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    Relations between social services and urban policies. a review from the evidence

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    En las últimas décadas, las administraciones locales han adquirido progresivamente mayor protagonismo en la gestión urbana. En este contexto, las políticas urbanas (PP.UU.) como instrumentos para la mejora de las ciudades, resultan indispensables para la mejora de la calidad de vida de la ciudadanía. Esta razón, junto a derechos como proximidad o inclusión social, son compartidos por los Servicios Sociales (SS.SS.) y además guardan coherencia con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. La finalidad de esta investigación se centra en relacionar precisamente los conceptos de política urbana (P.U.) y SS.SS. con intención de recopilar, indagar y sintetizar la evidencia cualitativa, cuantitativa y mixta en torno a esta relación. Se realiza una investigación primaria que explora las temáticas que enfocan los estudios elegidos desde las bases de datos WOS, Scopus y 1finder (carácter complementario). Se evalúa la calidad de los hallazgos con una síntesis de evidencia cualitativa, cuantitativa y mixta, basada en el método Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. En cuanto a los resultados, por un lado, destacar que existe una mayoría de estudios con diseño cualitativo (n = 18) de un total de 23 estudios incluidos en la revisión, otros artículos comprenden diseños de estudios cuantitativos (n = 3) y mixtos (n = 2). Por otro lado, EE.UU. protagoniza el primer puesto como país objeto de estudio de estas obras (n = 6) y también las ciudades de gran tamaño poblacional (n = 13). Por último, reseñar que existe un diferente desarrollo de los artículos en los diferentes países con respecto a las PP.UU. centradas en los SS.SS., una diversidad temática influenciada por el concepto de gestión urbana.Urban policy as an instrument for improving cities has become indispensable for enhancing residents quality of life. This rationale, combined with the importance of rights such as proximity and social inclusion, is also shared by the social services (SS from here on) and consistent with UN sustainable development objectives. This study aim to assemble, investigate and summarize the mixed evidence available on topics centring studies of urban policy on SS. To this end a preliminary study was carried out to explore the topics using WOS, Scopus and 1finder (complementary) databases. The quality of the findings was assessed by the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Of a total of 23 included in the review, were found to be of qualitative design (n = 18), quantitative (n = 3) and mixed (n = 2). USA was found to be the main country studied in these papers (n = 6); and most of the studies focused on cities with large populations (n = 13). A final finding was that divergences between countries in approaches to urban policy centred on SS led to studies being performed differently, and showing the influence of urban management in each country

    Disclosures about algorithmic decision making in the corporate reports of Western European companies

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    Over the last decade, the use of different artificial intelligence (AI) tools has increased. To shed some light on the emerging trend of AI disclosure, the aim of this paper is to analyse the current practices of major Western European companies regarding the automated decision-making (ADM) disclosure in their annual or sustainability reports. This paper proposes a methodology based on bigrams that enables the automatic extraction of the information on ADM that companies disclose. The sample consisted of 962 annual/sustainability reports, published in 2018 and 2019, of 337 companies listed on 13 Western European countries’ stock markets. Our findings show that ADM disclosure is still at an early stage and that the first adopters are mostly companies operating in the financial sector.Funding for open access charge: Universidad de Huelva / CBU

    Assessment of the teaching performance of students in initial training after participating in simulations of teaching practices in a virtual world

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    El Mundo Virtual (MV) ha ganado prominencia teórica en el ámbito educativo dada sus múltiples ventajas; sin embargo, en la práctica, su integración a procesos de Formación Inicial Docente (FID) sigue siendo poco estudiada. Esta investigación de diseño pre-experimental tiene por objetivo analizar el efecto de simulaciones de prácticas pedagógicas en un MV sobre la valoración de desempeños pedagógicos de estudiantes en FID. Participaron 140 estudiantes chilenos de programas de pedagogía en una intervención educativa que constó de seis sesiones de 90 minutos durante un período de dos meses durante la pandemia. Se administró un instrumento de autorreporte, como pre y post test, para la valoración de desempeños pedagógicos. Los hallazgos reportan un efecto positivo de las simulaciones de prácticas pedagógicas sobre el desempeño docente, como también, una mayor valoración por parte de estudiantes de cursos superiores en comparación a estudiantes de cursos inferiores. Se concluye que el MV refuerza competencias pedagógicas, disciplinares y tecnológicas de los futuros profesores, y proporciona un espacio de simulación de prácticas efectivas en un contexto seguro ante las condiciones actuales por COVID-19.The Virtual World (VW) has gained theoretical prominence in the educational field due to its multiple advantages; however, in practice, its integration into Initial Teacher Training (ITT) processes is still scarcely studied. This pre-experimental design research aims to analyze the effect of simulations of pedagogical practices in a VW on the assessment of pedagogical performance of students in ITT. 140 Chilean students from pedagogy programs participated in an educational intervention consisting of six 90-minute sessions over a period of two months during the pandemic. A self-report instrument was administered as a pre- and post-test for the assessment of pedagogical performance. Findings show a positive effect of the simulations of pedagogical practices on teaching performance, as well as a higher rate by students at higher grades compared to students at lower grades. It is concluded that the VW allows reinforcing pedagogical, disciplinary and technological competencies of future teachers, and provide a space for simulation of effective practices in a safe context under the current conditions by COVID-19

    Single-Switch Non-Isolated Resonant DC-DC Converter for Single-Input Dual-Output Applications

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    This paper describes a new configuration of Cuk and SEPIC (Single-Ended Primary Converter) ZVS-QR (zero-voltage switching quasi-resonant) combination DC-DC converter for bipolar output with a single switch. The proposed topology employs a single ground-referenced power switch, which simplifies the gate drive design with a single L-C resonant network and provides a bipolar output voltage with good regulation, acceptable efficiency and a step-down/up conversion ratio. This configuration provides dual-output voltage by switching the power switch to zero voltage, which is an interesting alternative for many applications where small size, light weight and high power density are very important aspects. In order to verify its performance, a SEPIC–Cuk Combination ZVS-QR prototype with a cost-effective commercial resonant controller was designed and tested. The experimental results show that the proposed combined topology is suitable for Single-Input Dual-Output (SIDO) applications

    Los barcos del cielo. Testimonios calcolíticos del suroeste ibérico

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    L’art rupestre du Chalcolithique ibérique inclut des images de bateaux. Dans de nombreux cas, leur schématisation atteint de tels niveaux qu’il devient difficile de les identifier comme de véritables embarcations. Ces dites représentations peuvent être représentées en étant associées à des figures solaires, car elles constituent une expression de la croyance archaïque en des dieux qui se déplacent dans le ciel sur des barques sacrées. Cette mentalité se manifeste également au travers de figures animales trouvées dans des tombes, certaines d’entre elles interprétables comme des barques utilisées par le défunt pour atteindre l’autre monde. Ce présent travail analyse les divers échantillons graphiques de cette croyance religieuse, en commençant par les témoignages les plus réalistes et en poursuivant par les plus abstraits. Notre étude se centre sur le Sud-Ouest ibérique, mais l’interprétation de certains éléments exigent de prendre en compte des données d’autres régions. L’ensemble de ces preuves archéologiques représentent toute une partie d’une idéologie étendue sur quasiment toute la Méditerranée, au moins depuis le Néolithique.El arte rupestre del Calcolítico ibérico incluye imágenes de barcos. En muchos casos su esquematismo llega a niveles tan altos que resulta difícil identificarlas como verdaderas embarcaciones. Dichas representaciones pueden ir asociadas a figuras solares, porque constituyen una expresión de la creencia arcaica en dioses que se desplazan por el cielo en naves sagradas. Esta mentalidad también se manifestó en figurillas de animales halladas en tumbas, algunas de ellas interpretables como barcas que el difunto necesitaba para alcanzar el otro mundo. El presente trabajo analiza diversas muestras gráficas de tal creencia religiosa, comenzando por los testimonios más realistas para desembocar en los más abstractos. Nuestro estudio se centra en el Suroeste ibérico, pero la interpretación de algunos elementos exige contar con datos de otras regiones. Todos ellos formaron parte de una ideología extendida por casi todo el Mediterráneo al menos desde el Neolítico

    Metal bioaccumulation in spontaneously grown aquatic macrophytes in Fe-rich substrates of a passive treatment plant for acid mine drainage

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    Some plants may thrive in polluted environments, accumulating high concentrations of metal/loids in their organs. This study investigates for the first time the bioaccumulation and translocation of metal/loids in Typha domingensis spontaneously grown in extremely Fe-rich substrates (38–44% of Fe2O3) from different components of an acid mine drainage disperse alkaline substrate passive treatment. Most metal/loids were predominantly accumulated in the roots over the aerial parts of the plant, with concentrations of 0.66–9.5% of Fe, 0.02%–0.18% of Al, 55–2589 mg kg-1 of Mg, 51–116 mg kg-1 of Zn, 17–173 mg kg-1 of Cu, and 5.2–50 mg kg-1 of Pb. Bioconcentration factors were mostly below 1 for metal/loids in the studied aneas (e.g. 0.03–0.47 for Cu, 0.10–0.73 for Zn, 0.04–0.28 for As, 0.07–0.55 for Pb, 0.27–055 for Cd, 0.24–0.80 for Ni), which evidences that T. domingensis behaves as an excluder species in these substrates. Translocation factors were below 1 for most elements (e.g. 0.01–0.42 for As, 0.06–0.50 for Pb, 0.24–0.65 for Cd, and 0.10–0.56 for Sb), except for Mn, Ni and in some cases for Tl, Cu and Zn, which indicates limited transfer of metals between plant tissues. Mineralogical and geochemical substrate properties are pointed out as the main factors responsible for the lower bioconcentration and translocation of potentially toxic elements. In addition, the oxidizing conditions existent in the pore water-root system may also limit the mobility of metals from Fe oxides and hydroxysulfates, the main component of the substrate. The formation of a Fe plaque inside the roots may also limit the transfer of metals to the aerial parts. The spontaneous occurrence of T. domingensis in the substrates of the acid mine drainage passive treatments is an environmental indicator of the efficiency of the system and could be used as a complementary polishing step, given the strong tolerance of this plants to high concentrations of metal/loids.Funding for open access charge: Universidad de Huelva / CBUA M.D. Basallote thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the Postdoctoral Fellowship granted under application reference IJC2018-035056-I. C.R C´anovas thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the Postdoctoral Fellowship granted under application reference RYC2019-027949-I

    Viability Analysis of Tidal Turbine Installation Using Fuzzy Logic: Case Study and Design Considerations

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    Tidal energy represents a clean and sustainable source of energy generation that can address renewable energy challenges, especially the global challenge of optimizing alternatives for stable supply. Although tidal stream energy extraction technology is in the early stages of development, it shows great potential compared to other renewable energy sources. The main objective of this research is to provide a digital tool for the optimization of the installation of turbines through fuzzy logic. The methodology in this study includes the design and development of a fuzzy-logic-based tool for this purpose. Design criteria included parameters such as salinity, temperature, currents, depth, and water viscosity, which affect the performance of tidal turbines. These parameters are obtained from the geographic location of the installation. A decision-making system is provided to support the tool. The designed fuzzy logic system evaluates the suitability of different turbine locations and presents the results through graphics and probability of success percentages. The results indicate that currents and temperatures are the most limiting factors in terms of potential turbine locations. The program provides a practical and efficient tool for optimizing the selection of tidal turbines and generating energy from ocean currents. This tool is evaluated and validated through different cases. With this approach, the aim is to encourage the development of tidal energy and its adoption worldwide

    Psychosocial factors and low-risk behaviour in ICT use among adolescents

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    Muchas investigaciones actuales analizan comportamientos de riesgo de adolescentes en el uso de TIC (como el uso excesivo o adictivo), siendo escasas las que exploran las características del comportamiento de bajo riesgo. El objetivo fue analizar el perfil psicosocial de una muestra de 593 adolescentes españoles de 13 a 18 años. El grupo de uso de TIC de bajo riesgo se calculó mediante: «el índice de multitarea mientras se realizan tareas escolares» e ítems sobre conductas de riesgo en el uso de TIC. Se realizaron pruebas Chi-cuadrado y pruebas t y una regresión logística binaria por pasos para predecir el bajo riesgo de uso de TIC. Los resultados mostraron que el 7,1% se clasificó como usuario de TIC de bajo riesgo, con mayor porcentaje de chicas. Su perfil se caracterizaba por: menor autoeficacia digital en redes sociales, menor uso generalizado de las TIC y una actitud menos dependiente; menor extroversión y mayor amabilidad y responsabilidad; un mayor autoconcepto académico; disponer de normas de uso de TIC en el hogar; y un apego menos inseguro y ansioso hacia las figuras paternas. Las variables que predijeron un comportamiento de bajo riesgo fueron: un elevado autoconcepto académico; una baja percepción de ansiedad por separación de los seres queridos; y una puntuación alta en amabilidad. Estos resultados son útiles para proponer intervenciones psico-socio-educativas que promuevan el uso saludable de las TIC.Many current investigations have analysed adolescents’ risky ICT behaviours (such as excessive or addictive use), but few have explored the characteristics of low-risk behaviour in this regard. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial profile of a sample of 593 Spanish adolescents aged 13 to 18 who have been categorized as low-risk ICT users. To this end, the low-risk ICT use group was calculated using the “multitasking while doing homework index” and a set of items on risky ICT behaviour. Chi-squared and t-tests were performed and a forward stepwise binary logistic regression was carried out to determine the explanatory variables for low-risk ICT use. The results showed that some 7.1% were classified as low-risk ICT users, with a higher percentage of girls. These users’ profile was characterised by: lower digital self-efficacy with social networking applications; less generalized ICT use and a less dependent attitude; less extroversion and more agreeableness and conscientiousness; higher academic self-concept; having rules for ICT use at home; and less insecure and anxious attachment to parental figures. The variables that predicted the likelihood of low-risk ICT behaviour were: high academic self-concept; low perceived separation anxiety from loved ones; and high agreeableness scores. These results are useful for proposing psycho-socio-educational interventions to promote healthy ICT use

    Political empowerment among young voters: Social media, partisanship and the moderating role of political interest

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    A pesar de los recientes esfuerzos para examinar los resultados políticos del uso de las redes sociales, se sabe poco sobre el refuerzo del empoderamiento político. Es vital comprender los elementos que influyen en el nivel de empoderamiento político. Por lo tanto, este documento utilizó una muestra de votantes paquistaníes (n=410) del grupo de edad de 18 a 29 años para ofrecer información sobre cómo el uso de las redes sociales junto con otros comportamientos políticos, como el partidismo, la expresión política y el interés político, afectan al empoderamiento político. La Teoría de la Identidad Social (TIS) y la Teoría de la Elección Racional proporcionaron la base teórica para las variables de este estudio. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron utilizando mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS) para evaluar los efectos de cuatro variables, es decir, el uso de las redes sociales, el partidismo político, la expresión política y el interés político, en el empoderamiento político. Este estudio hizo una contribución significativa a la literatura de investigación al combinar ambas teorías en un solo marco. El trabajo también amplía la literatura sobre el interés político al introducirlo como moderador entre la relación inconsistente de la expresión política y el empoderamiento político. Los resultados demostraron que el partidismo y el uso de las redes sociales influyeron positivamente en la expresión política entre los votantes jóvenes. Además, el interés político moderó positivamente la relación entre la expresión política y el empoderamiento político.Despite recent efforts to examine the political outcomes of social media use, little is known about the reinforcement of political empowerment and moderating effect of political interest. It is vital to understand the elements that influence the level of political empowerment. Therefore, this paper used a sample of Pakistani voters (n=410) aged 18-29 to offer insight into how social media use alongside other political behaviors, such as partisanship, political expression, and political interest, affect political empowerment. Social Identity Theory (SIT) and rational choice theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the variables of this study. The statistical analyses were performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) to assess the effects of four variables i.e., social media use, political partisanship, political expression, and political interest, on political empowerment. This study made a significant contribution to the research literature by combining SIT and rational choice theory in one framework. This study also expands the literature on political interest by introducing political interest as a moderator between the inconsistent relationship of political expression and political empowerment. Our results demonstrated that partisanship and social media use positively influenced political expression among young voters. Moreover, political interest positively moderated the relationship between political expression and political empowerment

    Marcapáginas BUH. Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Turismo

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