591,910 research outputs found

    Quartz and Prehnite: Minerals during the Renaissance

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    Minerals were displayed in wonder rooms for their beauty and used by apothecaries for their medical properties and artists, for sculptures and pigments. Minerals during the Renaissance were collected and displayed in wonder rooms to illustrate the beauty of nature. Humanists would have categorized minerals by their external qualities- color, transparency, form, luster, and smell. Over time, geologists continue to study these external qualities when they are first analyzing minerals, and the internal properties. Today the six major factors in identifying minerals are cleavage, the tendency of minerals to break into flat surfaces; color; crystal form or how the form of the mineral changes as the mineral crystallizes; hardness, the resistance to scratching to measure its strength; luster, the light reflection; and streak, the color of the streak left when a mineral is grinded on porcelain. [excerpt

    Method for producing oxygen from lunar materials

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    This invention is related to producing oxygen from lunar or Martian materials, particularly from lunar ilmenite in situ. The process includes producing a slurry of the minerals and hot sulfuric acid, the acid and minerals reacting to form sulfates of the metal. Water is added to the slurry to dissolve the minerals into an aqueous solution, the first aqueous solution is separated from unreacted minerals from the slurry, and the aqueous solution is electrolyzed to produce the metal and oxygen

    Mining revival

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    In relation to its size the United Kingdom (UK) is remarkably well-endowed with mineral resources as a result of its complex geological history. Their extraction and use have played an important role in the development of the UK economy over many years and minerals are currently worked at some 2100 mine and quarry sites. Production is now largely confined to construction minerals, primarily aggregates, energy minerals and industrial minerals including salt, potash, kaolin and fluorspar, although renewed interest in metals is an important development in recent years

    Bounded policy learning? : EU efforts to anticipate unintended consequences in conflict minerals legislation

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    Inspired by the emerging literature on unintended consequences of EU external action, this article studies how the anticipation of negative unintended consequences factors into EU policy-making. Using policy learning analytical lens, case study research strategy and process-tracing method, this article examines EU policy-making on conflict minerals: when respective EU policy was drafted, the negative unintended consequences of the earlier US conflict minerals legislation figured prominently in the debate. The analysis shows why and how major differences between US and EU conflict minerals legislation have resulted from bounded lessons-drawing driven by two opposing transatlantic advocacy coalitions. Eventually, the EU designed its conflict minerals policy so as to mitigate perceived negative unintended consequences of the earlier US law. The article contributes to literatures on unintended consequences of EU external action, policy learning and specifically bounded lessons-drawing in EU context, and conflict minerals legislation

    Compilation of the data on the land withdrawals in Alaska

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    Major decisions an the use and disposition of land in Alaska are being made by the State and Federal governments. These decisions will affect the utilization of all our land resources including minerals. Since minerals are an essential component of our existance, the availability and access to minerals is an important issue. There are approximately 2600 land orders and acts classifying land in Alaska that restrict the utilization of our minerals resources. As of April 1977, approximately twenty-six percent of Alaska, or 100,875,391 acres was open to mineral entry and location under the Federal Mining Laws and the State Mining and Mineral leasing Laws

    Afghanistan : revival and redevelopment

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    Major redevelopment projects in Afghanistan are placing large demands on the minerals industry, which is struggling to keep pace. Clive Mitchell and Antony Benham report on the revival of the country’s industrial minerals industry

    Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees

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    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms