The role of CD180 in hematological malignancies and inflammatory disorders.


Toll-like receptors play a significant role in the innate immune system and are also involved in the pathophysiology of many different diseases. Over the past 35 years, there have been a growing number of publications exploring the role of the orphan toll-like receptor, CD180. We therefore set out to provide a narrative review of the current evidence surrounding CD180 in both health and disease. We first explore the evidence surrounding the role of CD180 in physiology including its expression, function and signaling in antigen presenting cells (APCs) (dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells). We particularly focus on the role of CD180 as a modulator of other TLRs including TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9. We then discuss the role of CD180 in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in hematological malignancies of B cell origin, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Based on this evidence we produce a current model for CD180 in disease and explore the potential role for CD180 as both a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target. Throughout, we highlight specific areas of research which should be addressed to further the understanding of CD180 biology and the translational potential of research into CD180 in various diseases

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