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    Image quality and security through nonlinear joint transform encryption

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    The impact of agri-environment schemes on pollination services in England

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    Agri-environment schemes fund landholders to manage land to achieve environmental objectives and other public goods. Previous research has shown that individual scheme interventions can boost wild pollinator populations locally. However, the effect of an entire scheme at a national scale has never previously been assessed. The location of every intervention implemented in England during 2016 was mapped and schemes’ predicted impact on bee abundance and pollination services was modelled using a validated, processbased spatial model (poll4pop), which simulates foraging and population dynamics. The study considered four wild bee guilds (incorporating bumblebees and solitary bees) and their visitation rates to four pollinator-dependent crops (oilseed rape, field beans, orchard fruit and strawberries). The modelling predicted that the scheme significantly increased ground-nesting (but not tree/cavitynesting) bee populations nationally. There were no significant increases in crop visitation at national scale, but some locally significant increases in ground-nesting bumblebee visitation to oilseed rape and field beans were predicted. Linear regression at 10 km scale was used to determine which interventions were driving increased oilseed rape and field bean visitation and found that hedgerow/woodland edge management dominated, due to high resource quality. Floral margins were estimated to provide more limited benefit, due to later resource phenology and low uptake. Fallow also had a strong effect, despite lower relative resource quality, implying effective placement with respect to crops. Finally, the effect of additional tree-planting interventions (hedgerows, agroforestry, and woodland) on bumblebee abundance and crop visitation (oilseed rape, field beans) was studied. This showed that hedgerow planting would deliver the greatest increase in bumblebee abundance, whereas fruit or willow agroforestry would increase crop visitation the most, due to higher co-location. Based on these findings, recommendations are set out for design of future schemes to help deliver greater and more resilient crop pollination services in arable landscapes

    Country Image, Perceived Product Quality and Purchase Intention: the Moderating Roles of Quality Warranty Certificate and Country-Image Transferred Strategies

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    This article aims at researching on the relationship of country image and customer perception on product quality and purchasing intention in South Korean. Additionally, the moderating roles of product quality warranty and country image transferred strategies are also taken into investigation in this empirical research. In order to make a research on these areas, questionnaire forms were distributed by emails and sending hard copies to 350 target samples in South Korea including Koreans and foreigners who have been living in South Korea and 215 forms were returned back and analyzed by SPSS v.21. The results indicated that gender, age groups and nationalities can significantly influence consumers' perception on the relationship country image and product quality. Surprisingly, the image of origin country produced products does not really affect consumers' perceived product quality, but the image of manufacturing country has a strong and significant influence on consumers' perception in terms of product quality. More interestingly, country image transferred strategy is ineffective in altering consumers' psychological perceptions on country image and perceived product quality. Apart from this, product quality warranty is still workable for boosting consumers' confidence in consuming products in Korean context. Even though this empirical research was considerably and carefully implemented, there are still some significant limitations in practice. The limitations and suggestion are finally introduced and explained
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