1,501,000 research outputs found

    The State of Organic Seed in Europe

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    This booklet will present the information collected through research of the LIVESEED project in order to shed light on the actual situation of organic seed use in Europe. In particular, it will focus on the following questions: 1. How does the farmer know what varieties are available as organic seed? How do organic seed databases work in different EU countries and how could they be improved? 2. How much non-organic seed or planting material is used in EU organic farming? How many derogations are granted in different EU Member States and Switzerland? 3. Which are the factors encouraging or discouraging farmers to use organic seed? Which farm and farmer characteristics influence adoption of organic seed? How can organic plant breeding contribute to 100% organic seed use? 4. How has the organic seed market developed in the last years? According to seed suppliers` perspective, what factors hamper the further development of the organic seed sector? To answer these questions, researchers in the LIVESEED project applied integrated research tools and methodologies: a comparative review of the different databases on organic seed in 28 EU countries; an integrated analysis of national derogation reports to measure the current use of nonorganic seed in Europe; a survey among farmers, to understand their perspective on the use of organic seed; and finally a survey among seed suppliers to evaluate trends in the offer of organic seed on the market. A quantitative model was used to estimate the potential demand for organic seed in Europe on the basis of the data collected

    Interactive Destiny

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    Mitra demonstrates that specific memory erasure causes the observer to be in a different sector of the multiverse, one with a different destiny: events in the future, remote to any possible influence of the observer, having radically different probabilities. The concept only applies to an observer defined by a structure of information, so cannot apply to a human observer as usually defined, as the physical body. However, Everett defines the functional identity of the observer as the contents of the memory, a structure of information. Only such an identity encounters the appearance of collapse. Thus, any observer encountering change of this nature is necessarily of this type, and in principle Mitra's effect would apply. Alteration to the quantum state of the physical environment effective for the observer merely by deletion of a record of observation would seem to require that the universe is primarily an information system, and that physical reality is secondary to the information defining it. This, however, is only the case with respect to the collapse dynamics. The universe is first and foremost a physical reality, as generally understood, defined by the quantum state, with the concomitant linear dynamics. Thus, at any given moment, the effective physical environment of the observer is a Newtonian, relativistic, physical domain, probabilistically defined throughout four-dimensional space-time by the linear dynamics of the quantum state of the environment effective for that observer: here the quantum mechanical frame of reference. With regard to the collapse dynamics, such a domain is of a first, primitive, logical type, while collapse, the change of the quantum mechanical frame of reference, is of a different, second logical type. As Everett makes clear, collapse is a purely subjective phenomenon, and as Tegmark explains, it exists only on the inside view of the quantum mechanical frame of reference. In this regard, and here only, the information process of the collapse dynamics, the establishment of new correlations with the physical environment, is primary, and, in a sense, 'overrules' the linear dynamics of the physical environment

    Great Plains IDEA Student Handbook: South Dakota State University Version

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    The Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (IDEA) is a partnership of 20 public university members providing access to the best educational opportunities by collaboratively developing and delivering high-quality online academic programs. Great Plains IDEA is an academic alliance that offers fully-online graduate programs in high demand professional fields. This is the version of the student handbook developed for the South Dakota State University, Master of Science in Sociology

    Trade-Offs in Distributed Interactive Proofs

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    The study of interactive proofs in the context of distributed network computing is a novel topic, recently introduced by Kol, Oshman, and Saxena [PODC 2018]. In the spirit of sequential interactive proofs theory, we study the power of distributed interactive proofs. This is achieved via a series of results establishing trade-offs between various parameters impacting the power of interactive proofs, including the number of interactions, the certificate size, the communication complexity, and the form of randomness used. Our results also connect distributed interactive proofs with the established field of distributed verification. In general, our results contribute to providing structure to the landscape of distributed interactive proofs

    The Role of Interactivity in Local Differential Privacy

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    We study the power of interactivity in local differential privacy. First, we focus on the difference between fully interactive and sequentially interactive protocols. Sequentially interactive protocols may query users adaptively in sequence, but they cannot return to previously queried users. The vast majority of existing lower bounds for local differential privacy apply only to sequentially interactive protocols, and before this paper it was not known whether fully interactive protocols were more powerful. We resolve this question. First, we classify locally private protocols by their compositionality, the multiplicative factor k1k \geq 1 by which the sum of a protocol's single-round privacy parameters exceeds its overall privacy guarantee. We then show how to efficiently transform any fully interactive kk-compositional protocol into an equivalent sequentially interactive protocol with an O(k)O(k) blowup in sample complexity. Next, we show that our reduction is tight by exhibiting a family of problems such that for any kk, there is a fully interactive kk-compositional protocol which solves the problem, while no sequentially interactive protocol can solve the problem without at least an Ω~(k)\tilde \Omega(k) factor more examples. We then turn our attention to hypothesis testing problems. We show that for a large class of compound hypothesis testing problems --- which include all simple hypothesis testing problems as a special case --- a simple noninteractive test is optimal among the class of all (possibly fully interactive) tests

    Resistance to Digitisation: Curated Memory Cards Artefact

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    date-added: 2015-03-24 04:16:59 +0000 date-modified: 2015-03-24 04:16:59 +0000date-added: 2015-03-24 04:16:59 +0000 date-modified: 2015-03-24 04:16:59 +0000The act of networking in any context has some element of ceremonial performance attached to it. In an analogue world these performances have historically included the act of exchanging business cards. This ‘ceremony of networking’ has the potential to be altered by the emergence of new media, especially digital technology, displacing the old ceremony of business card exchanges and disrupting what can traditional be seen as networking. The history of business cards have shown that, despite several digital alternatives, they are still resistant to digitisation and so predominantly still physical and tangible. So, we sought to explore the ceremony around giving business cards as the sharing of ‘curated memory’, to better understand how and why we share and co-create curated memories with others. Including the sharing curated memories more generally, and the changing nature of networking, arising from the ever-increasing connectivity and digital embeddedness associated with the information age. Therefore, exploring the ceremony around needing, creating, sharing and using business cards, within different contexts and cultures. Also, identifying the tasks that people are trying to perform and optimise at different stages (before, during, and after) in a range of scenarios. Also, to explore how the ceremonies of networking might be significantly altered as a result of digital media and tools. The approach of using sets of cards around Who, How, Why and Where emerged from the need for a tool that could build narratives around the considerable diversity of the disjointed scenarios of networking we observed. So, the cards provide a reference by which to share general understanding in an entertaining and easily accessible manner. Second, provides a tool to summarise narratives from the scenarios we observed, and that we could then use to create new scenarios to explore insights such as post-meeting curation of ‘shared memories’ when networking. Third, define a number of ‘games’ to help anyone explore how to better understand and utilise aspects of networking in their current approaches, and challenge them to develop new approaches. Therefore, generating debate and self-reflection on the ways players use business cards themselves