24,761 research outputs found

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005–2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    The second wave of COVID-19 and beyond: Rural healthcare

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    There are increasing signs that SARS-CoV-2 has started to spread to rural areas in India. It impacts people’s health, lives, and public health infrastructure that is already strained from a lack of resources. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural India is a worrying trend; 50% of reported cases since the beginning of May 2021 are from rural districts. Long-standing systemic, functional, and health inequities have put people in rural communities at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and suffering from the lack of essential healthcare services. Health disparities between rural and urban areas exist not only in terms of risk factors, such as poor diet and vaccine hesitancy, but also in terms of healthcare infrastructure, manpower, and testing facilities. We suggest some long-term and short-term measures to efficiently develop strategies to contain and control the pandemic in rural areas. Short-term measures include implementing health communication tailored in culturally sensitive ways, increasing vaccination by the usual immunisation pattern, increasing the number of testing facilities, and ensuring food security through the public distribution system (PDS). Long-term suggestions include strengthening the primary healthcare system, increasing funding in the health sector to 2.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP), introducing mid-level care providers, improving skills and training of ASHAs along with adequate financial incentives, and ensuring participation of multiple stakeholders in community health schemes

    Viability of patent insurance in Spain

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    M-24609-2013Since 1975 the FUNDACIÓN MAPFRE has involved itself in activities serving the general interests of society in different areas of business and culture along with activities aimed at improving the economic and social conditions of the least advantaged members and sectors of society. Within this framework, the FUNDACIÓN MAPFRE’s Institute of Insurance Science promotes and undertakes educational and research activities in the fields of insurance and risk management. In the area of education, its activities include specialized, post-graduate academic training carried out in association with the Pontifical University of Salamanca and courses and seminars for professionals held in Spain and Latin America. These activities have been expanded into other geographic regions thanks to cooperation with a series of institutions in Spain and other countries and an Internet training programme. The Institute offers grants for research in risk and insurance science and operates a specialized insurance and risk management Documentation Centre as support for its activities. The Institute routinely sponsors and draws up reports and publishes books dealing with insurance and risk management to improve our understanding of these fields. Some are intended as reference materials for those starting out in the study or practice of insurance affairs, while others are intended as information sources for undertaking research into specialized issues in greater depth. One of these activities is the publication of this volume, the outcome of research carried out by Drs. PĂ©rez Carrillo and Cuypers in 2011 and 2012, under the guidance of JosĂ© Antonio AventĂ­n Arroyo

    El sector emprendedor de las TIC, el comercio electrĂłnico y la colaboraciĂłn con usuarios: efectos sobre el resultado innovador de la empresa

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    pp. 87-102El extraordinario avance que han experimentado las tecnologĂ­as de la informaciĂłn y las comunicaciones (TIC) durante las Ășltimas dĂ©cadas y la enorme variedad de sus aplicaciones ha provocado importantes cambios sociales y econĂłmicos. Sus efectos no solo afectan a las empresas que las emplean, sino que tambiĂ©n repercuten sobre el conjunto del sistema econĂłmico.S

    School Reintegration Following Hospital Treatment for an Eating Disorder; Two Case Studies with Multiple Perspectives on the Reintegration Process

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    School reintegration following hospitalisation has been explored for children and young people (CYP) with medical and mental health needs. No previous research was identified that specifically focused on the experiences of CYP who have returned to school following inpatient care for an eating disorder. A multiple case study design was used to retrospectively explore the experiences of two young people who successfully reintegrated to school following hospital support for an eating disorder. The study compromised of two case studies. The research focused on exploring ‘what went well’ and ‘what could have been even better’ during the school reintegration process. Semi-structured interviews were used in two case studies of a young person who had spent time at inpatient unit for over 6 months for support with anorexia nervosa before reintegrating into sixth form. Views were gathered from four participants in each case study: the young person, their parent, the young person's previous hospital school key teacher and the home school key person (who supported with the reintegration). The interviews were carried out remotely, via Microsoft Teams, due to the coronavirus pandemic. The dataset from each case study was analysed separately using thematic analysis and an overall thematic map was presented for the findings from each case study. Three themes were identified in Case Study One: young person’s strengths, preparation for young person’s return and supportive relationships and environment. Four themes were identified in Case Study Two: young person’s internal motivators and external motivators, preparing for school return, support systems, and sense of school belonging and connectedness. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research that has explored school reintegration following hospital support for mental health difficulties more broadly and psychological theory. Strengths, limitations and implications for schools, families and educational psychologists are highlighted. Recommendations for future research are also discussed

    Exploring the Impact of Living with Fanconi Anaemia & Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia: A Systemic Consideration

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    Aims: Amidst a growing body of medical research, little is yet known about the psychological impact of living with two rare life-limiting conditions, Fanconi Anaemia (FA) and Diamond Blackfan Anaemia (DBA). One might expect some level of impact on well-being as indicated by wider literature on other childhood illnesses. At present, understanding of this impact is limited in being generalised from other research, as therefore are the supports available. This research seeks to begin a consideration of the psychological impact, and to consider how support has been deemed. Method: Using semi-structured interviews, parents and individuals living with FA or DBA were interviewed regarding their experiences. Thematic analysis was used to achieve an overview of these experiences. Results: Themes identified for individuals included: 1. ‘Knowledge’, which outlined the impact of lack of knowledge and 2. ‘Illness Concept’ relating to one’s relationship to FA/DBA and how this is socially mediated. For parents, themes identified were: 1. ‘Knowledge’, which centered on uncertainty and 2. ‘Social Responses’ which related to areas of support and strain. These themes indicated an impact on individual well-being. Two joint themes were identified: 1. ‘Family Dynamics’ which outlined how relationships and family well-being may be impacted and 2. ‘Mental Health Care as Necessary but Inadequate’. Conclusion: There was a clear impact articulated regarding the well-being of family members, individually and collectively in concerns regarding relational dynamics. There was also clear demand for psychological support which, in its current form, was generally considered inadequate. Research must be responsive in furthering efforts to establish clear and adequate pathways and a standard of care for the well-being of all families living with FA/DBA

    The Lived Experiences of Yoga Practice for Female Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

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    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) permeates all aspects of personhood including the body. There is a surge in the interest in reviewing yoga’s potential usefulness for trauma survivors in clinical trials. However, very little research focuses on women’s perspectives who experienced CSA and have subsequently practised yoga in community settings. This study investigated six women’s lived experiences of yoga practice, mainly focusing on the helpful and unhelpful aspects of yoga that mediated their recovery. Adult women survivors with experience of movement-based yoga in a group setting for at least eight weeks in the last year were recruited. Data were collected using individual, face-to-face, and semi-structured interviews. The transcribed data were analysed using Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) underpinned by constructivist ontology, phenomenological epistemology, and feminist axiology. Three emergent themes were identified- “Coming to yoga”, “Process of becoming” and “Reclaiming life”. Women’s narratives in this study illustrated that they found yoga a useful and resilience-building resource in their journey of healing. With consistent and frequent practice, they reported feeling more present, self-aware, and compassionate towards themselves. Teacher’s qualities such as fostering safety, choice and holistic focus were identified as significant mediating factors that aided this journey, whereas crowded, mixed-gender, and posture-focused practice presented challenges for some respondents. This study has the potential to help Counselling psychologists (CoP), therapists, psychologists, mental health practitioners, yoga teachers, and health professionals involved in the care of the CSA survivors in implementing an evidence-based and holistic approach that facilitates self-directed recovery of CSA survivors. Further research is needed to establish if the benefits and challenges of different aspects of practice apply to the diverse population and its potential usefulness in various phases of recovery. Also, find ways to standardize the yoga practice considering variations in the approach to ensure safe and ethical practice