381,861 research outputs found

    Linear magnetic motor/generator

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    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path

    Characteristics of Low-Latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar cycle 24

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    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO/AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range 2011/01/01 to 2013/12/31. We analyse the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic field densities, the local distribution of the SDO/AIA-193 intensity and the magnetic field within the coronal holes, and the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in coronal holes. We find that the mean magnetic field density of all coronal holes under study is 3.0 +- 1.6 G, and the percentage of unbalanced magnetic flux is 49 +- 16 %. The mean magnetic field density, the mean unsigned magnetic field density, and the percentage of unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes depend strongly pairwise on each other, with correlation coefficients cc > 0.92. Furthermore, we find that the unbalanced magnetic flux of the coronal holes is predominantly concentrated in magnetic flux tubes: 38 % (81 %) of the unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes arises from only 1 % (10 %) of the coronal hole area, clustered in magnetic flux tubes with field strengths > 50 G (10 G). The average magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux derived from the magnetic flux tubes correlate with the mean magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux of the overall coronal hole (cc > 0.93). These findings give evidence that the overall magnetic characteristics of coronal holes are governed by the characteristics of the magnetic flux tubes.Comment: 15 figure

    3D simulations of rising magnetic flux tubes in a compressible rotating interior: The effect of magnetic tension

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    Context: Long-term variability in solar cycles represents a challenging constraint for theoretical models. Mean-field Babcock-Leighton dynamos that consider non-instantaneous rising flux tubes have been shown to exhibit long-term variability in their magnetic cycle. However a relation that parameterizes the rise-time of non-axisymmetric magnetic flux tubes in terms of stellar parameters is still missing. Aims: We aim to find a general parameterization of the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes for solar-like stars. Methods: By considering the influence of magnetic tension on the rise of non-axisymmetric flux tubes, we predict the existence of a control parameter referred as Γα1α2\Gamma_{\alpha_1}^{\alpha_2}. This parameter is a measure of the balance between rotational effects and magnetic effects (buoyancy and tension) acting on the magnetic flux tube. We carry out two series of numerical experiments (one for axisymmetric rise and one for non-axisymmetric rise) and demonstrate that Γα1α2\Gamma_{\alpha_1}^{\alpha_2} indeed controls the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes. Results: We find that the rise-time follows a power law of Γα1α2\Gamma_{\alpha_1}^{\alpha_2} with an exponent that depends on the azimuthal wavenumber of the magnetic flux loop. Conclusions: Compressibility does not impact the rise of magnetic flux tubes, while non-axisymmetry does. In the case of non-axisymmetric rise, the tension force modifies the force balance acting on the magnetic flux tube. We identified the three independent parameters required to predict the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes, that is, the stellar rotation rate, the magnetic flux density of the flux tube, and its azimuthal wavenumber. We combined these into one single relation that is valid for any solar-like star. We suggest using this generalized relation to constrain the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes in Babcock-Leighton dynamo models.Comment: 18 pages, 15 figures, 6 tabula

    Observations of solar small-scale magnetic flux-sheet emergence

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    Aims. Moreno-Insertis et al. (2018) recently discovered two types of flux emergence in their numerical simulations: magnetic loops and magnetic sheet emergence. Whereas magnetic loop emergence has been documented well in the last years, by utilising high-resolution full Stokes data from ground-based telescopes as well as satellites, magnetic sheet emergence is still an understudied process. We report here on the first clear observational evidence of a magnetic sheet emergence and characterise its development. Methods. Full Stokes spectra from the Hinode spectropolarimeter were inverted with the SIR code to obtain solar atmospheric parameters such as temperature, line-of-sight velocities and full magnetic field vector information. Results. We analyse a magnetic flux emergence event observed in the quiet-sun internetwork. After a large scale appearance of linear polarisation, a magnetic sheet with horizontal magnetic flux density of up to 194 Mx/cm2^{2} hovers in the low photosphere spanning a region of 2 to 3 arcsec. The magnetic field azimuth obtained through Stokes inversions clearly shows an organised structure of transversal magnetic flux density emerging. The granule below the magnetic flux-sheet tears the structure apart leaving the emerged flux to form several magnetic loops at the edges of the granule. Conclusions. A large amount of flux with strong horizontal magnetic fields surfaces through the interplay of buried magnetic flux and convective motions. The magnetic flux emerges within 10 minutes and we find a longitudinal magnetic flux at the foot points of the order of \sim101810^{18} Mx. This is one to two orders of magnitude larger than what has been reported for small-scale magnetic loops. The convective flows feed the newly emerged flux into the pre-existing magnetic population on a granular scale.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted as a letter in A&

    Magnetic Flux Loss and Flux Transport in a Decaying Active Region

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    We estimate the temporal change of magnetic flux perpendicular to the solar surface in a decaying active region by using a time series of the spatial distribution of vector magnetic fields in the photosphere. The vector magnetic fields are derived from full spectropolarimetric measurements with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. We compare a magnetic flux loss rate to a flux transport rate in a decaying sunspot and its surrounding moat region. The amount of magnetic flux that decreases in the sunspot and moat region is very similar to magnetic flux transported to the outer boundary of the moat region. The flux loss rates [(dF/dt)loss(dF/dt)_{loss}] of magnetic elements with positive and negative polarities are balanced each other around the outer boundary of the moat region. These results suggest that most of the magnetic flux in the sunspot is transported to the outer boundary of the moat region as moving magnetic features, and then removed from the photosphere by flux cancellation around the outer boundary of the moat region.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Ap

    Magnetic-flux pump

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    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density

    Buoyant magnetic flux ropes in a magnetized stellar envelope: Idealized numerical 2.5-D MHD simulations

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    Context: The context of this paper is buoyant toroidal magnetic flux ropes, which is a part of flux tube dynamo theory and the framework of solar-like magnetic activity. Aims: The aim is to investigate how twisted magnetic flux ropes interact with a simple magnetized stellar model envelope--a magnetic "convection zone"--especially to examine how the twisted magnetic field component of a flux rope interacts with a poloidal magnetic field in the convection zone. Method: Both the flux ropes and the atmosphere are modelled as idealized 2.5-dimensional concepts using high resolution numerical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Results: It is illustrated that twisted toroidal magnetic flux ropes can interact with a poloidal magnetic field in the atmosphere to cause a change in both the buoyant rise dynamics and the flux rope's geometrical shape. The details of these changes depend primarily on the polarity and strength of the atmospheric field relative to the field strength of the flux rope. It is suggested that the effects could be verified observationally.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures (9 files), accepted by A&

    Magnetic flux jumps in textured Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+d)

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    Magnetic flux jumps in textured Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+d) have been studied by means of magnetization measurements in the temperature range between 1.95 K and Tc, in an external magnetic field up to 9 T. Flux jumps were found in the temperature range 1.95 K - 6 K, with the external magnetic field parallel to the c axis of the investigated sample. The effect of sample history on magnetic flux jumping was studied and it was found to be well accounted for by the available theoretical models. The magnetic field sweep rate strongly influences the flux jumping and this effect was interpreted in terms of the influence of both flux creep and the thermal environment of the sample. Strong flux creep was found in the temperature and magnetic field range where flux jumps occur suggesting a relationship between the two. The heat exchange conditions between the sample and the experimental environment also influence the flux jumping behavior. Both these effects stabilize the sample against flux instabilities, and this stabilizing effect increases with decreasing magnetic field sweep rate. Demagnetizing effects are also shown to have a significant influence on flux jumping.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures, RevTeX4, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Signatures of magnetic reconnection at boundaries of interplanetary small-scale magnetic flux ropes

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    The interaction between interplanetary small-scale magnetic flux ropes and the magnetic field in the ambient solar wind is an important topic to understand- ing the evolution of magnetic structures in the heliosphere. Through a survey of 125 previously reported small flux ropes from 1995 to 2005, we find that 44 of them reveal clear signatures of Alfvenic fluctuations, and thus classify them into Alfven wave trains rather than flux ropes. Signatures of magnetic reconnection, generally including a plasma jet of ~30 km/s within a magnetic field rotational region, are clearly present at boundaries of about 42% of the flux ropes and 14% of the wave trains. The reconnection exhausts are often observed to show a local increase in the proton temperature, density and plasma beta. About 66% of the reconnection events at flux rope boundaries are associated with a magnetic field shear angle larger than 90 deg and 73% of them reveal a decrease by 20% or more in the magnetic field magnitude, suggesting a dominance of anti-parallel reconnec- tion at flux rope boundaries. The occurrence rate of magnetic reconnection at flux rope boundaries through the year of 1995 to 2005 is also investigated and we find that it is relatively low around solar maximum and much higher when ap- proaching solar minima. The average magnetic field depression and shear angle for reconnection events at flux rope boundaries also reveal a similar trend from 1995 to 2005. Our results demonstrate for the first time that boundaries of a substantial fraction of small-scale flux ropes have properties similar to those of magnetic clouds, in the sense that both of them exhibit signatures of magnetic reconnection. The observed reconnection signatures could be related either to the formation of small flux ropes, or to the interaction between flux ropes and the interplanetary magnetic fields.Comment: 10 figures, accepted by Ap
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