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    25118 research outputs found

    Public employment services and vulnerable youth in the EU: The case of rural NEETs

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    The Covid‐19 pandemic created unprecedented pressure to accelerate public employment services (PES) digitalisation across Europe. In fact, there is now a considerable amount of funding dedicated to that goal in broadband policy packages, such as the Recovery and Resilience Mechanism. This pressure for digitalizing PES presumes that its benefits outweigh the existing risks, regardless of citizens’ singularities, such as vulnerable young people going through the school‐to‐work transition. Bearing that in mind, and following a bioecological model framework, our article addresses two main goals. Firstly, based on a targeted literature review, we detail the challenges and possibilities posed by PES digitalisation for vulnerable young people in EU countries, which have been widely overlooked in the literature. We specifically argue that despite several practical advantages (e.g., releasing staff from time‐consuming administrative tasks), PES digitalisation will only be beneficial for vulnerable young people if three interrelated challenges are taken into account: nurturing trust in institutions and digital tools, supporting digital transformation of PES institutional organization, and adopting a co‐design lens for PES digitalisation. Secondly, using a knowledge integration approach, we describe a model for assessing PES capacity to digitally support rural young people not in employment, education, or training to enter the labour market. We conclude that the overemphasis on the expected advances of overall PES digitalisation must be followed by thoughtful consideration of PES digitalisation processes to ensure EU social inclusion targets for the younger generations.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Language comprehenders are sensitive to multiple states of semantically similar objects

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    The present research shows that language comprehenders are sensitive to multiple states of target and semantically related objects. In Experiments 1 to 2B, participants (total N = 273) read sentences that either implied a minimal change of an object’s state (e.g., “Jane chose a mango”) or a substantial change (e.g., “Jane stepped on a mango”) and then verified whether a subsequently pictured object was mentioned in the sentence. Crucially, the picture either showed the original/modified state of an object that was mentioned in the sentence (e.g., “mango” in Experiment 1) or not (e.g., “banana” in Experiments 2A and 2B). The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the objects in a modified state were verified faster when a sentence implied a substantial state-change rather than a minimal state-change. In contrast, the reverse was true for the objects in the original state. Importantly, verification latencies of pictures depicting original and modified states of an object in the substantial state-change condition were approximately similar, thus suggesting that language comprehenders maintain multiple representations of an object in different states. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B revealed that when participants had to indicate that a pictured object (e.g., banana) was not mentioned in the sentence, their verification latencies were slowed down when the sentence contained a semantically related item (e.g., mango) and described this item as being changed substantially by the action. However, these verification latencies varied continuously with the degree of change: the more dissimilar the states of a semantically related item, the less time participants needed to verify a pictured object. The results are discussed through the prism of theories emphasizing dynamic views of event cognition.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The role of work and individual characteristics on the knowledge-transfer and subsequent performance after training in a highly-uncertain context

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    The present study aimed to understand the training transfer to an extreme working context, through the analysis of variables related to the training design (e.g., leader’s and colleague’s support), the individual’s characteristics (e.g., adaptability), and the work environment (e.g., the opportunity to transfer the acquired knowledge). Specifically, we intended to (1) analyze the mediating role of motivation to transfer in the relationship between the perceived support from the supervisor and colleagues and performance, and (2) between adaptability and performance in an extreme context. To do so, training about the new safety rules regarding the pandemic crisis of COVID-19 was implemented in a healthcare institution. It consisted of three sessions (each with one hour of training) regarding procedures, rules, and safety norms. Overall, 291 healthcare workers participated in the study and answered an online questionnaire one week after the training completion. The results showed that the motivation to transfer had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between colleagues’ and supervisors’ support and performance and between adaptability and performance. Additionally, complementary analyzes showed that the mediations depended on the levels of self-efficacy, in such a way that the indirect relationships were stronger when self-efficacy was higher. Thus, adaptability and support, both from colleagues and the supervisor, are determining factors for knowledge transfer and resultant performance in extreme contexts, such as the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. These findings provide support for the role of employee motivation to transfer as a mechanism connecting both perceived support and adaptability to performance outcomes, under extreme working contexts. This study, conducted in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic context - an extreme and uncertain working context – shows the relevance of both job and individual factors to predict employees’ adaptability to such contexts.info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

    Sensing the body matters: Profiles of interoceptive sensibility in chronic pain adjustment

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    Interoception is critical to health regulation and is often disrupted in individuals with chronic pain (ICPs). Interoceptive sensibility (IS)—the self-reported experience and relationship toward internal states—includes skills such as sensing, interpreting, and using bodily information for self-regulation. Current studies on IS and chronic pain (CP) adjustment are scarce, and how the interplay between different IS skills shapes CP adjustment remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify profiles of IS skills among ICPs and examined their associations with pain outcomes and psychological and behavioral risk or protective processes. Individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain (n = 173; 84.4% women) completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), measures of CP adjustment (depression, anxiety, vitality, pain severity, interference, and physical function), psychological (self-efficacy, catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia), and behavioral processes (activity patterns). A cluster analysis identified 3 IS skills profiles: (1) high IS skills (n = 68), with the highest levels of attention regulation toward bodily sensations, body trust, listening for insight, and self-regulation; (2) low IS skills (n = 29), who distracted less and worried more about bodily sensations, and presented lower-body trust; and (3) mixed IS skills (n = 71), despite good body trust, attention regulation, and low worrying, showed lower awareness of body–mind connections. Interoceptive sensibility skills profiles differed in depression, vitality (fatigue), and psychological or behavioral processes, such as pain-related self-efficacy, catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and activity pacing. These findings contribute to integrating body–mind connections more explicitly into current theoretical CP models and developing tailored interventions targeting specific IS skills to improve CP adjustment.info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

    Entrepreneurship performance in the EU: To what extent do economic, social, and government conditions matter?

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    Entrepreneurship is widely recognized as a key driver of economic development. At the same time, entrepreneurship is also affected by the economic conditions of the regions where it evolves. In the literature, negative impacts on entrepreneurial performance have been linked to the 2008 financial crisis in the European Union (EU). However, not enough evidence has been provided to support this assertion. To fill this gap, we tested the relationship between economic, social, and government conditions and entrepreneurial performance. We did this for opportunity entrepreneurship (OPP), necessity entrepreneurship (NEC) and total entrepreneurial activity (TEA), for the period 2003-2018, which means before, during and after the financial crisis. We considered 21 EU countries and applied descriptive, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Our results demonstrate that: a) there is a positive and significant correlation between NEC and OPP; GDP per capita and OPP; unemployment and TEA; gender ratio and age; gender ratio and education; education and TEA; population and NEC; government indicators and GDP per capita; and government expenditure and NEC; and a negative and significant correlation between GDP per capita and TEA; and b) economic, social, and government conditions had a negative impact on TEA, in contrast to a positive impact on NEC and OPP. Therefore, our study impacts the practitioners by demonstrating the factors that do or do not impact the entrepreneurial activity in the EU. Additionally, our study expands upon previously analyzed factors that influence entrepreneurial performance, promoting value and originality in the area.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Subjective well‐being of NEETs and employability: A study of non‐urban youths in Spain, Italy, and Portugal

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    Subjective well-being is of paramount importance when support is offered to young individuals seeking employment and social inclusion in general. The present study looks at different dimensions of youth well-being and the growing demands for skills to enable labour market integration. Based on survey data, this article examines the relationships between the role of public employment services in providing support and their impact on the subjective well-being of youth. Specifically, 1,275 not in education, employment, or training (NEET) rural youths from Italy, Portugal, and Spain participated in the survey. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, the current study sets up a model which includes different factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-system levels. The results show that non-urban NEETs’ subjective well-being is associated positively with public employment services availability, while the relationship with public employment services interaction and public employment services support is non-significant. A positive and significant relationship emerged also with self-efficacy and social support. Some recommendations for policymakers are discussed.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Transforming the CIDOC-CRM model into a megalithic monument property graph

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    This paper presents a method to store information about megalithic monument-building components as graph nodes in a knowledge graph (KG). As a case study, we analyse the dolmens from the region of Pavia (Portugal). To build the KG, information has been extracted from unstructured data to populate a schema model based on the International Committee for Documentation - Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC- CRM). In order to prepare the archaeological monument's information for bulk loading, it was transformed into semi-structured data. While the semi-structured file was used to populate the classes with their respective properties and instances, the KG labels and types were defined using some of the entities and relations defined by the CIDOC-CRM. The knowledge-driven model was built to represent dolmens in a formal and structured manner using Neo4J, a property-graph database. Modeling a labeled property graph based on predefined labels as a KG enables to transform textual semantic data into instances and properties. Thus, we show that it is possible to represent at a granular level all the information about the structural components of monuments since heterogeneities, granularities, and large amounts of data can be handled by a KG. Therefore, a KG implemented using a native graph database can improve data storage and processing, making it interoperable between humans, between humans and machines and machine to machine.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    How socially responsible human resource management fosters work engagement: The role of perceived organizational support and affective organizational commitment

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    Purpose – In recent years, efforts to reinforce the links between corporate social responsibility and human resource management have highlighted employees’ role as crucial organizational stakeholders. This study aims to investigate whether workers’ perception of socially responsible human resource management (SR-HRM) based on employee-focused practices is related to work engagement (WE). This research also explored whether perceived organizational support (POS) and affective commitment (AC) can contribute to explaining this relationship. Social exchange theory and job demands-resources model were used to theoretically frame the research. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a sample of 222 employees working in diverse organizations, using individual online surveys. Several analyses were conducted to assure data robustness to common method bias. Findings – The results confirm that SR-HRM fosters WE and that this effect is subject to sequential mediation by POS and AC. Accordingly, SR-HRM practices contribute to higher level of POS, which then foster stronger affective bonds with employers and, in turn, higher levels of vigor, absorption and dedication among workers. Originality/value – The findings contribute to the expansion of the SR-HRM literature by providing a deeper understanding of how this management strategy affects employees’ job-related attitudes, particularly WE a much-overlooked variable in this realm.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Aplicação do Balanced Scorecard numa empresa do setor da logística

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    Num contexto empresarial em constante mudança e com a crescente aceleração do ritmo e competitividade dos mercados, o sucesso das organizações exige uma abordagem estratégica a longo prazo que permita, de forma ágil, dar resposta a todos os fatores a que estão sujeitas. O Balanced Scorecard proporciona às organizações uma importante ferramenta de formulação, implementação, monitorização e comunicação da estratégia. Introduzido inicialmente por Robert S. Kaplan e David P. Norton no início da década de 1990, e objeto de vários estudos ao longo dos anos que possibilitaram a sua evolução, a popularidade desde modelo tem sido crescente, pela sua simplicidade e eficácia. Promovendo uma avaliação holística do desempenho de uma empresa e construindo a ponte entre as aspirações estratégicas da organização e a sua realidade operacional, o BSC revela-se uma ferramenta bastante útil, que liga intrinsecamente os objetivos estratégicos de alto nível às ações e processos específicos das operações do dia-a-dia. Facilita a compreensão dos objetivos estratégicos, promovendo uma abordagem proativa à gestão do desempenho. Este projeto tem como principal objetivo desenvolver um BSC para a empresa DHL eCommerce Portugal, unidade de negócio da multinacional do setor de logística – Grupo DHL – , especializada no transporte e distribuição de encomendas por via rodoviária. Com base numa metodologia qualitativa, complementada pelo método action-research, os métodos de recolha de informação utilizados foram fundamentalmente entrevistas, observação e análise de documentos. O contributo deste trabalho estará na definição de um plano de implementação e operacionalização deste sistema de gestão estratégica na empresa em estudo.In a constantly changing business environment and with the increasing acceleration of the pace and competitiveness of markets, the success of organizations requires a long-term strategic approach that allows them to respond quickly to all the factors to which they are subject. The Balanced Scorecard provides organizations with an important tool for formulating, implementing, monitoring and communicating strategy. First introduced by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton in the early 1990s and the subject of various studies over the years that have enabled it to evolve, the model has become increasingly popular due to its simplicity and effectiveness. Promoting a holistic assessment of a company's performance and building the bridge between the organization's strategic aspirations and its operational reality, the BSC proves to be a very useful tool, that intrinsically links high-level strategic objectives to the specific actions and processes of day-to-day operations. It facilitates the clear understanding of strategic objectives by promoting a proactive approach to performance management. The main objective of this project is to develop a BSC for the company DHL eCommerce Portugal, business unit of multinational in the logistics sector – DHL Group – specialized in the transport and distribution of parcels by road. Based on a qualitative methodology, complemented by the action-research method, the information collection methods used were mainly interviews, observation and document analysis. The contribution of this work will be in the definition of a plan for the implementation and operationalization of this strategic management system in the company under study

    The performance of bank portfolio optimization

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    Given a liability structure, the bank portfolio optimization determines an asset allocation that maximizes profit, subject to restrictions on Basel III ratios and credit, liquidity, and market risks. Bank allocation models have not been tested using historical data. Using an optimization model based on turnover constraints, we develop such tests, which document the superior performance of optimization strategies compared to heuristic rules, resulting in an average annual out-of-sample outperformance of 15.1% in terms of return on equity using our data set. This outperformance is remarkable and contrasts with the reported underperformance of several portfolio optimization methods in the case of investment management.info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

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