10871 research outputs found

    A nation-wide analysis of socioeconomic and geographical disparities in the prevalence of obesity and excess weight in children and adolescents in Spain: Results from the ENE-COVID study

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    Objective: To estimate national and provincial prevalence of obesity and excess weight in the child and adolescent population in Spain by sex and sociodemographic characteristics, and to explore sources of inequalities in their distribution, and their geographical patterns. Methods: ENE-COVID is a nationwide representative seroepidemiological survey (68 287 participants) stratified by province and municipality size (April-June 2020). Participants answered a questionnaire which collected self-reported weight and height, that allowed estimating crude and model-based standardized prevalences of obesity and excess weight in the 10 543 child and adolescent participants aged 2-17 years. Results: Crude prevalences (WHO growth reference) were higher in boys than in girls (obesity: 13.4% vs. 7.9%; excess weight: 33.7% vs. 26.0%; severe obesity: 2.9% vs. 1.2%). These prevalences varied with age, increased with the presence of any adult with excess weight in the household, while they decreased with higher adult educational and census tract average income levels. Obesity by province ranged 1.8%-30.5% in boys and 0%-17.6% in girls; excess weight ranged 15.2%-49.9% in boys and 10.8%-40.8% in girls. The lowest prevalences of obesity and excess weight were found in provinces in the northern half of Spain. Sociodemographic characteristics only partially explained the observed geographical variability (33.6% obesity; 44.2% excess weight). Conclusions: Childhood and adolescent obesity and excess weight are highly prevalent in Spain, with relevant sex, sociodemographic and geographical differences. The geographic variability explained by sociodemographic variables indicates that there are other potentially modifiable factors on which to focus interventions at different geographic levels to fight this problem.Instituto de Salud Carlos III; Ministerio de SanidadS

    Una revisión destaca el estudio del envejecimiento celular como factor común del desarrollo de la mayoría de enfermedades crónicas

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    La investigadora del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) Alicia Padrón Monedero ha publicado una revisión científica en torno a la denominada teoría de convergencia patológica de las enfermedades no transmisibles, que aborda la justificación de que estas enfermedades se conciban como diferentes facetas de un mismo proceso: el envejecimiento celular. El artículo se ha publicado en la revista Aging Medicine.N

    The JAK3Q988P mutation reveals oncogenic potential and resistance to ruxolitinib

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    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) arises from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors at various differentiation stages. Given that patients who relapse have a dismal prognosis, there is an urgent need to identify the molecular alterations that are present in such patients and promote leukemogenesis to implement personalized therapies with higher efficacy and fewer adverse effects. In the present manuscript, we identified the JAK3Q988P mutation in a T-ALL patient who did not achieve a durable response after the conventional treatment and whose tumor cells at relapse presented constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Although JAK3Q988P has been previously identified in T-ALL patients from different studies, the functional consequences exerted by this mutation remain unexplored. Through the combination of different hematopoietic cellular models, we functionally characterize JAK3Q988P as an oncogenic mutation that contributes to leukemogenesis. Notably, JAK3Q988P not only promotes constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in the absence of cytokines and growth factors, as is the case for other JAK3 mutations that have been functionally characterized as oncogenic, but also functions independently of JAK1 and IL2RG, resulting in high oncogenic potential as well as resistance to ruxolitinib. Our results indicate that ruxolitinib may not be efficient for future patients bearing the JAK3Q988P mutation who instead may obtain greater benefits from treatments involving other pharmacological inhibitors such as tofacitinib.This work was supported in part by funds from Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (SAF2015‐70561‐R; MINECO/FEDER, EU to J.F.‐P. and M.V.‐M.); Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (RTI2018‐093330‐B‐I00; MCIU/FEDER, EU to J.F.‐P. and J.S.); Fundación Ramón Areces (CIVP19S7917 to J.F.‐P.); Comunidad de Madrid (B2017/BMD‐3778; LINFOMAS‐CM to J.F.‐P.); Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer (AECC, 2018; PROYE18054PIRI to J.F.‐P.);and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Fundación Jiménez Díaz to J.F.‐P.;institutional grants from the Fundación Ramón Areces and Banco de Santander to the CBMSO are also acknowledged.S

    Human health effects of benzene, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, lead and mercury: Report of an expert consultation

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    Ana Isabel Cañas Portilla y Argelia Castaño Calvo del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (ISCIII) han participado en este informe como expertos proporcionando comentarios técnicos.Benzene, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and nickel are ubiquitous pollutants in ambient air. The main sources are industrial processes, electricity generation and fuel combustion. The main routes of exposure are inhalation for benzene, and diet for arsenic, cadmium, lead, nickel and mercury. Inhalation of benzene, arsenic and cadmium is relevant for exposure in active tobacco smokers and people exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke. Epidemiological studies show that exposure to these pollutants is associated with adverse effects on the cardiovascular (cadmium, lead, mercury); haematological (benzene, lead); immunological, neurological and reproductive (benzene, lead, mercury); respiratory (cadmium, nickel); renal (cadmium, lead); and skeletal (cadmium) systems. Limited epidemiological evidence on ambient air pollution suggests adverse effects on the cardiovascular system (arsenic and nickel). Since benzene, arsenic, cadmium and nickel are classified as carcinogenic, the lowest possible exposure level is suggested to minimize the risk for cancer development in view of the no-effect threshold paradigm. Lead and methylmercury compounds are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, the available evidence is insufficient to warrant updating the air quality guidelines for these air pollutants. Evidence gaps are identified and these should guide future research efforts.S

    Lo que implica el actual aumento de las infecciones respiratorias agudas en España

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    En estos días, muchos de nosotros hemos podido ver en nuestro círculo más cercano que varias personas han tenido síntomas de una infección respiratoria: fiebre, tos, dolores de garganta, musculares o de pecho, malestar general, inapetencia… Y suele resolverse, en la mayor parte de los casos, en pocos días con tratamiento sintomático, fundamentalmente antitérmicos y analgésicos.N

    Factors related to the development of high antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent plasma donors from the ConPlas-19 trial

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    Background and objectives: The efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CP) associates with high titres of antibodies. ConPlas-19 clinical trial showed that CP reduces the risk of progression to severe COVID-19 at 28 days. Here, we aim to study ConPlas-19 donors and characteristics that associate with high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Materials and methods: Four-hundred donors were enrolled in ConPlas-19. The presence and titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were evaluated by EUROIMMUN anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA. Results: A majority of 80.3% of ConPlas-19 donor candidates had positive EUROIMMUN test results (ratio ≥1.1), and of these, 51.4% had high antibody titres (ratio ≥3.5). Antibody levels decline over time, but nevertheless, out of 37 donors tested for an intended second CP donation, over 90% were still EUROIMMUN positive, and nearly 75% of those with high titres maintained high titres in the second sample. Donors with a greater probability of developing high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies include those older than 40 years of age (RR 2.06; 95% CI 1.24-3.42), with more than 7 days of COVID-19 symptoms (RR 1.89; 95% CI 1.05-3.43) and collected within 4 months from infection (RR 2.61; 95% CI 1.16-5.90). Male donors had a trend towards higher titres compared with women (RR 1.67; 95% CI 0.91-3.06). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 CP candidate donors' age, duration of COVID-19 symptoms and time from infection to donation associate with the collection of CP with high antibody levels. Beyond COVID-19, these data are relevant to inform decisions to optimize the CP donor selection process in potential future outbreaks.European Regional Development Fund (FEDER); Government of Spain, Ministry of Science and Innovation, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Grant/Award Number: COV20/00072; SCReN (Spanish Clinical Research Network), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Grant/Award Number: PT17/0017/0009S

    Prevalence of chronic HCV infection in EU/EEA countries in 2019 using multiparameter evidence synthesis

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    Background: Epidemiological data are crucial to monitoring progress towards the 2030 Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination targets. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HCV infection (cHCV) in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in 2019. Methods: Multi-parameter evidence synthesis (MPES) was used to produce national estimates of cHCV defined as: π = πrecρrec + πexρex + πnonρnon; πrec, πex, and πnon represent cHCV prevalence among recent people who inject drugs (PWID), ex-PWID, and non-PWID, respectively, while ρrec, ρex, and ρnon represent the proportions of these groups in the population. Information sources included the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) national operational contact points (NCPs) and prevalence database, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction databases, and the published literature. Findings: The cHCV prevalence in 29 of 30 EU/EEA countries in 2019 was 0.50% [95% Credible Interval (CrI): 0.46%, 0.55%]. The highest cHCV prevalence was observed in the eastern EU/EEA (0.88%; 95% CrI: 0.81%, 0.94%). At least 35.76% (95% CrI: 33.07%, 38.60%) of the overall cHCV prevalence in EU/EEA countries was associated with injecting drugs. Interpretation: Using MPES and collaborating with ECDC NCPs, we estimated the prevalence of cHCV in the EU/EEA to be low. Some areas experience higher cHCV prevalence while a third of prevalent cHCV infections was attributed to PWID. Further efforts are needed to scale up prevention measures and the diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals, especially in the east of the EU/EEA and among PWID.The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) funded the study.S

    El Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental participa en la iniciativa 'Rutas escolares saludables' del proyecto europeo URBANOME

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    La participación del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) en el proyecto europeo URBANOME cristalizará en este año 2024 en una nueva iniciativa de divulgación científica, denominada 'Rutas Escolares Saludables​', que se llevará a cabo en entornos urbanos de la ciudad de Madrid. Esta iniciativa diseñada por el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental del ISCIII, en colaboración con el Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT) cuenta con el apoyo de las áreas de Medio Ambiente y Educación Ambiental del Ayuntamiento de la capital.N

    Resuelta la convocatoria TransMisiones 2023: el ISCIII aporta 9,2 millones para colaboración público-privada en medicina de precisión

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    El Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades ha publicado las resoluciones definitivas de la convocatoria TransMisiones 2023. Bajo su paraguas se han aprobado un total de 40 proyectos de investigación, que cuentan con un presupuesto de 186,5 millones de euros. De las subvenciones ligadas a esta convocatoria, el ISCIII ha aportado finalmente 9,2 millones, que se suman a los 72 aportados por el Centro para el desarrollo Tecnológico y la Innovación (CDTI) y los 55 aportados por la Agencia estatal de Investigación (AEI). En este enlace se puede ver la resolución definitiva de concesión de las subvenciones del ISCIII, publicada en diciembre en el marco de la iniciativa del Instituto junto al CDTI.N

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