44,681 research outputs found

    Determinants of cognition in adults with type 1 diabetes – a key role for physical activity

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    National audienceINTRODUCTION. Les déséquilibres glycémiques accompagnant le diabète de type 1 (DT1) peuvent conduire, au long terme, à un léger déclin des fonctions cognitives[1]. Chez les personnes non diabétiques, l’activité physique (AP) est reconnue pour ses effets bénéfiques au niveau cérébral, notamment via l’augmentation de facteurs neurotrophiques (facteur neurotrophique dérivé du cerveau, BDNF, et IGF-1). METHODOLOGIE. Chez 95 adultes DT1, des régressions multiples ascendantes ont été réalisées pour estimer les liens entre les performances à une batterie de tests cognitifs et le niveau habituel d’AP et de sédentarité (questionnaires IPAQ et MAQ) en tenant compte des concentrations sériques de BDNF et d’IGF-1 total (prélèvement sanguin) et des facteurs classiques pouvant influencer les fonctions cognitives (démographiques : âge, sexe, IMC, niveau d’éducation ; liés au DT1 : mode d’administration de l’insuline, glycémie du moment, HbA1c, nombre d’épisodes hypoglycémiques sévères durant la vie, âge du diagnostic du DT1, durée du diabète, complications micro/macrovasculaires). RESULTATS. Le niveau d’AP prédisait positivement la flexibilité mentale (performance au TMT B-A: B– 0,05 ; SE(B) 0,03 ; P=0.05 pour le MAQ, MET-h/sem et B– 0,001 ; SE(B) 0,00 ; P=0.018 pour l’IPAQ, MET-min/sem) et ce indépendamment des niveaux de sédentarité, de BDNF et d’IGF-1.Le niveau d’AP n’influençait pas les autres domaines cognitifs évalués (i.e., la vitesse de traitement et la recherche visuo-spatiale avec le TMT-A, la résistance aux interférences avec le Stroop, la mémoire spatiale avec le SMT, la mémoire de travail avec le OPSPAN). Les autres facteurs qui influençaient la plupart des domaines cognitifs étaient l’âge, le niveau d’éducation, le nombre d’épisodes hypoglycémiques sévères, et les complications macrovasculaires. CONCLUSION. L’association entre le niveau d’AP et la flexibilité mentale chez les adultes DT1 souligne l’importance de mettre en place des programmes d’AP, en vue de préserver les fonctions exécutives au long terme

    EFFECTIVENESS OF OVINE FOLLICULAR FLUID AND EWE AGE ON IN VITRO NUCLEAR MATURATION AND EMBRYO EVOLUTION OF AWASSI EWES

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    Two experiments were conducted to study the efficiency of the ovine follicular fluid (OFF) and the age of ewe on in vitro nuclear maturation of Awassi sheep oocytes (Experiment 1) and the subsequent stages of early embryos and their quality (Experiment 2). The OFF has been added to the basic maturation medium (TCM-199) with three different levels (A: 0% (Control group), B:15%, C:25% and D:50%) while the ages of the ewes were determined into two main groups (> 2 and 1-2 year). In the first experiment, across the two age groups, matured oocytes in C solution achieved the highest (p=0.006) rates of metaphase-II (85.70 and 82.35 % respectively). In the second experiment, oocytes belonging to > 2 and 1-2-year ewe age groups (C Solution) achieved the highest (p=0.001) rates  of fertilization (23.17 and 30.73% respectively). Similar trend applies to the cleavage stage, the rates reached 35.14 and 41.27% respectively (p=0.01). No significant differences were noticed at the different stages of cleavage (2-4 cell, morula, and blastocyst). The resulting embryos of B (> 2-year ewe age group) and C solution (1-2-year age group) achieved the highest (p=0.04) rates of Type1 embryos (69.56 and 76.92% respectively). A significant difference was noticed in type2 embryos (p=0.02), embryos of the first and second age groups (Solution D) achieved the highest rates (46.15 and 33.33% respectively). It can be concluded that the adding of 25% OFF to the maturation media led to significant improvement in the rates of maturation, cleavage and type1 embryos of sheep oocytes

    Optimal strategy for delirium detection in older patients admitted to intensive care unit after non-cardiac surgery

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    BackgroundDelirium detection is challenging due to the fluctuating nature and frequent hypoactive presentation. This study aimed to determine an optimal strategy that detects delirium with higher sensitivity but lower effort in older patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery.MethodsThis was a secondary analysis of the database from a randomized trial. Seven hundred older patients (aged ≥65 years) who were admitted to the ICU after elective noncardiac surgery were enrolled. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) twice daily during the first 7 days postoperatively. The sensitivity of different strategies in detecting delirium were analyzed and compared.ResultsOf all enrolled patients, 111 (15.9%; 95% CI: 13.3% to 18.8%) developed at least one episode of delirium during the first 7 postoperative days. Among patients who developed delirium, 60.4% (67/111) had their first delirium onset on postoperative day 1, 84.7% (94/111) by the end of day 2, 91.9% (102/111) by the end of day 3, and 99.1% (110/111) by the end of day 4. Compared with delirium assessment twice daily for 7 days, twice-daily measurements for 5 days detected 100% of delirium patients with 71% efforts; twice-daily measurements for 4 days detected 99% (95% CI: 94% to 100%) of delirium patients with 57% efforts; twice-daily assessment for 3 days detected 92% (95% CI: 85% to 96%) of delirium patients with only 43% efforts.ConclusionsFor older patients admitted to the ICU after elective noncardiac surgery, it is reasonable to detect delirium with the CAM-ICU twice daily for no more than 5 days, and if the personnel and funds are insufficient, 4 days could be sufficient

    Improvement in the cases of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with help of HDP-gestosis score

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    Background: An assessment tool for the risk of pre-eclampsia is the HDP-gestosis score, which has a range of scores from 1 to 3. A pregnant woman is classified as "at risk for pre-eclampsia" and treated appropriately if her overall score is 3 or higher. In order to predict pre-eclampsia, it is necessary to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the HDP-gestosis score. Methods: From January 2022 to December 2022, 109 pregnant patients who presented at the obstetrics and gynaecology department were included in this prospective research. The patients' risk of developing pre-eclampsia was evaluated after 20 weeks of pregnancy. We collected information on the patient's age, gravida, obstetric history, menstrual cycle regularity, polycystic ovarian disease history, length of marriage, parity, prior medical and surgical intervention, prior/current pharmaceutical use, and family history. Gestosis score was determined and grouped into three risk categories: mild (score of 1), moderate (score of 2), and high risk (score of 3). For predicting the onset of pre-eclampsia, the HDP-gestosis score's sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Results: The mean age, gestational age, and BMI of the women were 25.71±5.9 years, 11.9±2.19 weeks, and 24.9±3.6 kg/m2, respectively. The gestosis score was 2 in 47.70% (n=52) of the participants, 1 in 38.53% (n=42), and ≥3 in 13.77% (n=15) of the women. Pre-eclampsia developed in 17.43% (n=19) participants. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of HDP-gestosis score for predicting pre-eclampsia were 86.66%, 96.49%, 86.91%, 97.98% and 96.12%, respectively. Conclusions: Gestosis score is a brand-new early marker for pre-eclampsia development that enables patients to receive quick care, reducing the negative effects

    The impact of specific balneotherapy on the endocrine physio-pathological mechanism in obesity

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    Obesity is a complex, multifactorial metabolic pathology, within the path of modification of the endocrine system plays a significant role. Changes in growth hormone (GH) and in-sulin growth factor (IGF) have been associated with obesity in various ways, mainly through changes in GH-binding proteins, insulin and ghrelin levels. The balneal treat-ment with Techirghiol Romanian sapropelic mud has an important impact on the endo-crine system, primarily through the action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated the secretory changes of the IGF-1 hormone that appeared after the balne-al treatment. It was a total number of 52 patients, divided into two groups: 1 group who performed the treatment with Techirghiol sapropelic mud at thermoneutrality tempera-tures - warm mud baths, and the second group who followed treatment with the balneal therapeutic factor in a thermal contrast regime - cold mud baths. We studied whether there are correlations between the body mass index (BMI) and the secretion of this hor-mone. We also determined the serum levels of blood glucose at admission and discharge. In the cold mud baths- thermal contrast therapy, can be observed a statistically significant increase in IGF-1 values during the balneal treatment (p = 0.044 α = 0.05). There were no statistically significant correlations between BMI and IGF-1 hormone secretion at admission and at discharge. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in blood glucose values determined at admission and discharge in the group that performed warm mud baths. The balneal treatment with sapropelic mud of Techirghiol lake, from Romania, through the impact on the endocrine system, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, can be registered as a treatment with a natural therapeutic factor with an impact on obesity, ther-apy carried out within the parameters of metabolic safety, and the conduct of future re-search in this direction it will help develop new concepts and approaches to obesity

    Advances in the role of STAT3 in macrophage polarization

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    The physiological processes of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are closely related to STAT3, and it has been demonstrated that aberrant STAT3 expression has an impact on the onset and progression of a number of inflammatory immunological disorders, fibrotic diseases, and malignancies. In order to produce the necessary biological effects, macrophages (M0) can be polarized into pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) types in response to various microenvironmental stimuli. STAT3 signaling is involved in macrophage polarization, and the research of the effect of STAT3 on macrophage polarization has gained attention in recent years. In order to provide references for the treatment and investigation of disorders related to macrophage polarization, this review compiles the pertinent signaling pathways associated with STAT3 and macrophage polarization from many fundamental studies

    Nutrient-regulated dynamics of chondroprogenitors in the postnatal murine growth plate

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    Abstract Longitudinal bone growth relies on endochondral ossification in the cartilaginous growth plate, where chondrocytes accumulate and synthesize the matrix scaffold that is replaced by bone. The chondroprogenitors in the resting zone maintain the continuous turnover of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Malnutrition is a leading cause of growth retardation in children; however, after recovery from nutrient deprivation, bone growth is accelerated beyond the normal rate, a phenomenon termed catch-up growth. Although nutritional status is a known regulator of long bone growth, it is largely unknown whether and how chondroprogenitor cells respond to deviations in nutrient availability. Here, using fate-mapping analysis in Axin2Cre ERT2 mice, we showed that dietary restriction increased the number of Axin2+ chondroprogenitors in the resting zone and simultaneously inhibited their differentiation. Once nutrient deficiency was resolved, the accumulated chondroprogenitor cells immediately restarted differentiation and formed chondrocyte columns, contributing to accelerated growth. Furthermore, we showed that nutrient deprivation reduced the level of phosphorylated Akt in the resting zone and that exogenous IGF-1 restored the phosphorylated Akt level and stimulated differentiation of the pooled chondroprogenitors, decreasing their numbers. Our study of Axin2Cre ERT2 revealed that nutrient availability regulates the balance between accumulation and differentiation of chondroprogenitors in the growth plate and further demonstrated that IGF-1 partially mediates this regulation by promoting the committed differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells

    Microwave-Assisted Freeze-Drying with Frequency-Based Control Concepts via Solid-State Generators: A Simulative and Experimental Study

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    Freeze-drying is a common process to extend the shelf life of food and bioactive substances. Its main drawback is the long drying time and associated high production costs. Microwaves can be applied to significantly shorten the process. This study investigates the effects of modulating the electromagnetic field in microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD). Control concepts based on microwave frequency are evaluated using electromagnetic simulations. The concepts are then applied to the first part of primary drying in a laboratory-scale system with solid-state generators. Targeted frequency modulation in the electromagnetic simulations enabled an increase in energy efficiency or heating homogeneity throughout MFD while having negligible effects on the power dissipation ratio between frozen and dried product areas. The simulations predicted the qualitative effects observed in the experimental proof of concept regarding energy efficiency and drying homogeneity. Additionally, shortened drying times were observed in the experiments with a targeted application of energy-efficient frequencies. However, differences occurred in the quantitative validation of the electromagnetic models for energy efficiency in dependence on frequency. Nevertheless, the models can be used for a time-efficient investigation of the qualitative effects of the control concepts. In summary, frequency-based control of MFD represents a promising approach for process control and intensification
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