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    Circadian Rhythmicity of Mood : An Exploratory Study

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    Human circadian rhythms are widely observed to fluctuate across the 24-hour circadian period, spanning cognitive, behavioral, and physiological domains. Circadian rhythm (CR) systems, particularly the sleep-wake cycle, are widely studied. Dysregulation of the sleep-wake cycle, common in shift work and mood disorders, diminishes mood regulation, resulting in increased negative mood or inappropriate mood responses. Although emotions have been investigated in the context of circadian variability in the sleep-wake cycle, circadian effects on emotional state per se have infrequently been examined. Previous studies suggest an increase in Positive Affect (PA) and decrease in Negative Affect (NA) as the day progresses, while the reverse occurs in the earlier hours of the day. Our study aimed to investigate circadian variation in PA versus NA, and extend these findings to the specific emotional states of Affection and Annoyance. As part of a larger study, thirteen male participants completed affect assessments using the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS) seven times over a 24-hour period. Primary findings corroborate previous research finding an increase in PA and decrease in NA during the evening, with the reverse occurring in the morning. Future research should include female participants, longitudinal designs, and objective measures of mood, such as cortisol or testosterone levels, in addition to subjective measures. These findings have clinical relevance, particularly for comparing patients\u27 reported mood ratings with expected ratings based on circadian rhythm of mood. Early-morning NA may reflect normal circadian fluctuations, but late-day NA could indicate a severe clinical condition. In summary, this study replicates circadian patterns in PA and NA but finds unique circadian behaviors in Affection and Annoyance, demanding further exploration

    Assessment of Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resource Availability in the Passaic River Basin, New Jersey

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    Streamflow dynamics in a basin is known to be a major driver of available water resources. In the context of climate change, it is expected that global warming will accelerate the global hydrologic cycle, which will drive more intense floods and droughts leading to changes in streamflow and water resource availability. Most researchers agree that the amount and intensity of precipitation have a direct impact on runoff. Yet, there is no consensus as to how warming can affect streamflow. Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a crucial role here. However, there is a shortage of real-world observations on it. And yet, ET is considered as the primary determinant of available water resources. It is the water that would otherwise become streamflow if not released into the atmosphere. In the Passaic River Basin (PRB), this water loss constitutes on average 50 percent of the approximately 49-inches precipitation. Because of its substantial heterogeneity in land use, soils, geology, reservoirs, vegetation, slope, and topography, the PRB exhibit a highly complex river system. This complexity amidst the heterogeneous biophysical arrangement within the basin present a multifaceted mix of competing interests and water related issues. In a region where predicted temperature increases are anticipated to amplify evapotranspiration and reduce snowpack, the resulting impact on streamflow could be significant. It is with this consideration that this dissertation attempts to better understand the mechanism behind streamflow dynamics in the basin, noting that it is a major driver of available water resource. That way, the impacts of climate change can be properly assessed. In this work, three independent research studies using available hydrological and climate data for the Passaic River Basin were conducted to achieve this goal. In the first study, I used Gridded datasets from Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), TerraClimate, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI product to develop spatially-varying monthly ET models. Beyond the widely used traditional type regression that has the effect of producing ‘global’ parameter estimates, assumed to be uniform throughout a study area, a more localized spatially non-stationary technique — the geographically weighted regression (GWR) — was utilized to estimate mean monthly ET in the Passaic River Basin (PRB). Key environmental controls of ET have been identified and new sets of spatially varying empirical ET models based on variable combinations that produced the best- fit model have been developed. The analysis showed that temporal and spatial variabilities in ET over the PRB are driven by climatic and biophysical factors. It was found that the key controlling factors were different from month to month, with wind speed being dominant throughout the year in the study basin. Monthly mean ET index map was further generated from the model to illustrate areas where ET exceeds precipitation. In the second study, I bypassed the frequently used Mann-Kendal trend test in a novel application using the wavelet transform tool to identify the hidden monotonic trends in the inherently noisy hydro-climatic data. By this approach, the use of Mann Kendal trend test directly on the raw data whose results are almost always ambiguous and statistically insignificant in respect of precipitation data for instance, no longer pose a challenge to the reliability of trend results. The results showed that whereas trends in temperature and precipitation are increasing in the PRB, streamflow trends are decreasing. Based on results from the hydrological modelling, streamflow is more sensitive to actual ET than it is to precipitation. The general observation from climate elasticity results showed that in decades where water is available, energy limits actual evapotranspiration which makes streamflow more sensitive to precipitation increase. However, in meteorologically stressed or dry decades, water limits actual ET thereby making streamflow more sensitive to increases in actual evapotranspiration. It was found that the choice of baseline condition constitutes an important source of uncertainty in the sensitivities of streamflow to precipitation and evapotranspiration changes and should routinely be considered in any climate impact assessment. In the third study, I forced a duly calibrated and verified hydrological model with advanced downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios in a rare application in the Rockaway sub- catchment of the Passaic River Basin to assess the impacts of climate change on water resource availability. A priori analysis however involved the selection of subset models from twenty (20) Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analog (MACA) climate models that characterized the change in temperature and precipitation according to LEAST WARM, HOT, DRY, and WET at mid-21st century (2041—2070) as well as a mild future that typifies the MIDDLE of the temperature and precipitation range. In all, nine (9) different models, relative to two baseline periods, and under two different climate scenarios were selected. Results showed that against the 2041—2070 period, the margin of error owing to the use of different baseline conditions were +/- 0.3 — +/-0.23 oC for temperature and +/-8.15— +/-6.9% for precipitation, indicating the extent to which the time perspective used in climate change impacts assessment significantly affect outcomes. Across all five (5) climate projections, and the two scenarios, a consistent warming from +1.21 to + 4.70 oC is projected in the Rockaway catchment at mid-21st century relative to the 1981—2010 baseline period. While precipitation is generally projected to increase, streamflow prediction shows an overall decreasing signal, a trend likely induced by the projected increase in actual evapotranspiration. In terms of climate extremes, an increase in the number heavy rainy days of approximately 2 days is projected in the coldest future whiles an increase of about 4 days is expected in the wettest future. In similar vein, the number days with consecutive dry spells is expected to decrease by approximately 2 days in the driest future whereas an increase of about 3 days is projected in the wettest future. Overall, climate change is expected to fuel flooding and drought conditions in the study catchment, and to cause alterations in river flows which will in turn affect reservoir operations. With this advance knowledge in hand, swift mitigation and adaptation plans are therefore needed. The results presented in this dissertation show that climate change will threatened available water resources through evapotranspiration. Because the availability of water resource is largely driven by river flows in channels, possible increase or decrease in flow as depicted in the study will fuel flooding and drought conditions. Given that streamflow is highly sensitive to precipitation increases in decades where water is sufficiently available, even higher risk of extreme floods can be expected. On the other hand, longer dry spells will lead to water scarcity and higher risk of drought potentials. Either way, alterations in river flows will affect routine reservoir operations under a changing climate. Particularly, a crucial basis for examining possible environmental impacts on dam failure, including physical sedimentation, erosion from floodwaters, and chemical contamination has been established in this study. With this advance knowledge in hand, swift mitigation and adaptation plans are therefore needed

    Inverse Association between Exercising Blood Pressure Response and Left Ventricular Chamber Size and Mass in Women Who Habitually Resistance Train

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    Trace and rare earth elements analysis of Oligocene and Miocene diamictites in the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica

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    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is a major contributor to global sea level rise, yet its origin and dynamics are poorly known. The geochemistry of 35 diamictite samples from the CRP-1 and CPR-2A cores recovered by the Cape Roberts Drilling Project in the Ross Sea, Antarctica is evaluated to understand glacial sedimentation and flow paths during the Oligocene and Miocene, a period of warmer than present climate in the past. The major hypothesis to be tested is if the early Miocene ice sheet advance was the first major West Antarctic ice advance in the Ross Sea. The provenance of older Oligocene diamictites, present below this early Miocene stratigraphic level, will be analyzed to trace glacially transported sediment to a West Antarctic or an East Antarctic source. The project implies that if the Oligocene diamictites show a West Antarctica signature, a major ice sheet advance took place before the early Miocene, as proposed in previous geophysical research. Whole rock analysis of diamictite samples is performed on an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). This kind of analysis allows the interpretation of a range of elemental ratios that indicate specific sources to determine the sediment provenance for each diamictite sample. In addition, grain-size distributions (Martin and Passchier, 2010) will be used to assess the depositional setting of the diamictites. Results show a main East Antarctic provenance with a contribution from a West Antarctic source, suggesting the presence of a West Antarctic Ice Sheet advance during the Oligocene. These results enhance our understanding of ice sheet evolution and dynamics in Antarctica through warmer periods in the past and lead to better projections for global warming and rising sea levels worldwide

    American Democracy Now (8th Edition)

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    Exploring the Needs of College Students Experiencing Housing Instability

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    This qualitative study explored the needs and experiences of college students who have aged out of the foster care system and facing housing instability at a large public institution. The study explores the participants\u27 pre-college experiences and college journey to identify challenges they faced, sources of support, and unmet needs impacting their education. Analysis of 14 individual interviews highlighted key themes related to motivations, obstacles, and desired assistance across areas like finances, mental health, academics, and support systems. This work has implications for implementing tailored institutional support, community partnerships, transition programs, and advocacy efforts to promote resilience and success for this underserved student population. Understanding the multidimensional experiences of college students experiencing housing adversity can inform policies and practices that foster stability, belonging, and achievement on campus

    A Comparison of Systematic Review Services in NJ Academic Libraries and Beyond

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    In recent years, there has been increased interest from faculty and graduate students at many colleges and universities in performing systematic reviews (SR) and evidence synthesis. How are libraries supporting these efforts? The presenters researched and compared the types of SR support services provided by its peers, aspirant peers, and notable R1 and R2 institutions with established SR services. This information is expected to help determine and shape the types of SR support services to provide at Montclair State University, and would likely be helpful for others interested in supporting these types of reviews on their respective campuses

    Towards a Pedagogy of Human Connection : Understanding Teachers’ Experiences of Connection During a Pandemic

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    During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, schools shuttered quickly and re-opened slowly. These decisions impacted the well-being of teachers and students. Upon re-opening, schools in New Jersey adopted a range of instructional approaches—including virtual and hybrid models—that prioritized safety and diminished human connections. This came at a time when rates of isolation and loneliness were increasing and the US was already experiencing a crisis of connection. To understand teachers’ experiences with human connection during the winter and second spring of the COVID-19 pandemic, this dissertation study recruited nine high school teachers from one school in New Jersey who met a total of nine times from January, 2021 through June, 2021, to discuss their experiences of connection. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis and a theoretical frame of human connection, this study found that teachers’ experiences were best described as dis/connections. Teachers’ pursuits of connection were undertaken to support learning and develop relationships. However, these efforts were not always reciprocated by students, administrators, or parents during the pandemic context, leading to experiences of disconnection. Multiple obstacles yielded a “wall” of disconnection, however, teachers adopted practices and perspectives to overcome this wall. Successful experiences of connection were marked by reciprocity and mutuality, supported by a capacity for vulnerability. Additionally, the group itself became a site for professional connection during a time of isolation. Teachers’ experiences of dis/connection during the pandemic reflected the political realities of teachers’ lives and the ways that mutual vulnerability and authenticity are necessary in schools and classrooms if human connection is expected to thrive. Implications from this study include the emergence of a framework for a pedagogy of human connection that aims to humanize teaching and learning in a context of cultural and social dehumanization

    An Icosahedron for Two: a Many-Sided Look at Making a Duet

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    The space around our bodies is not empty or neutral. In fact, the space around our bodies is loaded with meaning and important. When we move through it, whether it be in our daily lives or a choreographer making specific choices in order to convey a message, we activate new understandings in our lives. As a dancer and choreographer, I created a duet from improvisational climbs on an icosahedron. This article discusses choreographing from the form icosahedron and connects Laban\u27s theories of space harmony with the activation of meaning in my life

    Transcultural Experiences of Becoming a Teacher Educator : Using Self-Study to Understand the Identity Development of a Sojourner Doctoral Student in the U.S.

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    As I became a teacher educator abroad, I wondered how my teacher educator identity changed since becoming a Ph.D. student in the U.S. This self-study focused on understanding my teacher educator identity development using arts-based methods to generate data and then narrating the intricacies of my transcultural in-depth and analyzed journey. Using a third space construct, my self-study contributes to the body of literature on the becoming of a teacher educator from an international perspective. It presents the analysis of my learning experiences as an international student, originally from Peru and enrolled in a teacher education and teacher development Ph.D. program at a northeastern state university in the U.S. For an in-depth understanding of my transcultural journey, this self-study underscored the idea that I was a sojourner as an international student. A sojourner is an individual who, as a consequence of residing temporarily in a place while maintaining attachments to her place of origin, experiences contradictory thoughts, feelings, and emotions. In this self-study, I described how seeing myself at the intersection of two worlds, Peru and the U.S., affected how I understood my teacher educator development and subsequent mentoring and teaching practices. Through the transcultural lens of a sojourner, supported by border crossing and third space perspectives, and the use of multimodal strategies to generate and collect data, this research provided rich opportunities for an in-depth understanding of the nuances of my teacher educator becoming, which might also reflect the becomings of those emerging teacher educators who, being international, transnational, or bi-national, embody border-crossing circumstances and sentiments like I did


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