball Method). The testing results show that the addition of MoS2 additives to MNR base grease can increase its friction and wear qualities by 52% and 68%, respectively. Extreme pressure testing revealed that MNR + MoS2 grease reduced severe adhesive wear and increased load carrying capability by nearly double that of MNR grease, from 618.03 N to 784.8 N. As a result, the load-carrying capacity and the friction coefficient have both been drastically increased thanks to the additive's use in bearing

    Correlation study on different temperature-humidity of highly thermal graphene hybridzation conductive ink

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    This research is about the correlation study on different temperature-humidity of highly thermal graphene hybridization conductive ink. The aim of this research is to develop and formulate a highly thermal graphene hybridization conductive ink combining graphene nanoparticle (GNP), silver flakes (Ag), and silver acetate (SA) as conductive fillers mixed with chemical and organic solvents. Currently, the use of soldering for die-attach can cause thermal stress and has environmental concerns. Conductive ink was considered as an alternative, but it had limitations in dispersibility and conductivity. Environmental factors such as moisture and extreme temperature changes can also affect the conductivity of the ink over time. This new material would have improved properties that overcome the limitations of traditional materials while preserving their beneficial characteristics. To develop a highly thermal graphene hybridization conductive ink, a new formulation of conductive ink is formulated using graphene nanoparticles (GNP), silver flakes (Ag), and silver acetate (SA) as conductive fillers mixed with organic solvents. In order to turn the batch of substances into powder, they are sonicated and followed by stirring to form the mixture into a powder. Before curing at 250°C for 1 hour, the powder are dripped with organic solvents, 1-butanol, and terpineol and mixed using a thinky mixer machine to form a paste. Using a mesh stencil, the GNP hybrid paste was printed on copper substrates. Cyclic testing was conducted using a cyclic bending test machine and a cyclic torsion test machine in a heat chamber with different temperature-humidity based on the numbers of lamps. The new formulation are then characterized based on the electrical and mechanical behaviour. In order to evaluate the performance, the resistivity of the hybrid GNP conductive ink at room temperature is set as the baseline and compare it to the resistivity readings obtained at varying temperatures-humidity levels. After the twisting and bending test, the GNP hybrid formulation reliability was evaluated. GNP hybrid room temperature baseline and GNP hybrid after given different temperature-humidity were compared in terms of electrical and mechanical properties. The average resistivity measurement at all points of sample remains stable or decreases as the temperature increase. It demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of the ink does not degrade significantly as the temperature-humidity increases, indicating that the ink are able to maintain its structural integrity and properties with certain temperature range. This signifies that a hybrid conductive ink has good thermal stability and demonstrates that mixing GNP with silver improves the performance of electrical conductivity. Future research should focus on improving the stability and reliability of stretchable conductive inks under various temperature and humidity conditions

    Interface pressure distribution of conventional and 3D-printed sockets using finite element analysis

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    Prosthetic socket is the main component that requires extra details in designing and fabricating the prosthetic leg in order to ensure the comfortability, stability, and functionality of the amputee while using it. In the advancement of prosthetic socket fabrication, various approaches have been applied to fabricate the socket. In this study, particular attention was given to the measurement of the amputee's stump, which served as the foundation for creating a well-fitting socket. There were two measurement methods were applied which were manual and 3D-printed measurement. Manual measurement involved direct physical measurements taken by a prosthetist, while 3D scanning utilized advanced imaging technology to create a three-dimensional digital representation of the stump, allowing for a more accurate and detailed depiction. The 3D-scanned of mould and actual stump models were imported to the CAD software to develop the 3D geometrical model of the socket. The development of both 3D-printed and conventional models relied on the first objective of this study. Secondly, this study aims to conduct Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in order to observe the interface pressure distribution between stump-socket contact. There were nine points of interest involved in this study. which were patella, patella tendon, tibia end, lateral and medial supracondylars, fibula head, medial middle, popliteal and posterior distal. These points were located on four main regions of the stump, which are anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior. An extensive analysis of the data on interface pressure between stump-socket contact was explained in this study. The coefficient of friction value applied on this contact was 0.7 which indicated that there was a relatively moderate resistance to motion between these two surfaces. There were several distinct conditions applied in FEA such as the amputee's postures which varied in amount of load exerted on the stump. Interface pressure distribution for 3D-printed and conventional sockets in standing and mid-stance posture were analyzed. Overall, some points of interest involved in pressure-tolerant areas recorded high interface pressure between the stump and socket contact for both 3D-printed and conventional sockets, especially on patella tendon. Interface pressure on patella tendon in standing posture exhibited about 36.47 kPa and 33.68 kPa for 3D-printed and conventional sockets respectively. There were several graphs illustrated to present the curve trend of different comparisons. From the findings, there is significant correlation between the interface pressure and amount of load exerted. It resulted in higher interface pressure for each points when higher load was exerted, especially on the pressure-tolerant areas on the stump

    Leadership behaviour styles and the UAE municipalities employees motivation through entrepreneurial mindset

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    The United Arab Emirates is looking to be one of the highly effective countries in the world. Therefore,creating programs to enhance a leader's capabilities and monitoring their progress can be beneficial for the overall effectiveness of a government and its leadership. Excellence awards can also serve as incentives and recognition for those who demonstrate outstanding performance. UAE organisations follow different leadership behaviour styles which are impactful on their performance standard. The UAE municipalities suffer from low employee motivation, which attributes to the leadership behaviour styles. This research aims to examine the impact of four leadership behaviour styles: directive style, supportive style, participative style, and achievement-oriented style. These four leadership behaviour styles are retrieved from the Path goal theory, which considers the employee motivation determinants by the expectancy theory. The association between the leadership behaviour styles suggested by the Path-Goal Theory primarily emphasizes leadership behaviors and their impact on employee motivation, it may not explicitly address certain factors like the entrepreneurial mindset, which stands on the thinking that enables the employee to overcome challenges, be decisive, and accept responsibility.The mediation effect of the entrepreneurial mindset factor is tested by this research to fill this gap and contributes significantly to the body of leadership behaviour styles knowledge. The study also validates the proposed conceptual framework using a structural equation modelling, then uses smart PLS with the data collected from 341 employees from the UAE municipalities to test the constructed hypotheses of this research. The finding of this research revealed a positive and significant relationship between achievement-oriented style and employee motivation in the municipalities of the UAE, a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial mindset and employee motivation in the municipalities of the UAE, a positive and significant relationship between participative style and employee motivation in the municipalities of the UAE, and positive and significant relationship between supportive style and employee motivation in the municipalities of the UAE. With regard to the mediation effect of the entrepreneurial mindset factor, there was a mediation of entrepreneurial mindset for the relationship between directive style and employee motivation, no mediation of entrepreneurial mindset for the relationship between achievement-oriented style and employee motivation, no mediation of entrepreneurial mindset for the relationship between participative style and employee motivation, and no mediation of entrepreneurial mindset for the relationship between supportive style and employee motivation. It is important for the employees to be appreciated verbally or in writing for their activities in the municipalities, to increase their powers and responsibilities and provide training and career development opportunities. All of these are the main leadership behaviour styles and motivational factors that provide employees with psychological and social support rather than just economic benefit.This research will add to the body of information regarding leadership behaviour styles in the Full Range Leadership behaviour styles Model by determining the preferred leadership behaviour styles in the municipal public sector from the employees' perspective. It can be stated that psycho-social motivation ties employees more. The findings can assist managers in determining which type of leadership behaviour styles is most suitable in terms of outcomes, as well as how they can adjust their leadership behaviour styles to make them more successful and result-oriented

    The relationship between employer branding and talent management in manufacturing firm the mediating role of transformational leadership

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    Operating a business in a competitive environment has pushed companies to seek out the most effective strategies for improving their talented workforce. Many prior literatures have indicated that one of the most important parts that an organization’s strategic plan should include is managing the best talent on the market. The challenge faced is to reduce the battle of red zone in talent management. At a time when companies are competing for talent, a company’s employer branding can be incredibly influential in a candidate’s consideration of working there. Therefore, it is important that organizations to implement strategies that can create leaders who can demonstrate the behaviors and be an example to their followers. This is important in building and retaining a strong talent pipeline. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between employer branding and talent management and the mediating role of transformational leadership. A total of 113 middle level management employees were involved as respondents using purposive sampling. This research makes the questionnaire instrument the main research tool to collect information about the constructs involved. The findings of the study showed a positive relationship between economic, social, development, application, interest value’s, work-life balance on talent management. In addition, the findings also show that role of transformational leadership is a mediator on the relationship between employer branding and talent management. It is believed that this research paper will benefit industry practitioners and academics for future reference

    Technology utilisation in Malaysia from broiler production perspective

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    Technology is being utilised to increase agriculture production to sustain the supply of nutritious food to a world population that is expected to increase to 9.7 billion by 2050. However, technology utilisation is at a low level among small and medium broiler producers in Malaysia due to the hefty price tag and the depreciation of the Ringgit Malaysia in recent years. Another concerning factor is the reliance on imported corn and soybeans, which account for 95 per cent of the chicken feed mix. Any uptrend in these agricultural commodities could result in distressing consequences for Malaysian dietary intake and its economic growth because broiler meat is the primary source of protein. The Malaysian government has proposed several strategic plans to ensure that the broiler industry is able to continue as a competitive industry. Among the strategies is to strengthen broiler manufacturing activities by reassuring that modern technology is in line with good farming practices. Regardless of the fact that innovative technologies offer more profit and environmental advantages, the readiness of small and medium broiler producers to utilise technologies requires more in-depth assessments. These issues accentuate the need for sustainable broiler production to ensure continuous productivity and reduce adverse impacts on towards the environment that have long lingered within broiler production. Therefore, this research intends to investigate technology utilisation from broiler perspective and a new approach with the objective of sustaining Malaysian broiler production demands. The lack of understanding of technology utilisation in broiler production emphasises the need for thematic analysis (TA) model development. TA allows this study to systematically identify, organise, and offer insight into the patterns of meaning (themes) across a dataset. Data on broiler production from 12 broiler producers was gained through semi-structured interviews. The research investigated the issues surrounding the successful and unsatisfactory implementation of broiler production solely from Malaysian broiler producers’ perspective and developed a model to explain the reasons for those issues. Thus, the qualitative findings of this research utilise the TAM3 theory by identifying constructs which play crucial roles in technology utilisation in Malaysia from broiler producers’ perspective. This study found that high costs, financial institutions’ negative perceptions, government policies, and a competitive market are elemental factors that affect successful Malaysian broiler production. This study also establishes that integrators (large broiler producers) with their enormous capital and larger sizes will continue to grow, but this scenario raises further concern as to the level of competitiveness and stability of Malaysian broiler industry. It is hoped that with the proposed TAM3 model, it will assist various parties involved in the broiler industry to secure sustainable broiler production in Malaysia

    A simulation of solar photovoltaic thermal system with spiral design absorber using MWCNT water working fluid

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    The photovoltaic (PV) module's temperature distribution is not even in most cases, which causes a region of hotspots to appear in some areas. Due to these hotspots, less effective cell performance causes declination in overall efficiency of PV systems. Due to this, temperature uniformity is distributed by adopting the appropriate absorber at the back of the PV panel and to increase the efficiency of the system by employing effective working fluid. In this study, considering a spiral design absorber attached with flow tube to provide temperature uniformity across the photovoltaic module. In addition to that, utilizing a multi-wall carbon nano-tube (MWCNT) with water as a base fluid provided improved performance for the system. The absorber model spiral absorber design is developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software, ANSYS Fluent 2022 R2. After applying necessary boundary conditions and solver settings the water based working fluids with the volume concentration of MWCNT (p=0.6%), and (= 1 %) are tested to obtain the temperature uniformity along the PV top surface, and outlet temperature. The main findings of the study indicates that decrease in PV top surface temperature while varying the nanofluids, (0.6%) as 30.43°C, and (= 1 %) as 30.41°C. This shows (= 1 %) temperature which is below than (p=0.6%) which directly leads to reduction of the solar cell temperature, and hence increment in performance of the system. The temperature contour of PV top surface by utilizing these working fluids are compared and suggested that MWCNT (9 1 %) as a better working fluid to decrease the PV top surface temperature of the solar photovoltaic thermal system

    EFFECT OF PANDANUS AMARYLLIFOLIUS FIBRE ON PHYSIO-MECHANICAL, THERMAL AND BIODEGRADABILITY OF THERMOPLASTIC CASSAVA STARCH/BEESWAX COMPOSITES

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    Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre (PAF) is an agricultural waste plant derived from the natural cellulosic source of fbre that can be used in various bio-material applications. In the present study, a novel biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch/beeswax blends reinforced with Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre (TCPS/BW/PAF) bio-composites were successfully developed at varied Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 wt% while beeswax loading was remained constant at 2.5 wt% concentration using hot moulding compression method. A comprehensive characterisation of TCPS/ BW/PAF bio-composites was examined in terms of their physical, mechanical, thermal and biodegradation properties. The addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre has signifcantly improved tensile strength and tensile modulus at maximum value obtained 10.9 and 606.5 MPa, respectively as well as fexural strength and fexural modulus of bio-composite at maximum value obtained 21.37 and 523.76 MPa, respectively until 50 wt% Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre loading. Surface morphology of the fractured tensile samples PAF10 to PAF50 shows compacted structure and fbre breakage, indicating efective stress transfer from starch matrix to PAF during tensile force application. Furthermore, the addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre improved thermal stability from TG, DTG and DSC results; improved crystallinity from XRD analysis; reduced water and moisture afnity from physical properties testing, and lowered the biodegradation rate. Overall, this study shows the potential of TCPS/BW/PAF bio-composites in biopolymer application and bio-packaging industries

    High humidity fabrication of rGO incorporated perovskite absorber and MoS2 electrode for prospective inverted PSC

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    Methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) is a perovskite material that is widely used in perovskite solar cells due to its potential for high power conversion efficiency. However, it is sensitive to humid environments, heat, oxygen and UV radiation, which can cause it to degrade and negatively affect crystal growth and the morphology of the material. This can ultimately affect the efficiency of the solar cell. Therefore, MAPbI3 is typically produced at a low humidity, which requires expensive equipment. The aim of this research study is to propose a facile fabrication process for fully solution-processable inverted perovskite solar cells employing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based material under high humidity conditions suitable for the weather in Malaysia. Overall, the research design was divided into three phases. The aim of phase 1 is to study the influence of incorporating sulfonated rGO (srGO) into the MAPbI3 absorber layer for the deposition of a high-quality thin film under open-air conditions with high relative humidity. Three different samples were prepared with different weight percentage (wt%) of srGO: 0% (T), 50% (TS B) and 15% (TS D). The morphology of the srGO-MAPbI3 films was improved by the addition of srGO, resulting in fewer defects and larger perovskite grain sizes approaching micron size. In phase 2, the study aimed to determine the optimal process parameter of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) composite with rGO as a viable solution-processed top electrode for an effective electron-collecting electrode by taking advantage of Taguchi analysis. The results of the Taguchi analysis showed that a ratio of rGO:MoS2 (1:1), a heating temperature of 75°C, and a heating period of 15 minutes were the optimal parameters for the electrode manufacturing process. The discovered optimal parameters were deployed to fabricate rGO:MoS2 composite electrode that showed a promising electrical conductivity of 9.36 Ω/sq. In phase 3, the device performance of the inverted perovskite solar cells with the designated configuration of ITO/CuSCN/srGO-MAPbI3/PCBM/BCP/rGO-MoS2 was analyzed by numerical simulation with SCAPS-1D. The results proved that the device performance for the samples was affected by the addition of srGO to the absorber layer. The 15% srGO sample exhibited the highest PCE of 10.37% with Ag as the top electrode. However, when the conventional electrode was replaced with a rGO-MoS2 composite electrode, the PCE of the same sample was improved to 13.23%, with a significant increase in FF. In summary, the findings of this research study indicate that incorporation of srGO into the MAPbI3 absorber layer can improve the morphology of the srGO-MAPbI3 films, resulting in fewer defects and larger perovskite grain sizes. The study also provides insight into the use of rGOMoS2 composite material as a workable solution-processed top electrode for an effective electron-collecting electrode, particularly in inverted configuration of perovskite solar cells. The numerical simulation results showed that the device performance of the samples could be improved by replacing Ag with rGO-MoS2. The findings of this study could have significant implications for the growth of cost-effective, solution-processed perovskite solar cells under high relative humidity

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