Archivio istituzionale della ricerca - Università di Brescia

    Pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini‐densiflorae

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    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panelperformed a pestcategorisation of Pseudocercosporapini-densiflorae, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The regulated harmful organism is the anamorph Cercoseptoriapini-densiflorae (synonym Cercosporapini-densiflorae) with the corresponding teleomorph Mycosphaerellagibsonii. P.pini-densiflorae causes a needle blight of Pinus spp. also known as Cercospora blight of pines or Cercospora needle blight. P.pini-densiflorae is reported from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia and Oceania, but not from the EU. The pathogen is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IIAI) as a quarantine organism whose introduction into the EU is banned on plants (other than fruit and seeds) and wood of Pinus. The pest could enter the EU via plants for planting and other means (uncleaned seed, cut branches of pine trees, isolated bark, growing media accompanying plants, and mycorrhizal soil inocula). Hosts are widespread in the EU and favourable climatic conditions are present in Mediterranean countries. Pinushalepensis, Pinusnigra, Pinuspinea, Pinuspinaster and Pinussylvestris are reported to be highly susceptible to the pathogen. The pest would be able to spread following establishment after introduction in the EU mainly on infected plants for planting. The pest introduction could have impacts in nurseries and young plantations. Cleaning seeds from needles and removing infected seedlings and pine litter from affected nurseries can reduce the risk of establishment in nurseries and of spread from nurseries to forests, especially given the limited scale of splash dispersal. The main knowledge gaps concern (i) the role of means of entry/spread other than plants for planting and (ii) the potential consequences in mature tree plantations and forests. The criteria assessed by the Panelfor consideration as potential quarantine pest are met. For regulated non-quarantine pests, the criterion on the pest presence in the EU is not met

    Robotics rehabilitation of the elbow based on surface electromyography signals

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    Physical rehabilitation based on robotic systems has the potential to cover the patient’s need of improvement of upper extremity functionalities. In this article, the state of the art of resistant and assistive upper limb exoskeleton robots and their control are thoroughly investigated. Afterward, a single-degree-of-freedom exoskeleton matching the elbow–forearm has been advanced to grant a valid rehabilitation therapy for persons with physical disability of upper limb motion. The authors have focused on the control system based on the use of electromyography signals as an input to drive the joint movement and manage the robotics arm. The correlation analysis between surface electromyography signal and the force exerted by the subject was studied in objects’ grasping tests with the purpose of validating the methodology. The authors developed an innovative surface electromyography force–based active control that adjusts the force exerted by the device during rehabilitation. The control was validated by an experimental campaign on healthy subjects simulating disease on an arm, with positive results that confirm the proposed solution and that open the way to future researches

    Prospettive sulla buona fede: la suggestione di un rimedio unificante per il contratto ingiusto

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    Il saggio si concentra sul problema dell'equilibrio contrattuale nel dialogo tra autonomia contrattuale e ordinamento giuridico, tentando di individuare dei parametri unitari tra i frastagliati paradigmi del "contratto ingiusto". Si esamina quindi la rilevanza positiva della buona fede esplorando la latitudine del potere d’intervento del giudice. Nel ricostruire il principio di buona fede individuandone la funzione «ausiliaria», si tenta un possibile superamento del contrasto tra autonomia contrattuale ed interventi eteronomi in modo da identificare un rimedio unificante per il contratto ingiusto

    Pest risk assessment of Radopholus similis for the EU territory

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    he Panelon Plant Health performed a pest risk assessment on Radopholussimilis, the burrowing nematode for the EU. The quantitative assessment focused on entry, establishment, spread and impact on tropical and subtropical ornamental host plants, the main pathways for entry of R.similis into the EU. Infested consignments are expected to enter the risk assessment area on ornamentals under all scenarios. For citrus, which is a closed pathway for entry, outdoor establishment was assessed. Establishment may only take place after successful transfer from ornamental plants to citrus production systems. This event is called shift' in this assessment, to indicate that this is an unusual transfer. It has been estimated that establishment of this nematode in the open field in the EU citrus production areas under current temperatures is possible in most parts of the citrus production area in the EU. Temperature conditions will prevent the nematode from establishing only in the northernmost citrus areas and at higher altitudes in the south. Host plants for planting originating from infested places of production (greenhouses) within the risk assessment area are considered the main pathway for spread within the risk assessment area. Under current climatic conditions, the population of R.similis is not expected to reach damaging population levels in the open field. In case of increased temperatures due to global warming, the nematode population may reach damaging levels in very few places outdoors. Currently, main impact is considered for ornamental greenhouse production in the risk assessment area. Impact will be either caused by direct plant growth reductions or loss due to phytosanitary measures applied on regulated plants. Despite the fact that R.similis is globally considered as one of the most destructive plant parasitic nematodes, the impact in the risk assessment area is considered low

    Geometries arising from trilinear forms on low-dimensional vector spaces

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    Let Gk(V) be the k-Grassmannian of a vector space V with dimV=n. Given a hyperplane H of Gk(V), we define in [I. Cardinali, L. Giuzzi, A. Pasini, A geometric approach to alternating k-linear forms, J. Algebraic Combin. doi: 10.1007/s10801-016-0730-6] a point-line subgeometry of PG(V) called the geometry of poles of H. In the present paper, exploiting the classification of alternating trilinear forms in low dimension, we characterize the possible geometries of poles arising for k=3 and n≤7 and propose some new constructions. We also extend a result of [J.Draisma, R. Shaw, Singular lines of trilinear forms, Linear Algebra Appl. doi: 10.1016/j.laa.2010.03.040] regarding the existence of line spreads of PG(5,K) arising from hyperplanes of G3(V)

    Clausola risolutiva espressa e condizione risolutiva tra autonomia contrattuale e automatismo della risoluzione

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    Il presente contributo si concentra sul perimetro dell'intervento giudiziale a presidio dell'equilibrio contrattuale con riferimento alla clausola risolutiva espressa, soffermandosi sulla differenza tra quest'ultima e la condizione risolutiva

    Pest categorisation of Aschistonyx eppoi

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    The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the gall midge Aschistonyx eppoi Inouye (1964) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), for the EU. A. eppoi is a well‐defined and distinguishable species, native to Japan and Korea, and recognised as a pest of Juniperus chinensis, although our knowledge is solely based on one unique publication. A. eppoi is absent from the EU, and is listed in Annex IIAI of Directive 2000/29/EC. Its host plants, Juniperus spp. are also listed in Annex III of Directive 2000/29/EC. Plants for planting and branches are considered as pathways for this pest. A. eppoi has been intercepted twice (1974; 1975) in the EU and has been eradicated. The pest is likely to affect bonsai plants of J. chinensis if it were to establish in the EU territory. However, as it is unknown whether A. eppoi would attack the Juniperus spp. that occur in the EU, its potential impact on the wild vegetation is also unknown. As the pest originates from areas with warm climates, impact outdoors would affect the southern parts of the EU. Cultural control (destruction of infested material) and chemical control are the major control methods. All criteria assessed by EFSA for consideration as a potential quarantine pest are met, although there are high uncertainties regarding impact. The species is presently absent from the EU, and thus the criteria for consideration as a potential regulated non‐quarantine pest are not met

    Harmonic and Anharmonic Features of IR and NIR Absorption and VCD Spectra of Chiral 4-X-[2.2]Paracyclophanes

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    The vibrational absorption spectra and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of both enantiomers of 4-X-[2.2]paracyclophanes (X ) COOCD3, Cl, I) have been recorded for a few regions in the range of 900- 12000 cm-1. The analysis of the VCD spectra for the two IR regions, 900-1600 cm-1 and 2800-3200 cm-1, is conducted by comparing with DFT calculations of the corresponding spectra; the latter region reveals common motifs of vibrational modes for the three molecules for aliphatic CH stretching fundamentals, whereas in the mid-IR region, one is able to identify specific signatures arising from the substituent groups X. In the CH stretching region between 2900 and 2800 cm-1, we identify and interpret a group of three IR VCD bands due to HCH bending overtone transitions in Fermi resonance with CH stretching fundamental transitions. The analysis of the NIR region between 8000 and 9000 cm-1 for X ) COOCD3 reveals important features of the aromatic CH stretching overtones that are of value since the aromatic CH stretching fundamentals are almost silent. The intensifying of such overtones is attributed to electrical anharmonicity terms, which are evaluated here by ab initio methods and compared with literature data

    Fine needle cytology of complex thyroid nodules.

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a preliminary aspiration (ASP) of the cystic component and/or using spinal needles in complex thyroid nodules (CTN) could improve the adequacy of cytological sampling. METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2006, 386 consecutive patients with CTN were enrolled in this prospective investigation. Ultrasound (US) fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the solid component of the nodule (one nodule per patient) was performed using two different 25 gauge needles, with (Yale Spinal, YS) or without (Neolus, NS) a stylet, in alternate sequence on consecutive patients. In addition, a subgroup of patients presenting larger cystic component (approximately 50%) was submitted to total aspiration of the cystic component (ASP+) or not submitted (ASP-) before US-FNAC, in alternate sequence within each needle type group. All the samplings were performed by a single endocrinologist. RESULTS: Adequate specimens were observed in 163 (84.5%) and 183 (94.8%) nodules investigated by NS and YS respectively. Sampling with the stylet needle was associated with an overall significant reduction of non-diagnostic specimens (15.5% vs 5.2% by NS and YS respectively, P < 0.001). The favourable result obtained with YS was independent from preliminary aspiration of the cystic component (ASP+: 14.8% vs 5.7% by NS and YS; ASP-: 16.2% vs 4.8%, not significant). A logistic regression analysis, taking into account nodule size and presence of intranodal vascularity at eco-colour evaluation of the solid component, confirmed that needle type was the only significant predictor of successful sampling (odds ratio 3.6 (95% confidence interval 1.7-7.6), P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that adopting stylet needles to perform FNAC in CTN may significantly improve the percentage of adequate sampling. On the other hand, preliminary aspiration of CTN with large cystic component does not add any advantage

    A cooperative Top-Down/Bottom-Up Technique for Motion Field Segmentation

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    The segmentation of video sequences into regions underlying a coherent motion is one of the most useful processing for video analysis and coding. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that exploits the advantages of both top-down and bottom-up techniques for motion eld segmentation. To remove camera motion, a global motion estimation and compensation is rst performed. Local motion estimation is then carried out relying on a traslational motion model. Starting from this motion eld, a two-stage analysis based on ane models takes place. In the rst stage, using a top-down segmentation technique, macro-regions with coherent ane motion are extracted. In the second stage, the segmentation of each macro-region is rened using a bottom-up approach based on a motion vector clustering. In order to further improve the accuracy of the spatio-temporal segmentation, a Markov Random Field (MRF)-inspired motion-and-intensity based renement step is performed to adjust objects boundaries
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