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    Marcel Lopes dos Santos1, Kelly Kennedy2, Filip Kukić3, Brent A. Alvar4, Robert G. Lockie5, J. Jay Dawes1 1Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma; 2Fit-to-Enforce, Miami, Florida; 3Police Sports Education Center, Abu Dhabi; 4Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; 5California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, California Attaining and maintaining an adequate level of physical fitness is essential for law enforcement officers. However, agencies often have logistical challenges with performing body composition assessments to determine the relationships of both body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI) on health, fitness and occupational performance. PURPOSE: To determine if significant relationships exist between body composition, physical fitness, and occupational performance among male and female police cadets. METHODS: Archived data from 1,009 police cadets (724 males: age= 28.2±6.4. yrs, ht= 172.8±9.5 cm, BM= 82.8±16 kg BMI= 27.6±4.1 kg/m2; 285 females: age= 29±6.7 yrs, ht= 173.5±9.4 cm, BM= 85.3±16.5 kg, BMI= 28.3±4.5 kg/m2) were analyzed. Body mass (BM), BF%, muscular endurance (1-minute push-ups, 1-minute sit-ups), lower-body power (vertical jump height), sit-n-reach, and hand grip strength were measured, followed by a specific occupational Physical Ability Test (PAT). Lastly, aerobic fitness (2.4-km run) and sustained anaerobic power (300-m run) tests were performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each parameter. Pearson’s correlations were used to calculate relationships between each of the assessments and the PAT. Significance levels were set at p\u3c0.05. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between BF% and sit-n-reach (r= -0.107, p=.004), hand grip (r= 0.084, p=.024), vertical jump (r= -0.532, p\u3c.001), push-up (r= -0.384, p\u3c.001), and sit-up (r= -0.309, p\u3c.001) scores, 300-m run (r= 0.483, p\u3c.001) and 2.4-km run (r= 0.184, p\u3c.001) times, and PAT (r= 0.474, p\u3c.001) performance among male cadets. Significant relationships were discovered between BF% and hand grip (r= 0.225, p\u3c.001), vertical jump (r= -0.294, p\u3c.001), push-up (r= -0.320, p\u3c.001), and sit-up (r= -0.243, p\u3c.001) scores, and 300-m run (r= 0.492, p\u3c.001) performance among female cadets. The only significant relationships between BMI and performance were discovered in sit-n-reach and vertical jump among female cadets (p\u3c.05). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that higher BF% may negatively impact performance in male and female police cadets. Physical training programs for police cadets should focus on optimal body composition levels achievement for improving health, fitness, and occupational performance

    ‘Twenty hearts beating as none’: primary education in Ireland, 1899-1922

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    At the dawn of the twentieth century, the Irish national school system catered for the educational needs of almost 800,000 children in 8,500 schools. Despite its manifest numerical success and its agency in the near elimination of illiteracy, issues such as clerical management, the payment by results system, inferior school conditions, the proliferation of small schools, the restricted curriculum, the teaching of Irish and the reorganisation of the inspectorate generated a confluence of challenging circumstances for all participants. This was the scenario presented to Dr William Starkie, academic and classical scholar, who was appointed Resident Commissioner of Education in 1899. This study charts the fortunes of the national school system from 1899 to 1922, a period roughly coinciding with the tenure of Dr W.J.M. Starkie as Resident Commissioner of National Education. This commenced with an active programme of curricular and administrative reform that served to modernise primary education in Ireland, which had lagged behind systems elsewhere. Parallel with this programme of change, there were strong intimations that the British government harboured plans to reform Irish education and its administration along the de facto lines recently pursued in England. As the primary education system in Ireland had evolved into a denominational one, financed by government but clerically managed, the various Churches were in the main generally satisfied. As a result, every suggestion that schools be financed by rates and under local control was stoutly resisted. Successive chief secretaries failed to progress this policy. Furthermore, Starkie’s energetic approach to administrative reform not only encountered opposition, it generated additional problems. The new system of pay, increments and promotion for teachers, introduced in tandem with the Revised Curriculum, and combined with a changed inspectoral remit proved problematic, with the result that although curricular reform was successfully introduced, progress was disrupted by financial and organisational issues. Two vice-regal inquiries, in 1913 and 1918, delved minutely into primary education provision under the National Board. These highlighted the scale of the deficiencies of the existing system and provided the impetus, had it been fully grasped, for further organisational and administrative change. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 ensured the matter was put on the back burner for the duration, and when it was taken up again, in its immediate aftermath, it was too late. A final attempt was made in 1918 20 to address the structural deficiencies of the Irish educational system. Had this been achieved, it would have resulted in the replacement of the National Board, which was no longer fit for purpose, by a state Department of Education in the manner of that already in place in Great Britain. This was not possible in Ireland because of political and ideological developments that heralded the breakup of the Union. The rise of cultural nationalism, and with it the Gaelic League, had brought increasingly exigent calls for the introduction of a bilingual programme of education. These were addressed at first by curricular accommodation, but the 1916 Rising raised nationalist aspirations. When it came to education provision, nationalists and the Catholic Church increasingly found common cause in the late 1910s and, as a new political disposition beckoned, the alliance forged was a hallmark f or the future in which the churches and the Catholic Church in particular were permitted to retain their ascendant position in the provision of education and the state acceded to an essentially subordinate, administrative position

    Partisan Dilemmas Between Activism and Socially Engaged Art: Situations in Loisaida at the End of the Seventies

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    The end of 1970s is an interesting moment to understand the epistemic shift that involves the passage from partisan artistic activism to contemporary socially engaged art. Then, a significant convergence took place in the neighborhood of Loisaida (NYC), where artists and local residents coincided in their modes of action. However, its subsequent cultural interpretations have overlooked each other. Art history cosmopolitan approaches clashed with migration identities, traversed by victimhood, but also by transnational heritages. This article examines and reunites both traditions looking for a reparative art history

    10 Year Anniversary Issue

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    In celebration, this edition reminisces on the earlier works of the Grand Valley Journal of History, as this year marks the 10 year anniversary of the journal’s inception. This special collection highlights the considerable growth of the journal over the past decade by compiling an article from volumes one through seven that best represents Zeitgeist, or the “spirit of the times.” Our editors\u27 notes have a common theme of noticing how some perspectives of historical events and cultural ideas have stayed the same, while others have shifted. By looking back into history, we can see that the spirit of the times may not be the same as it once was, or that the spirit itself is what has driven both material and ideological changes across time. We thank you for your readership and continued interest in the Grand Valley Journal of History

    Recreational Reading of Students at the Tarbiat Modares University

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    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the recreational reading status of students at the Tarbiat Modares University. Methodlogy: This is a descriptive-analytical survey. The statistical population consists of a group of master's and doctoral students of Tarbiat Modares University in the academic year of 1398-99. The sample size was 203 people. The research questionnaire was based on the MĂŒller’s questionnaire. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, the opinions of experts were used. The questionnaire was randomly distributed among them. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. It was 0.834%. Findlings: Most of repondents refer to 13.38% of the recreational resources of virtual networks, and the university has not been able to stimulate interest in recreational reading among students. Among the libraries, their first priority is 49.74% of the central library of Tarbiat Modares University, compared to the public library and other libraries. For information from recreational sources, 29.17% of them prefer email. However, most students, (65.33%), preferred printed format to enjoy recreational reading. Conclusion: We concluded that the interest in recreational reading is approximately 37.4% on average. Due to the limited time to do class activities, they spend three to four hours a week on recreational reading, and 32.2% studied their favorite subjects. Value: The study provides original information on the current state of recreational reading of students at the Tarbiat Modares University which could lead to significant results if used in future planning of library